[7th Edition] John Langan_ Sharon Winstanley — Essay Writing Skills with Readings (2014, McGraw-Hill Ryerson)


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Editing and
LEARNING OUTCOMES
After reading this chapter and working through its
a.
your essays sentences
for correct parallel structure
for consistent verb tenses
for a consistent pronoun point of view
for use of specific vocabulary that makes your
meaning clear to readers
b.
your essay
for errors in grammar, punctuation, and spelling

for active, rather than passive verbs
for concise, accurate wording
for varied sentence structures when needed
Now your essay is nearly ready to submit to your instructor. Evaluating your
work for the first three goals of effective writing, you have revised your first draft
so that it is unified, well supported, and coherent. It is time for you to remember
your audience once again. How will your reader feel about your well-structured
and logical content if it is expressed in ungrammatical sentences with misspelled
words?
You will learn to edit and proofread your second draft for the final, fourth base of
structure, and correct mechanics.
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PART 3
SPECIAL SKILLS AND
17: WRITING A SUMMARY
Do not indicate your opinion of the authors ideas with cue words. Do not com-
Mark Fernandez, a broadcasting student, was asked to find and summarize an article
in the librarys periodicals display. Scanning them led him to an arti-
Writing a Summary
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PART #
PART TITLE
PART 4
HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE
27: RUNONS
Tip:
Please note that the
word
means becauseŽ
and even though it is
joining words, it is less
common in daily usage.
Instead, writers simply
because.
Tip:
to connect sentences
that are similar and
relatively short. The semi-
colon is a useful punctua-
tion mark but should be
used sparingly.
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PART 5
READINGS FOR WRITING
41: INTRODUCTION TO THE READINGS
477
Then, in a third person essay that illustrates your point by examples, examine
three or four scenarios or situations in which this quotation was proved right
or wrong for one particular person. You may do some research if you wish to
write about a current or historical person you do not know directly. Remember
to cite your quotations and paraphrases correctly by referring back to Part 3 of
this book.
Assignment 2
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321
Here, a second book by Sherwin B. Nuland is cited. With two or more books by
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396
PART 4: HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE SKILLS
Niks watch is no longer working. (H)e accidentally dropped it in the lake.
1.
they wanted to pave the driveway for a bargain price.Ž
It is hard to remember a time when email didnt exist it has become an essential
part of our personal and professional lives.
3.
Tip:
FANBOYS
(for, and,
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478
PART 5: READINGS FOR WRITING
World War II (1939…1945) was the second global war of the 20th century. The United Kingdom, beginning
in 1939, along with its Commonwealth nations, as well as Russia and the U.S. in 1941, and several other
countries formed the Allies. Opposing the Allies were the Axis Powers: Germany, Japan, and Italy (which
later left the Axis). Britain impoverished itself in the course of winning the war, and, as a small island nation,
depended throughout the war on Canadas agricultural, mineral, and manufacturing power.
In Food on the Home Front,Ž Ian Mosby, whose blog identifies him as a historian of food and nutritionŽ
Ian Mosby
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PART 3: SPECIAL SKILLS AND RESEARCH
His assignment required an article that could be accurately summarized in one
The New, Old Jamaica
Every decade has its musical genre revivals. In the 70s, Sha Na Na brought back
the bop, the 80s had a 60s psychedelic flashback, and swing and oldstyle Cuban
ensembles filled dance floors once again in the 90s. Now, North American clubland
speakers are throbbing with the sounds of old Jamaica. Mento, a unique Jamaican folk
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PART 3: SPECIAL SKILLS AND RESEARCH
Chapter or Section in a Book by One Author
Secunda, Victoria. A New Sense of Family.Ž
Losing Your Parents, Finding Yourself: The
Defining Turning Point of Adult Life.
New York: Hyperion, 2000. 242…56. Print.
In the entry above, the numbers after the year of publication are the consecutive
page numbers of the chapter of the book cited.
Periodicals: Journals and Magazines in Print Form
Article in a Magazine Published Monthly
Authors Last name, First name.
Title of Magazine
Medium of publication.
Callwood, June. A Date with AIDS.Ž
Saturday Night
March 1995: 52…53. Print.
Title of Article.Ž Month and year of issue: pages.
After the title of the magazine, the month and year of the issue are listed, fol-
lowed by a colon, then the pages on which the article appears, then the medium.
Article in a Magazine Published Weekly
Chin, Paula. You Were a Good Man, Charlie Brown.Ž
People
28 Feb. 2000: 52…59. Print.
For an article from a magazine published every week or every two weeks, put in
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PART 5
READINGS FOR WRITING
41: INTRODUCTION TO THE READINGS
479
were, therefore, threatening farmers and fishermen with massive unused surpluses.
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PART #
PART TITLE
PART 4
HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE
27: RUNONS
Insert the joining word
(and, but, so)
that logically connects the two thoughts in each
sentence.
1.
Elaine woke up to discover her computer had crashed, _____ luckily she saved
everything on an external hard drive.
ACTIVITY 2
ACTIVITY 3
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PART 3
SPECIAL SKILLS AND
17: WRITING A SUMMARY
271
He photocopied the article, noting the month and year of the
Paragraph 1
€ Every decade music genres re-appear
€ Examples? 70s Rock & Roll; 80s, 60s music
€ Clubs are now reviving mento
€ Mento is 1950s Jamaican folk music
Last Paragraph
€ Example? Toronto DJ says people are curious about mento
€ Mento catches peoples attention because they havent heard it before
Mark then reviewed the article to reassure himself that there were enough
cle. This would help him with the next important stage„listing the main ideas.
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PART 5: READINGS FOR WRITING
be used to send more food to Canadas allies and they provided a ready supply of
fresh, nutritious foods. But from the perspective of the Department of Agriculture,
inexperienced gardeners were likely to waste valuable commodities in short supply.
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PART 3
SPECIAL SKILLS AND
20: DOCUMENTING AND WRITING AN MLASTYLE RESEARCH PAPER
323
When citing newspaper articles, omit
if it is part of the newspapers name.
sign to the first page of an article (6
,23
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398
PART 4: HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE SKILLS
Mario got a can of pop from the refrigerator he walked outside to sit on the porch
steps.
Lin wants to become a dental hygienist there are many job opportunities in
dentistry.
Rosario borrows CDs from the library to listen to on the way to work, some are
music and some are recordings of best-selling books.
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160
PART 2: PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT
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John Langan
Atlantic Cape Community University
Sharon Winstanley
Seneca College/York University
PART #
PART TITLE
PART 4
HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE
27: RUNONS
399
A semicolon can be used with a transitional
Transitional Word
however
nevertheless
however
however
instead
as a substitute
meanwhile
in the intervening time
otherwise
under other conditions
in fact
also, and
moreover
furthermore
as a result
thus, therefore
as a result
consequently
as a result
therefore
as a result
For each sentence, choose a logical transitional word or phrase from the box above,
and write it in the space provided. Use a semicolon
before
the connector and a comma
after
it.
Example:
Agoraphobics dread going outside; however, claustrophobic people cannot
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PART 5
READINGS FOR WRITING
41: INTRODUCTION TO THE READINGS
481
additional controls on the production and distribution of food more generally. These
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PART 2
PATTERNS OF ESSAY
DEVELOPMENT
10: ILLUSTRATION BY EXAMPLES
161
Practice and learn online with Connect.
Are there distinct and relevant examples as
supporting points for my thesis?
Are there appropriate forms and types of
examples within my body paragraphs to
make clear my supporting points, relative
to my audience, purpose, and subject?
Checklist of Learning Outcomes for Chapter 10
Are my examples within my paragraphs
presented in an effective order?
Does my conclusion reinforce what my
examples have shown?
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PART 3: SPECIAL SKILLS AND RESEARCH
Paragraph 3
€ DJs and record collectors always liked mento
€ Toronto DJ Rocky says older Jamaican sounds popular in clubs
€ Used to only be played in Jamaican areas
€ Germany and Japan„fans of older Jamaican genres
€ Non-English speakers and patois„learned it from the music
Paragraph 4
€ Evident that mento is revived
€ Major mento star„Stanley Beckford, famous in France
€ 2002, S.B. released solo album after playing in groups
€ S.B. played festivals in 2003 in Europe
Paragraph 5
€ New interest in mento artists worldwide
€ Jolly Boys and ska artist Laurel Aitken„new CD examples?
Last Paragraph
€ Example? Toronto DJ says people are curious about mento
€ Mento catches peoples attention because they havent heard it before
Marks instructor gave his students a useful tip for preparing a first draft of a sum-
mary. He asked students to write a one-sentence summary of each paragraph in their
original articles, once they had written their point-form lists of main ideas.

Read through The New, Old JamaicaŽ and write your own one-sentence sum-
mary of each of the authors paragraphs.
The following day, Mark revised his list, comparing it to the original article. He
and sup-
He has also made notes to himself on some points.
Paragraph 2
€ Mento started in 19th century, with homemade instruments
€ Popular pre-1960s„developed into ska, reggae, dance hall
€ Sound mix of calypso beats, Latin, swing, and 3-3-2 rhythm
€ Word mentoŽ? Spanish

to mentionŽ
€ Jamaica was Spanish„1494…1655
€ Mento might be African word for a sexy dance

„dont need„lots of definition
facts already
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PART 3: SPECIAL SKILLS AND RESEARCH
One section of this website is cited as a reference, the article, Texas Blues.Ž Its
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2: THE WRITING PROCESS: PREWRITING AND CREATING A THESIS
PART 1
ESSAY WRITING
Why
do I keep up this schedule? I cant pay tuition or buy books without working, and I need

Work and
college or
Its hard working and going to school at the same time. I never realized how much Id have to give
up. I wont be quitting my job because I need every dollar just to stay in my program. And the
Group Review Activity: Narrowing Topics and Writing a Working Thesis
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PART 4: HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE SKILLS
1.
Jasmine suffers from migraine headaches _____ her doctor has advised her to
avoid caffeine and alcohol.
Rays apartment is always neat and clean _____ the interior of his car looks like the
aftermath of a tornado.
A Review: How to Check for Run-Ons
1.
To see if a sentence is a run-on, read it aloud and listen for a break marking two
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482
PART 5: READINGS FOR WRITING
Endnotes
1.
Anne Fromer, Is Food the Answer to Increased Production?,Ž
Saturday Night
(12 December
2.
G.E. Britnell, and V.C. Fowke,
Canadian Agriculture in War and Peace, 1935…1950
(Stanford:
Stanford University Press, 1962), 210; Library and Archives Canada (LAC), Department of
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162
11
LEARNING OUTCOMES
After reading this chapter and working through its
writing assignments, you will be ready to write a process
begins with a clear statement of the topic and
purpose of the process to be followed
if it is prescriptive, tells readers exactly what they will
need in terms of information, time, space, and equip-
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PART 1: ESSAY WRITING
Editing means examining your sentences and word choices„your style of writing„
you express yourself.
Words and phrases in a pair, a series, or a list should appear in the same grammati-
non-parallel ones.
After you have revised your content and structure, try to put matching words
What Should Be Parallel?
If you are unsure of exactly what a noun, preposition, phrase, and clause are, please
Writers Tips for Effective Sentence Editing

Use parallel structure.

Use a consistent point of view.

Use specific words.

Use active verbs.

Use concise words.

Vary your sentences.
Non-parallel (Not Balanced) Parallel (Balanced)
The stock clerks job includes checking
the inventory, initialling the orders,
to call
the suppliers.
The stock clerks job includes checking the inven-
tory, initialling the orders, and calling the suppliers.
(A balanced series of verb forms„participles or
words
checking, initialling, calling
The lab trainer demonstrates equip-
ment and protection procedures;
hands-on instruction is not offered.
The lab trainer demonstrates equipment and pro-
tection procedures; she does not offer hands-on
instruction. (Balanced use of the active voice:
lab trainer demonstrates
Base 4: Editing Your Sentences and Word Choices
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PART 2
PATTERNS OF ESSAY
DEVELOPMENT
15: DIVISION AND CLASSIFICATION
ciple and categories within software relevant to your subject and reader.
Student Essays to Consider
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PART 3
SPECIAL SKILLS AND
17: WRITING A SUMMARY
273
€ Not like reggae„slower, more political (60s)
€ Ska and reggae popular types of Jamaican music
€ Mento artists not known outside Jamaica until now
Paragraph 3
€ DJs and record collectors always liked mento
€ Toronto DJ Rocky says older Jamaican sounds popular in clubs
€ Used to only be played in Jamaican areas
€ Germany and Japan„fans of older Jamaican genres
€ Non-English speakers and patois„learned it from the music
After revising his list, Mark was more confident about writing the first draft of
In Samra Habibs article The New, Old Jamaica,Ž she discusses the revival of an
older Jamaican music genre. Revivals of genres are nothing new; Rock and Roll, for
example, made a comeback in the 1970s. But in North American clubs, the mento
genre is popular for the first time. Mento began in the 19th century as a kind of
folk music, sung and played by musicians who made their own instruments. It was
very popular in Jamaica until the 1960s, when ska and reggae took over as the
main genres. Mento, whose name may come from Spanish or may be of African
origin, sounds like a mix of calypso beats, Latin, and swing, with a rhythm all its
own. Unlike reggae, which tends to be slower and politically oriented in its lyrics,
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325
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PART #
PART TITLE
PART 4
HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE
27: RUNONS
401
POST-TEST 2
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PART 5
READINGS FOR WRITING
41: INTRODUCTION TO THE READINGS
483
9.
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PART 2: PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT
many have not been surveyed. And closer to the southern prairie borders of the north
winds woods in Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba, the warmer climate nurtures
soft green willows, alders, and tall grasses. These are trees pushed into service by farm-
ers; they grow along the edges of fields and keep the wind from tearing away the soil
they share with crops. And here the boreal balance is starting to shift away from the
dominance of pine, spruce, cedar, and fir.
Moving east and south from those prairie woodlots, skirting south of Lake
Superior, and finally descending into lower Ontario and Quebec, then all the way to
the Maritimes, the boreal forests southern boundaries merge with different forest
blends. Here, along the edge of the northern shield, the boreal balance shifts from
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6: EDITING AND PROOFREADING: THE FINAL DRAFTS OF YOUR ESSAY
PART 1
ESSAY WRITING
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Seventh Canadian Edition
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274
PART 3: SPECIAL SKILLS AND RESEARCH
In the section of his revision work shown below, Mark notes wordy passages with
Jamaican music genre. Revivals of genres are nothing new; Rock and Roll, for
example, made a comeback in the 1970s.
But in North American clubs, the
mento genre
is popular for the first time. Mento began in the 19th century
as a kind of
folk music, sung and played by

musicians who made their own
instruments. It was very popular
in Jamaica until the 1960s, when ska and
reggae took over as the main genres. Mento, whose name may come from

Spanish or may be of
African origin, sounds like a mix of calypso beats, Latin,
and swing, with a rhythm all its own. Unlike reggae, which tends to be
slower
and politically oriented in its
lyrics, mentos lyrics are often funny; they tend
to be
W
reggae were what people heard.
Mark now worked on each sentence individually, rephrasing wordy sections,
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402
PART 4: HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE SKILLS
Locate and correct the four run-ons in the passage that follows.
Email has changed the way I communicate. Every day at work I send and receive
several messages emailing is an efficient way for me to reach my col
leagues, super-
visors, and clients. With email, I dont necessarily need to rely on voicemail or
face-to-face contact for quick, non-urgent answers when Im not at work, I use
my personal email or texting to chatŽ with friends and family. The cost is rela-
tively low compared to long-distance phone calls. And many of my friends prefer
to text rather than pick up the phone. Email does have its drawbacks however
POST-TEST 4
Practice and learn online with Connect.
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PART 5: READINGS FOR WRITING
4.
Write a sentence or two that you believe expresses the main idea of Food on the
Home Front During the Second World War.Ž
5.
What were patriotic foods,Ž and why were they referred to as patrioticŽ?
6.
True or false?
The Canadian government discouraged people from growing their
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PART 3: SPECIAL SKILLS AND RESEARCH
Currently MLA-style research essays do not require a separate title page. If your
The MLA-Style Research Paper: The Format
To begin at the absolute beginning, research essays, like any other essay, are format-
ted for 8.5"
11" paper. Double-space the entire essay and use 12-point type, prefer-
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PART 2
PATTERNS OF ESSAY
DEVELOPMENT
15: DIVISION AND CLASSIFICATION
231
And finally, where the coastal forests line the Pacific, there is hope. The montane
tree patterns fall away near the ocean to become the deep-green forests of Pacific
Maritime growth, the silent, shadowy spruce and pine of Emily Carrs paintings. Here,
where totem poles stood, these forest sentinels guarded their people from the rough
sea winds. Here, the climate is moderated and the woods are dense; it is a model
for other parts of Canada, a place where harvesting is controlled and the elders are
respected. This ecozone has the most productive forests and the biggest and oldest
trees of CanadaŽ (Pacific MaritimeŽ).
From the taiga and tundra scrub of the north, to Pacific firs, across five time
zones to southern sassafras and New Brunswick spruce and sugar maple, Canada
has been blessed with a renewable resource, a national treasure. With the threat of
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100
PART 1: ESSAY WRITING
5. Parallel Clauses in Series
Clauses contain subjects, verbs, and predicates or objects. For more on independent
The jury consisted of
people who earned less than $50,000 a year, who had com-
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Essay Writing Skills with Readings
Seventh Canadian Edition
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008, 2005, 2003, 2000, 1996 by McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited, a Subsidiary
of The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced
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PART 1: ESSAY WRITING
Each example below presents a weak or ineffective thesis statement. For each one,

General Subject Narrowed Topic
1. Music
2. Inspiration
3. Work
4. Careers
5. Travel
6. Cooking
Explain the stages of the writing process in
your own words.
What are the four prewriting strategies in
this chapter? Which one would be most
useful to you, and why?
What steps are involved in creating an
effective essay?
Checklist of Learning Outcomes for Chapter 2
Describe how you would modify a broad
subject into a topic appropriate for an
essay.
What are four questions you should ask
yourself as you revise your thesis?
Review Activity: Identifying and Revising Thesis Statements
Practice and Learn online with Connect.
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PART 3
SPECIAL SKILLS AND
17: WRITING A SUMMARY
275
Does your summary

Keep the basic proportion of ideas of your original?

Include all main ideas?

What is a summary, and how does a sum-
mary differ from an essay?
What are four parts of an article that you
can preview for information about its
content?
What is paraphrasing, and what must
you do to avoid plagiarism when you
How does listing an original sources main
ideas and support help you create a good
summary?
What are two requirements for the content
of an effective summary?
Checklist of Learning Outcomes for Chapter 17
Summary Checklist
Practice and learn online with Connect.
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PART 5
READINGS FOR WRITING
41: INTRODUCTION TO THE READINGS
485
would be likely be published and why?
Aside from the authors use of the effectsŽ pattern of development in the last half
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PART 2
PATTERNS OF ESSAY
DEVELOPMENT
11: PROCESS
163
will group these steps.
you may claim, and information about how to file. You may be entitled to a refund,
so why wait?
Student Essays to Consider
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PART 2: PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT
About Unity
1.
In what way do the topic sentences of National TreasuresŽ resemble those of an
objective descriptive essay?
2.
Which sentence in paragraph 2 of Mall PeopleŽ should be omitted in the interests
of paragraph unity?
3.
Which sentence in paragraph 2 of National TreasuresŽ should be omitted in the
interests of paragraph unity?
About Support
4.
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PART 3
SPECIAL SKILLS AND
20: DOCUMENTING AND WRITING AN MLASTYLE RESEARCH PAPER
1 Inch
Sonya Phillips
Professor Lessig
English 101
5 May 2013
Successful Families: Fighting for Their Kids
It is a terrible time to be a teenager, or even a teenagers parent. That message is
everywhere. The TV, the magazines, and the newspapers are all full of frightening stories
about teenagers and families. They say that North American families are falling apart,
that kids do not care about anything, and that parents have trouble doing anything. . . .
For a paper without a title
page or outline, use a top
heading on the first page.
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6: EDITING AND PROOFREADING: THE FINAL DRAFTS OF YOUR ESSAY
101
PART 1
ESSAY WRITING
Edit each sentence so that its list or series is in balanced, parallel structure.
1.
The novelty store sells hand buzzers, plastic fangs, and insects that are fake.
Many people share the same three great fears: being in high places, working with
numbers, and speeches.
To decide on a career, students should think carefully about their interests, hob-
bies, and where their skills lie.
Consistent Verb Tenses
Do not shift verb tenses unnecessarily. Keep a consistent sense of time in your essay.
Kizzy
down the risen yeast dough in the bowl. Then, she
it onto
the floured worktable and
kneaded
it into a smooth, shiny ball.
The verbs must be consistently in the
Kizzy
down the risen yeast dough in the bowl. Then, she
it onto
the floured worktable and
kneads
it into a smooth, shiny ball.
Or the verbs must be consistently in the
Kizzy
down the risen yeast dough in the bowl. Then, she
it onto
the floured worktable and
kneaded
it into a smooth, shiny ball.
Make the verbs in each sentence consistent with the first verb used.
1.
arrive for the MuchMusic Video Awards.
The winning wheelchair racer in the marathon slumped back in exhaustion and
asks for some ice to soothe his blistered hands.
Martial arts movies are so incredible,Ž said Sean. They are more than just action;
VERB-TENSE TIPS:
1. To check the verb
tenses in a draft, use
the highlighting tool
to mark each verb.
make each high-
lighted verb consistent
in tense.
2. Write essays in the
present tense when
you write about your
own ideas, about
factual topics, and
about the action in
a story, play, movie,
or book. Use the past
tense to describe
events that occurred
in the past only.
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403
28
Pronoun Agreement
Test your knowledge of pronoun use in the following sentences. Can you spot the
1.
A student has their own writing style.
2.
A college or university education prepares someone for their future career
choice.
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Vakis Boutsalis
There are two Robert Thomas Paynes in Toronto. One is a writer. The other does a
No Way Home:
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and dependable resource for most information you will want, especially in the P105
Students and Income TaxŽ section. As you scroll through, look for the important
dates, in income-tax terms. Just as with your courses, there are deadlines for submit-
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276
For a few assignments so far you have been your own main source of information; for
Your first goal when conducting academic research is to explore a topic to the
depth appropriate to the assignment. As you do so, you reach the next goal: learning the
conventions, technical or special terminology, and available information related to your
subject area. This is learning to speak the languageŽ of your subject area. Your goal
will be to add to the current knowledge base in the subject area by presenting your own
thesis and supporting ideas, and integrating them with ideas from reliable resources.
These are significant goals, and to reach them all researchers must begin by
LEARNING OUTCOMES
After reading this chapter and working through its
explain why research is a process
identify the goals of academic research
identify and explain the two main tasks in creating an
academic research paper
be prepared to follow the steps for conducting
effective research
prepare suitable time plans for research assignments
discern how and when to explore a research subject
establish a topic focus and create a trial outline
use sources of information effectively
evaluate information for quality and usefulness
identify the functions of research material in a
research assignment
Research Skills
18
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third person pronouns.
For instance, if you start writing in the first person,
. Look at the following examples.
Cross out inconsistent pronouns in the
following sentences, and revise with the cor-
rect form of the pronoun above each crossed-out word.

ACTIVITY
Example:
When I examined the used car, You
could see that one of the front fenders had
been replaced.
1.
Plural
First person pronouns
I (my, mine, me)
we (our, us)
Second person pronouns you (your)
you (your)
Third person pronouns he (his, him) she (her) it (its) they (their, them)
Any person, place, or thing, as well as any indefinite pronoun such as
one, anyone,
someone,
and so on, is a third person pronoun.
Inconsistent
Consistent
One of the fringe benefits of my job is that
you
can
use a company credit card for gas. (The writer begins
with the first person pronoun
my,
but then shifts to
the second person
you.
One of the fringe benefits of my job is
can use a company credit card
for gas.
Though
like most of
neighbours, there are
a few
you
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Preparing Your Essay:
LEARNING OUTCOMES
After reading this chapter and working through its
create a clear and useful outline
Developing An Outline
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233
The division and
essay is built upon the classifying principle you choose
Developing a Division and Classification Essay
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PART 3: SPECIAL SKILLS AND RESEARCH
Phillips i
Thesis: Although these are difficult times to be raising teenagers, successful families
are finding ways to cope with the challenges.
After the title page, the
pages in the upper-right
corner a half inch from
the top. Place your name
before the page number.
Use small roman numer-
als on outline pages. Use
following the outline.
The word Outline (with-
out underlining, italics,
or quotation marks) is
centred one inch from
the top. Double-space
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are words that take the place of
(persons, places, or things),
Eddie left
camera on the bus. (
is a pronoun that takes the place of
Eddies.
Elena drank the coffee even though
was cold. (
replaces
coffee.
As I turned the newspapers damp pages,
disintegrated in my hands.
(They is a pronoun that takes the place of pages.)
This section presents rules that will help you avoid two common mistakes people
1.
A pronoun must agree in number with the word or words it replaces.
A pronoun must refer clearly to the word it replaces.
Pronoun Agreement
A pronoun must agree in number with the word or words it replaces. If the word a
or before-goer.Ž The antecedent is the pronouns point of reference in
Marie showed me her antique wedding band.
Students enrolled in the art class must provide their own supplies.
In the first example, the pronoun
refers to the singular word
in the
refers to the plural word
Write the appropriate pronoun
(their, they, them, it)
in the blank space in each of the
following sentences.
Example:
ACTIVITY
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PART #
PART TITLE
PART #
PART TITLE
PART 4
HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE
28: PRONOUN AGREEMENT AND REFERENCE
405
The following words are always singular:
(-one Words)(-body Words)
anyone
anybody
everyone
everybody
If a pronoun in a sentence refers to one of these singular words (also known as
), the pronoun should be
Somebody left her backpack on the chair.
One of the servers just called and said he would be an hour late.
Everyone in the club must pay his dues next week.
Each circled
is
because it refers to an
There are two important points to remember about indefinite pronouns:
1.
If the club had women and men, the pronouns would be
Everyone in the club must pay his or her dues next week.
Some writers follow the traditional practice of using
to refer to both women
to avoid an implied sexual bias. To avoid
or the somewhat awkward
a sentence can often be rewritten in
Club members must pay their dues next week.
2.
pronouns are often used with the indefinite
pronouns. We would probably not say this:
Everybody has
own opinion about the election.
Instead, we are likely to say this:
Everybody has
own opinion about the election.
Here are other examples:
Everyone in the choir must buy
robes.
Everybody in the line has
Tip:
To avoid sexist
pronoun references, use
his or her, him or her, he
where applicable.
An even easier option is
to use the plural form in
your writing.
Incorrect:
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41: INTRODUCTION TO THE READINGS
487
where he attended Bloor Collegiate. After graduating, Payne went to the University of
Toronto for two years where he majored in theatre and minored in archeology.
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165
are trained to find the maximum number of deductions for you, so the expense could
work out in your favour.
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How is his or her viewpoint expressed?
Review the two student essays that appear at the beginning of this chapter.

What is the thesis of National TreasuresŽ? What is its classifying principle? How
does this principle express the authors viewpoint?

What is the thesis of Mall PeopleŽ? What is its classifying principle? What are
the categories that the author has chosen?
In general, you write a division and classification essay to inform your readers of
If, like Matt, the author of National Treasures,Ž you wish to persuade readers by
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PART 1
ESSAY WRITING
To be an effective writer, you must use specific rather than general words. Specific
Again, changing vague, indefinite writing into lively, image-filled writing captures
Compare the following sentences:
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20: DOCUMENTING AND WRITING AN MLASTYLE RESEARCH PAPER
329
Phillips 1
Successful Families: Fighting for Their Kids
It is a terrible time to be a teenager, or even a teenagers parent. That message
is everywhere. The TV, the magazines, and the newspapers are all full of frightening
stories about teenagers and families. They say that North American families are falling
apart, that kids do not care about anything, and that parents have trouble doing any-
thing about it. Bookstores are full of scary-sounding titles like these:
Teenage Wasteland,
Cold New World, A Tribe Apart,
and
Teen Torment.
These books describe teenage prob-
lems that include apathy, violence, suicide, sexual abuse, depression, loss of values,
poor mental health, teen crime, gang involvement, and drug and alcohol addiction.
Naturally, caring parents are worried by all this. According to a 2004 Ipsos-Reid poll
sponsored by the
Globe and Mail,
less than half of Canadian parents feel they are doing
Extended thesis, followed
by plan of development.
A typical first-time
citation, or integrated
authors last name or (if
no author is provided)
the title of the source
and a page number. The
Works Cited provides full
information about the
source.
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And so Payne remains Torontos only homeless publisher. As such, Payne has
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235
in the never stylishŽ group. For this essay, these classifications could work for a peer
audience in a college or university. But an audience of fashion-conscious young people
would probably have very different opinions about what is and is not stylish, as would
an audience of investment bankers. For that matter, an audience of style-obsessed,
label-conscious downtown peopleŽ would have much more interest in clothing and
accessory styles than an audience of academic instructors.
Writers Tips for Division and Classification Essays
1.
The basic concept :
One concept or item can be fruitfully divided into interesting and appropriate groups or classifications.
The basic concept behind classifying is taking an assortment of things or ideas and showing how that
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PART 4: HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE SKILLS
In such cases, the indefinite pronouns are clearly plural in meaning. Also, the use
In time, the plural
Underline the correct pronoun.
1.
Neither of the potential buyers had really made up (her, their) minds.
Not one of the new IT personnel knows what (he, they) should be doing.
Each of these computers has (its, their) drawbacks.
Anyone trying to proofread (his or her, their) research paper should use the
instructors checklist.
Pronoun Reference
A sentence may be confusing and unclear if a pronoun appears to refer to more than
Look at this sentence:
Miriam was annoyed when they failed her car for a faulty turn signal.
failed her car? There is no specific word to which
refers. Be clear:
Faulty
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PART 1: ESSAY WRITING
Use adjectives that relate to the senses„sight, hearing, taste, touch, smell.
When the subject of a sentence performs the action of the verb, the verb is in the
When the subject of a sentence receives the action of a verb, the verb is in
For more information on verb voice, see Chapter 36.
The passive form of a verb consists of a form of the verb
(
) and the past participle of the main verb (which is often the same as its past
give your writing a simpler and more vigorous style.
Passive
Active
The computer was
by Aaron.
Aaron
the computer.
The cars air conditioner
was fixed
by the
mechanic.
The mechanic
fixed
the cars air
conditioner.
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167
7.
In How Search Engines Work,Ž which time-transition phrase is used in the topic
sentence of paragraph 2? In the topic sentence of paragraph 3?
About Introductions and Conclusions
8.
Which best describes the introduction of How Search Engines WorkŽ?
a.
Broad, general statements narrowing to a thesis
b.
Explanation of the importance of the topic
c.
Anecdote
d.
Question
9.
Developing a Process Essay
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Phillips 2
It is true that these days, parents face more challenges than ever before when it
comes to finding quality time to spend with their children. Economist Edward Wolff
Over a thirty-year time span, parental time has declined 13 percent. The time parents
have available for their children has been squeezed by the rapid shift of mothers
into the paid labour force, by escalating divorce rates and the subsequent abandon-
ment of children by their fathers, and by an increase in the number of hours required
on the job. The average worker is now at work 163 hours a year more than in 1969,
When citing a work in
general, not a part of the
work, it is preferable to
introduce the authors
name in the text instead
Direct quotations of more
than four lines of prose
are double spaced and
indented five spaces more
than the body of the
essays left margin. Quota-
tion marks are not used.
The abbreviation
qtd.
quoted.
No
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PART #
PART TITLE
PART #
PART TITLE
PART 4
HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE
28: PRONOUN AGREEMENT AND REFERENCE
407
Rewrite each of the following sentences to make the vague pronoun reference clear.
Add, change, or omit words as necessary.
Example:
Susan and her mother wondered if she had been working out long enough
POST-TEST 1
POST-TEST 2
his (or her)
Practice and learn online with Connect.
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PART 5
READINGS FOR WRITING
41: INTRODUCTION TO THE READINGS
489
c.
conceals
d.
speaks of
3.
Which of the following would be a good alternative title for this selection?
a.
The Homeless Publisher
b.
The Man No One Knows
c.
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PART 2: PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT
your ordering principle and purpose in writing, then place your supporting points in time order, as would
as student writing about waves of American ex-slaves arriving in Canada as related to historical events of
the time.
4.
One important fact about support for division and classification essays is that sim-
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105
PART 1
ESSAY WRITING
Using the active voice communicates directly to readers. Notice how much
Using the passive voice involves using a byŽ structure to indicate a sentences
subject, the agent or doer.Ž Because of this, passive voice places less emphasis on
sis is on the object that receives the verbs action: here, the computer and the air
conditioner.
Choosing a verb voice means considering where you wish to place emphasis for

When you wish to emphasize the thing or person acted upon.
Your behaviour will be reviewed by the disciplinary committee.

When you wish to de-emphasize the subject of a sentence, or when the subject is
not known.
The hit-and-run driver was eventually stopped by police after a wild chase.
Rewrite the following sentences, changing verbs from the passive to the active voice
and making any other word changes necessary.
Example:
Using more words than necessary to express a meaning„wordiness„is often a sign
Here are some examples of wordy sentences:
In this paper, I am planning to describe the hobby that I enjoy of collecting old
comic books.
In Bens opinion, he thinks that 3-D film-making will change and alter film con-
sumers viewing habits in the future.
The officer apprehended the intoxicated operator of the vehicle.
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PART 2: PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT
Here is a step-by-step approach to creating an effective process-essay thesis
statement:
1.
write about.
You should generally state to readers the importance of the process you are pre-
senting (c).
(a) (b)
(c)
Learning to relax is a skill people should master for the sake of their general health.
You may name the intended audience if that information affects the success or fail-
ure of a prescriptive process or the understanding of a descriptive process.
You may want to specify the level of the knowledge your audience needs to under-
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490
PART 5: READINGS FOR WRITING
The authors use of brief paragraphs is characteristic of journalistic writing. The
selection seems to divide naturally into three nearly equal sections, the first being
paragraphs 1…9; the next, paragraphs 9…16; and the final section, paragraphs
17…25. How would you title each of these sections, and why?
About Style and Tone
6.
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DEVELOPMENT
15: DIVISION AND CLASSIFICATION
237
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331
Phillips 3
when their parents picked them up at daycare, as if they would rather stay with the
daycare workers. Finally, Sabrina and Eduardo made a difficult decision. Sabrina
quit her job, and the couple invited her mother (whose illness was in remission) to
live with them. With the three adults pooling their resources, Sabrina and Eduardo
found that they could manage without Sabrinas salary. The family no longer ate
out, and they gave up their cable TV. Their sons loved having their grandmother in
the house. Sabrina was able to begin doing relaxed, fun projects with the boys.
already been named in
the text.
Quotation marks
acknowledge the phrase
is copied from previous
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PART 1: ESSAY WRITING
more pleasant task.
If you have been instructed to create an MLA-style essay outline, follow the formula
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PART 1: ESSAY WRITING
Omitting needless words improves these sentences:
I enjoy collecting old comic books.
Ben thinks that 3-D film-making will change movie-goers habits.
The officer arrested the drunk driver.
Following is a list of some wordy expressions that could be reduced to single
words.
Revise the following sentences, omitting needless words.
1.
points that were covered within my paper.
Controlling the quality and level of the television shows that children watch is a
Wordy Form
Short Form
at the present time
now
in the event that
if
in the near future
soon
due to the fact that
because
for the reason that
because
is able to
can
One part of effective writing involves varying the kinds of sentences you write.
If every sentence follows the same pattern, writing may become monotonous to
read.
While your main goal is always to write clear, straightforward sentences, you

Combine two related ideas into one sentence

Emphasize some idea within a sentence more than another idea

Open with a word or phrase that emphasizes the meaning of the sentence

Create series of words instead of short, choppy sentences
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169
If you write a prescriptive process essay, you will speak directly to your readers,
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Julias list making and outlining prepared her for writing the first draft of
Malls arent only places to go shopping. They also offer free or at least cheap fun
and activities for lots of people. Teenagers, dating couples, and families all like to visit
the mall.
Teenagers love to roam the mall in packs, like wolves. They often dress alike,
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This section describes some common types of pronouns:
and
and
Read the following sentences and try to spot the confusion in pronoun use. How
1.
Marc is taller than me.
That there briefcase belongs to the entrepreneur.
My father and me enjoy watching the Toronto Blue Jays.
Tip:
Pronouns are words
that take the place of
nouns. Instead of writing
throughout an essay,
you would naturally alter-
nate with
he, his,
and
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PART 5
READINGS FOR WRITING
41: INTRODUCTION TO THE READINGS
491
As Told by Tommy Douglas in 1944
Tommy Douglas (1904…1986) was one of Canadas best-known New Democrats. He
was a man of many talents and, involved in politics since 1936, he is renowned for
various reasons. The Mouseland story is a small sample of the wit and humour many
people knew him for. To see and listen to Tommy Douglas in person was a rare treat.
Tommy was a most accomplished orator.
Some people saw Tommy Douglas as a true democratic socialist, someone who
placed human rights and needs above the mere pursuit of profits and power. Such prin-
ciples should be implemented at the wish of the majority of the people. A social-minded
government would plan the economy of the country to allow all people to share in the
countrys wealth and have equal access to such basic needs as healthcare and education.
Others saw Tommy as a great politician whose natural speaking, story-telling, and
debating abilities helped bring social change to the country. Tommy was first elected
to the House of Commons in Ottawa in 1936. He later switched to provincial politics
and it was during his years as premier of Saskatchewan that Medicare was first intro-
duced to North America. Prior to Medicare, health care services were only available to
those who could pay the price.
When the CCF (Co-operative C
ommonwealth Federation) was renamed the New
Democratic Party in 1961, Tommy Douglas was chosen as the leader of the new party,
a post he held until he resigned in 1971. Tommy Douglas relates his message of social
democracy in such a fashion that any audience can understand even the most compli-
cated issue and be well entertained at the same time.
Introduction
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PART 3: SPECIAL SKILLS AND RESEARCH
Phillips 4
but, according to a cover story in
Newsweek,
Some . . . are looking for a way to reclaim
Ellipses show where the
student has omitted
material from the origi-
nal source. The quoted
material is not capitalized
integrated it into a sen-
tence with an introduc-
tory phrase.
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3: PREPARING YOUR ESSAY: DEVELOPING AN OUTLINE AND SUPPORTING YOUR THESIS
PART 1
ESSAY WRITING
You will see Jeds drafts and revisions in Chapter 4.
You will find a blank version of the MLA outline diagram on Connect and you
Save this with an appropriate name.
ACTIVITY
1.
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107
PART 1
ESSAY WRITING
and
To clarify and review:

A phrase
is a sequence of words intended to be meaningful, but, because it may
lack a subject or a verb, it is not a sentence; for example,
sitting alone, my over-
whelming impression,
and
in the daytime.

A clause
is a sequence of words containing a subject and a verb;
independent
clauses
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PART 2: PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT
Address your readers directly in a prescriptive process essay. Speak to your read-
Writers Tips for Process Essays
There are some specific considerations in writing effective process essays: the types of sentences used,
consistent and appropriate use of transitions, and the points where a process may go wrong or fail entirely
and information that explains how to avoid this.
(a) Use
imperative (second person, direct address) sentences
in prescriptive process writing. Impera-
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SPECIAL SKILLS AND
18: RESEARCH SKILLS
277
Facts About the Research Process
1.
The Research Process: An Overview
The Discovery Stage: Preparing for Research
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492
PART 5: READINGS FOR WRITING
elect a government. A government made up of big, fat, black cats.
Now, if you think it strange that mice should elect a government made up of cats,
werent any stupider than we are.
Now Im not saying anything against the cats. They were nice fellows. They con-
MouselandŽ is a political fable, originally told by Clare Gillis, a friend of Tommy Doug-
las. Tommy used this story many times to show in a humorous way how Canadians fail
to recognize that neither the Liberals nor Conservatives are truly interested in what
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DEVELOPMENT
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239
Writing Assignment 1
Postsecondary Stress
Jacks heart pounds as he casts panicked looks around the classroom. He doesnt rec-
ognize the professor, he doesnt know any of the students, and he cant even figure
out what the subject is. In front of him is a test. At the last minute, his roommate awak-
Writing a Division and Classification Essay
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108
PART 1: ESSAY WRITING
begins with one of the following subordinating words:
Look at the following complex sentence:
after
if, even if
when, whenever
although, though
in order that
where, wherever
since
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PART 1: ESSAY WRITING
After prewriting and revising your thesis by questioning, then creating an outline,
or audiences will not follow, or
Developing Topic Sentences
Your supporting points will form the topic sentences for the body paragraphs in your
topic sentence.
Writers Tips for Developing and Structuring Support

Listing and Re-generating:
1. Turn each of your supporting points into a trial topic sentence.
2. If you have two supporting points, make two columns with one topic sentence at the top of each.
(If you have three or four, adjust the number of columns.)
3. Write one trial topic sentence at the top of each column.
Develop and Order Your Supporting Points
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PART 3
SPECIAL SKILLS AND
20: DOCUMENTING AND WRITING AN MLASTYLE RESEARCH PAPER
Phillips 5
Todays parents fear their children may grow up isolated and dependent on media
products for companionship and guidance.
One way that some families are trying to build old-fashioned community is
through intentional communityŽ or cohousing.Ž Begun in Denmark in 1972, the
Citation for an online
source: no page number
is given because the
not provide it.
Quoted material extends
from one page to
another, so both page
numbers are given.
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PART 5
READINGS FOR WRITING
41: INTRODUCTION TO THE READINGS
493
Reading Comprehension Questions
1.
The word
orator
in the sentence Tommy was a most accomplished oratorŽ (first
paragraph of introduction) means
a.
actor
b.
public speaker
c.
New Democrat
d.
politician
2.
The word
pursuit
in the sentence the mere pursuit of profits and powerŽ (second
paragraph of introduction) means
a.
dislike
b.
think
c.
chase
d.
reduce
3.
Which of the following would make a good alternative title for this selection?
a.
Liberals or Conservatives? Why Vote for Either?
b.
People are Mice
c.
Are New Democrats a Real Alternative?
d.
Dont Put your Trust in Cats
4.
Write a sentence or two that you believe expresses the main idea of The Story of
Mouseland.Ž
5.
True or false?
MouselandŽ is a fable about politics in Canada.
6.
What does Douglas mean by the phrase, because they were cats, they naturally
looked after cats instead of miceŽ (paragraph 7)?
7.
True or false?
All an honest politician needs is a strong vision.
8.
The author implies that
a.
Canadians should not question authority .
b.
Politics are bad .
c.
A good idea is greater than just one person .
d.
More people need to go into politics .
9.
The author implies that
a.
Cats are misunderstood .
b.
Politicians are like big black cats .
c.
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PART 2: PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT

Have I used transition words and sentences to help readers follow my train of
thought?

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PART #
PART TITLE
PART #
PART TITLE
PART #
PART TITLE
PART 4
HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE
29: PRONOUN TYPES
Pronouns change their form depending upon the place they occupy in a sentence.
Subject PronounsObject Pronouns
you
you (no change)
us
Subject and Object Pronouns
Subject pronouns are subjects of verbs.
is leaving home for college. (
is the subject of the verb
is leaving.
are moving into our old apartment. (
is the subject of the verb
are
moving.
physiotherapists should have a say in the decision. (
is the subject of the
verb
should have.
Several rules for using subject pronouns„and examples of mistakes that
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6: EDITING AND PROOFREADING: THE FINAL DRAFTS OF YOUR ESSAY
109
PART 1
ESSAY WRITING
Begin with a Special Opening Word or Phrase
You can change the sentence patterns and rhythms in your paragraphs by using
different openings. Among the special opening words that can be used to start
words), present participles of verbs
words), adverbs (-
words), infinitive forms of verbs (
word groups), and
prepositional phrases. See also Chapter 26. Here are examples of all five kinds of
openers:
Past participle (-
) word:
Concerned about his sons fever, Paul called a doctor.
Present participle (-

word):
Humming softly, Renata browsed through the rack of CDs.
Adverb (-

word):
Hesitantly, Winston approached the instructors desk.
Infinitive (

word group):

word
1. Amber signed the repair contract.
She was reluctant.

word group
2. The interns volunteered to work overtime.
They wanted to improve their chances of obtaining permanent positions.
prepositional
phrase
3. The accused murderer grinned at the witnesses.
He did this during the trial.
-ed

word
4. The doctors office was noisy and confusing.
It was crowded with nervous patients.

word
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PART 2
PATTERNS OF ESSAY
DEVELOPMENT
11: PROCESS
171
in when using third person; your focus is entirely on showing your readers how to do

Where do you find an example of a definition in How Search Engines WorkŽ?
3.
As noted in Writers Tips, you are responsible for warning
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PART 3: SPECIAL SKILLS AND RESEARCH
Notice that
are the key to, and the creator of, your research essay. You will
begin by discovering your own responses to your subject. As with other essays, you
One of your new challenges may include learning a focused and structured
The Discovery Stage: Steps for Effective Research
1.
Understand all aspects of your assignment. Ask questions and plan your time.
2.
Explore your subject to develop ideas and a viewpoint.
3.
Establish your topic focus.
4.
Create a trial outline.
5.
Decide on your research strategies and make research notes.
6.
Step 1: Understand All Aspects of Your Assignment
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3: PREPARING YOUR ESSAY: DEVELOPING AN OUTLINE AND SUPPORTING YOUR THESIS
PART 1
ESSAY WRITING
Here is a sample of one such list made by Jed, the student author featured in this
Trial Topic Sentence:
€ all kinds of discrimination
€ # 4 discrimination in sports could be about glorifying star players
€ bad idea and social values approve it„only real success is being the best
€ #4 in pro sports, they hide players who arent stars„they dont play as much„is that
discrimination? If its all about money, it is. Examples of underused players?
€ whoever has the most money is the best„thats what our values tell us

€ is this why people like gangsters?
€ #3 does it depress people„cant live up to celebrities who make millions„Will Smith?
€ #7 no everyday heroes?
ACTIVITY
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494
PART 5: READINGS FOR WRITING
About Structure
4.
a.
exposition
b.
narrative
c.
informational
d.
compare and contrast
What effect does the writers use of short, simple sentences have on the reader?
About Style and Tone
6.
from the text.
Choose one word to describe the tone of this selection: for example, funny, angry,
sad, clever, light-hearted, playful, mean, deceptive, silly, or others. Explain, with
examples from the story, why you believe this to be the tone of the selection.
Writing Assignments
Assignment 1
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334
PART 3: SPECIAL SKILLS AND RESEARCH
Phillips 6
A final way that families are fighting to protect their children is by controlling the
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410
PART 4: HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE SKILLS
It was
who left the light on.
It may be
in that car.
It is
he.
The sentences above may sound strange and stilted to you because they are sel-
You can avoid having to use the subject pronoun form after
by
I was the one who left the light on.
They may be in that car.
He is here.
Use subject pronouns after
or
The subject pronoun is used because a
Object pronouns
are the objects of verbs or prepositions.
are connecting words like
and
See
Tamara helped
me.
(
is the object of the verb
helped.
We took
to the campus. (
is the object of the verb
took.
Leave the children with
us.
(
is the object of the preposition
I got in line behind
(
is the object of the preposition
behind.
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172
PART 2: PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT

Where do you find such cautionary advice in A Students Guide to Income TaxŽ?
Divide your series of steps into larger
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PART 2
PATTERNS OF ESSAY
DEVELOPMENT
15: DIVISION AND CLASSIFICATION
241
Do the divisions in your essays subject fol-
low a consistent principle of classification?
Is this principle logically related to your pur-
pose in writing about your subject? Does
your dividing principle lead to interesting
new thoughts about your subject?
Does your thesis statement mention your
subject, your viewpoint on it, your principle
of classification, and if appropriate, your
categories or classifications?
Checklist of Learning Outcomes for Chapter 15
Do your category/classification paragraphs
appear in an order that best supports your
Does your conclusion remind readers of
your thesis and propose final thoughts
about the subjects main divisions?
Practice and learn online with Connect.
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PART 3
SPECIAL SKILLS AND
18: RESEARCH SKILLS
279
research essays. Instead, students examine the resources avail-
While the research process for the survey and the essay will be similar, the tech-
Typical General Research Questions
1.
What forms of information will be suitable for this task? (i.e., general background
information, news/journalism, statistics)
2.
How much of which types of information will I need?
3.
Where will I find appropriate resources?
4.
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PART #
PART TITLE
PART #
PART TITLE
PART #
PART TITLE
PART 4
HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE
29: PRONOUN TYPES
411
Underline the correct subject or object
pronoun in each of the following sentences.
Possessive Pronouns
S O
S O
S O
S O
S O
S O
S O
S O
Here is a list of possessive pronouns:
my, mine
our, ours
your, yours
your, yours
their, theirs
her, hers
Possessive pronouns show ownership or possession.
Delan revved up
motorcycle and blasted off.
The keys are
mine.
A possessive pronoun
uses an apostrophe. (See also Chapter 35.)
Incorrect
Correct
That coat is hers.
That coat is hers.
The drafting table is theirs.
The drafting table is theirs.
Cross out the incorrect pronoun form in each of the sentences below. Write the cor-
rect form in the space at the left.
Example:

hers
Those gloves are hers.
1.
The computer stores information on its hard drive.
2.
Are those seats theirs?
I knew the sweater was hers when I saw the Parkland College monogram.
4.
They gave us their telephone number, and we gave them ours.

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PART 5
READINGS FOR WRITING
41: INTRODUCTION TO THE READINGS
495
Trip Gabriel
Assignment 3
Today
Is the idea of plagiarism still relevant to you as a college or university student? No matter how often you
have been told about cheatingŽ or stealing other peoples hard work and ideas,Ž do these concepts still not
seem realistic to you? Like most of us, you undoubtedly conduct a lot of your research online and know just
how easy it is to highlight some material, then hit copyŽ and paste.Ž
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PART 1: ESSAY WRITING
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PART 2
PATTERNS OF ESSAY
DEVELOPMENT
11: PROCESS
173
If the product is simply not what the customer wanted, and he or she has the receipt
from its purchase, offer a refund or replacement, according to company policy.
If the customer has no receipt and is still displeased, state the companys policy for
this situation and offer to call your supervisor or manager to provide any additional
assistance.
Stage 1 TOPIC SENTENCE: Introduce yourself to the customer; treat him or her
calmly and courteously.
Items through
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110
PART 1: ESSAY WRITING
Place Adjectives or Verbs in a Series
Some parts of a sentence may be placed in a series. Among these parts are adjec-
Adjectives:
I gently applied a
sticky new
Band-Aid to the
deep, ragged
cut on my finger.
Verbs:
The truck
bounced
off a guardrail,
a tree, and
down the
embankment.
Combine the simple sentences into one sentence by using adjectives or verbs in a
ACTIVITY
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PART 3
SPECIAL SKILLS AND
20: DOCUMENTING AND WRITING AN MLASTYLE RESEARCH PAPER
Phillips 7
attitude towards TV. They had not owned a TV for years but purchased one to watch
The conclusion provides
a summary and restates
the thesis.
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PART 4: HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE SKILLS
Demonstrative pronouns point to or single out a person or thing. There are four
is my house right in front of us.
are your books on the shelf over there.
Generally speaking,
and
refer to things close at hand;
and
magazine articles are useful for my research paper.
Are
articles any good?
one is the most credible.
The writing is good in
one.
Do not use
or
to point out. Use
or
Cross out the incorrect form of the demonstrative pronoun, and write the correct
form in the space provided.
Example:

Those
Them tires look worn.
1.
This here textbook is the wrong edition for the fall semester.
Leave them keys out on the coffee table.
Ive seen them lessons over and over, but I still make the same mistakes.
Jack entered that there dog in an obedience contest.
Do you remember exactly where you put them new knives?
Underline the correct pronoun in the parentheses.
1.
If the contract negotiations are left up to (they, them), well have to accept the results.
(Them, Those) student poster designs have won several awards.
3.
The maintenance person told David and (I, me) to leave our skateboards in the foyer.
4.
The judge decided that the fault was (theirs, theirs) and ordered them to pay the damages.
The black-masked raccoon stared at Rudy and (I, me) for an instant and then ran
quickly away.
When the reports were handed back to Lynn and (I, me) the professor congratu-
lated us on our high grades.
(This here, This) is our new educational assistant.
This test without a name must be (hers, hers); I recognize the handwriting.
ACTIVITY
POST-TEST
Demonstrative Pronouns
Practice and learn online with Connect.
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PART 5: READINGS FOR WRITING
Now we have a whole generation of students whove grown up with informa-
tion that just seems to be hanging out there in cyberspace and doesnt seem to have an
author,Ž said Teresa Fishman, director of the Center for Academic Integrity at Clemson
University. Its possible to believe this information is just out there for anyone to take.Ž
Professors who have studied plagiarism do not try to excuse it„many are cham-
In surveys from 2006 to 2010 by Donald L. McCabe, a co-founder of the Center for
Academic Integrity and a business professor at Rutgers University, about 40 percent
of 14,000 undergraduates admitted to copying a few sentences in written assignments.
Perhaps more significant, the number who believed that copying from the Web
constitutes serious cheatingŽ is declining„to 29 percent on average in recent surveys
Sarah Brookover, a senior at the Rutgers campus in Camden, N.J., said many of
This generation has always existed in a world where media and intellectual prop-
erty dont have the same gravity,Ž said Ms. Brookover, who at 31 is older than most
undergraduates. When youre sitting at your computer, its the same machine youve
downloaded music with, possibly illegally, the same machine you streamed videos for
free that showed on HBO last night.Ž
Ms. Brookover, who works at the campus library, has pondered the differences
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280
PART 3: SPECIAL SKILLS AND RESEARCH
2. Manage and Plan Your Time
Discovery Research Plan
ESSAY DUE: May 5
DATE TODAY: March 28
1.
Explore subject„3 days (Mar. 29…31)
2.
Establish topic focus„2 days (Apr. 2…3)
3.
Create trial outline„2 days (Apr. 5…6)
4.
Discover what I need from research„2…3 days (Apr. 8…10)
5.
Step 2: Explore Your Subject
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3: PREPARING YOUR ESSAY: DEVELOPING AN OUTLINE AND SUPPORTING YOUR THESIS
PART 1
ESSAY WRITING
Writers Tips on Audiences, Logic, Specifics, and Credibility
Because reading audiences are most drawn to the specifics in your support, and are most attentive to
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174
PART 2: PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT
Before her next class, when her prewriting and list of general stages was due,

general deductions„most people can make


2? Or 1? Do they need to file? Conditions for filing?
Scholarships and bursaries„status as income and taxability? T4
As?

Schedule 11 and why its important for them as students

Filling in Schedule 11 with info from postsecondary form T22??

Overall deductions & special forms? Or is this 10?

what deductions to claim.
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6: EDITING AND PROOFREADING: THE FINAL DRAFTS OF YOUR ESSAY
PART 1
ESSAY WRITING
Violence in video games has been around since the beginning of video game
history. Space Invaders and Pac-Man were the first violent games, even though
blood and gore were not parts of the action when you killedŽ the enemy.Ž The
game industry and graphics evolved, so video games have become more real-
istic to look at, faster to respond, and experiencing them is more of a thrill. But
the more real the game looked, the more powerfully is presented the message
of violence. At this point in time, a child can play a game where they chop up
a body into pieces with a rusty sword. And to them thats pure entertainment.
Grand Theft Auto is controversial for its brutality because it gave players freedom
to do what they want; you are able to grab any weapon, shoot a huge selection
Proofreading: An Introduction to the Final Step
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242
16
LEARNING OUTCOMES
After reading this chapter and working through its
begins with a thesis that states a definite point to be
argued
acknowledges and counters any opposing viewpoints
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336
PART 3: SPECIAL SKILLS AND RESEARCH
Works Cited
A Lot Easier Said Than Done: Parents Talk About Raising Children in Todays America.Ž
Public Agenda.
Oct. 2002. Web. 9 Mar. 2013.
Canadian Home-Based Learning Resource Page.
2001. Web. 12 Mar. 2013.
Coontz, Stephanie.
The Way We Really Are.
New York: Basic Books, 1997. Print.
Donahue, Deirdre. Struggling to Raise Good Kids in Toxic Times.Ž
USA Today
1 Oct.
1998: D1…D2. Print.
What are the two aspects of MLA docu-
mentation, and how do they relate to each
How does a research papers outline differ
from a brief essays outline?
Why is the extra stage of
nes-
sary to the writing process for a research
Checklist of Learning Outcomes for Chapter 20
Include the date you
accessed a Web source„
in this case, March 10,
Works Cited list is double
spaced. Titles of books,
magazines, and the like
are italicized.
Practice and learn online with Connect.
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PART 1: ESSAY WRITING
When you choose facts or information not based on your own experience, you

Common Knowledge
In some cases, this is information generally known in various communities
(e.g., to Canadians, the prime ministers name). In college or university what is
common knowledge depends on the subject; for example, in a psychology essay
you would not have to define conditioning. Facts that are common knowledge
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PART 5
READINGS FOR WRITING
41: INTRODUCTION TO THE READINGS
497
O.K. if you write papers you couldnt care less about because they accomplish the task,
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PART 2
PATTERNS OF ESSAY
DEVELOPMENT
11: PROCESS
175
Your first stop is the CRA site, where youll find most of the answers to your ques-
tions. Download your tax form there, so you know what youll be working with, right
from the start. Print a few copies and put them in a folder.
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112
PART 1: ESSAY WRITING
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3: PREPARING YOUR ESSAY: DEVELOPING AN OUTLINE AND SUPPORTING YOUR THESIS
PART 1
ESSAY WRITING
ACTIVITY
Take a few minutes to write a paragraph in the third person point of view support-
ing this thesis: Managing time is a students biggest problem.Ž Afterward, form small
groups with other students, and read your paragraphs aloud. The paragraphs people
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21
Documenting and
LEARNING OUTCOMES
After reading this chapter and working through its
use APA style correctly and consistently, paying close
attention to citation of online sources
assemble, write, and revise your drafts to create an
effect research paper
prepare the Abstract for your research paper
Document Your Research and Prepare an
APA References List
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PART 5: READINGS FOR WRITING
2.
The word
pastiche
in exhibits some of the same qualities of pastiche that drive
other creative endeavors todayŽ (paragraph 17) means
a.
organization
b.
craftsmanship
c.
design
d.
patchwork
3.
Which of the following would be a good alternative title for this selection?
a.
Originality, Ownership, and Effort in Jeopardy
b.
Cheaters Never Prosper
c.
The Age of Easy Information
d.
Inconsistency in Academia
4.
Write a sentence or two that you believe expresses the main idea of Plagiarism
Lines Blur for Students in Digital Age.Ž
5.
What are the three concepts under assaultŽ in academic-honesty situations in
colleges and universities today?
6.
Students today may not see originality as important because
a.
They see these concepts as old-fashioned .
b.
They spend too much time under assumed identities on social media sites .
c.
They have given up on the importance of being individuals .
d.
There are no new ideas, only new combinations of old ideas .
7.
True or false?
The collageŽ theory of creativity and scholarship is a valid one,
according to Sarah Wilensky.
8.
From this selection, is it possible to infer that professors themselves may be partly
at fault for not understanding newer generations attitudes toward information
and media resources? Why or why not, based on the article?
9.
The author implies that, for the most part
a.
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413
30
describe nouns (names of persons, places, or things) or pronouns.
He is a
counsellor. (The adjective
describes the noun
counsellor.
He is also
(The adjective
describes the pronoun
he.
Seamus writes an
investigative
report. (The adjective
investigative
describes the
report.
It is
Adjectives
What Are Adjectives?
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176
PART 2: PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT

All these forms„students wont know what they are or what theyre for„write
definitions and explanations.

Are my directions for the CRA site good enough?

How much should I include about self-employed students? How many of them
are there, really?
With the information she received from her fellow students, and her own notes, and
near the start of this chapter.
Writing Assignment 1

Writing a Process Essay
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6: EDITING AND PROOFREADING: THE FINAL DRAFTS OF YOUR ESSAY
113
PART 1
ESSAY WRITING
You now know the fourth step in effective writing: revising content and structure,
1.
Using parallel structure
Using a consistent point of view
Using specific words
Using active verbs
Using concise words
Varying your sentences
Review Activities
1. Using Parallel Structure
Cross out the unbalanced part of each sentence. In the space provided, revise the
unbalanced part so that it matches the other item or items in the sentence.
Example:
Review Activity
2. Maintaining Consistency: Verb Tense and Point of View
Change verbs, where needed, in the following selection so that they are the appropri-
ate tense.
1.
make ten corrections.
Review Activity 1
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PART 1: ESSAY WRITING
When writing in the invisibleŽ third person point of view, close attention
Organizing information makes it easier to understand and easier to remember. If you
Organize Your Support
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PART 5
READINGS FOR WRITING
41: INTRODUCTION TO THE READINGS
499
About Structure
4.
Which method of conclusion does Gabriel use? Does his conclusion fit any of the
approaches listed in Chapter 4? Why or why not? How does the funny anecdote
relate to the articles content?
Look back to Chapter 16 on Argumentation and Persuasion. Where in this arti-
cle does the author insert opposing viewpoints, views that see plagiarism as just
normal responses to cultural change? Do the anti-plagiarism speakers he includes
immediately after the opposing viewpoints present convincing counter-arguments?
Why or why not?
About Style and Tone
6.
PlagiarismŽ is an article from the
New York Times.
Journalistic style, especially for
articles that appear in newspapers, often makes use of short paragraphs, which do
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414
PART 4: HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE SKILLS
Adjectives usually come before the word they describe (as in
counsellor
report). They also come after forms of the verb
(
and
Your passport is
(The adjective
describes your passport.)
The border crossing seems
at the Rainbow Bridge
(The adjective
describes the border crossing.)
The lawyers looked
as they waited for the judge
(The adjective
describes the lawyers.)
That fresh coffee smells
on the early-morning air. (The adjective
describes the fresh coffee.)
For all one-syllable adjectives and some two-syllable adjectives, add
when com-
when comparing three or more things.
Andrews beard is
than mine, but Lees is the
Meg may be the
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PART 2
PATTERNS OF ESSAY
DEVELOPMENT
11: PROCESS
177
Make a list of all the steps that you are describing.
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114
PART 1: ESSAY WRITING
For each change of verb tense, explain why you made the change.
My uncles shopping trip last Thursday was discouraging to him. First of all, he
had to drive around for fifteen minutes until he finds a parking space. There
was a half-price special on paper products at FoodSaver, and every spot is
taken. Then, when he finally got inside, many of the items on his list were not
where he expected. For example, the pickles he wanted are not on the same
shelf as all the other pickles. Instead, they were in a refrigerated case next to
the bacon. And the granola was not on the cereal shelves, but in the health
food section. Shopping, therefore, proceeds slowly. About halfway through his
list, he knew there would not be time to cook dinner and decides to pick up
a barbecued chicken. The chicken, he learned, was available at the end of the
Review Activity 2
Cross out inconsistent pronouns in the
following sentences, and write the correct
form of the pronoun above each crossed-out word.
Example:
Many shoppers are staying away from the local music store because

they
you
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3: PREPARING YOUR ESSAY: DEVELOPING AN OUTLINE AND SUPPORTING YOUR THESIS
PART 1
ESSAY WRITING
2.
Writers often combine two orders in an essay because their topic and viewpoint suit
the combination. Read the essay Movie Night in the BushŽ in Chapter 10. Which
principle of organization or combination of principles has the writer chosen? Why,
based on the subject of the essay, might the writer have chosen this order or combina-
tion of orders? How does the writer indicate the order(s)?
3.
means that you create a pattern in space for the reader to follow. You
or
You will
southern B.C. is home to temperate rainforest ... the northern part
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500
PART 5: READINGS FOR WRITING
Living beyond ones means has become a global spending pattern, with increasingly widespread and
disastrous consequences, particularly for European countries such as Spain, Italy, and Greece, where huge
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PART #
PART TITLE
PART #
PART TITLE
PART #
PART TITLE
PART #
PART TITLE
PART 4
HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE
30: ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
Incorrect
Correct
My backpack is always
more heavier
than my
friends.
My backpack is always
than my friends.
Kingston Penitentiary is the
Ive ever seen.
Kingston Penitentiary is the
prison Ive
ever seen.
Learn the irregular forms of the words shown below.
Comparative
Superlative
(for comparing things)
(for comparing three or more things)
worse
worst
good, well
Adverbs
describe verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs. They often end in
The father
hugged the sick child. (The adverb
describes the verb
hugged.
The jury member was temporarily tongue-tied. (The adverb
temporarily
describes
the adjective
tongue-tied.
The lecturer spoke so
fast that I had trouble taking notes. (The adverb
describes the adverb
fast.
13/12/13 1:26 PM
178
PART 2: PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT
Remember, this is the explanatory essay, not the presentation, so you are writing
Practice and learn online with Connect.
Does my thesis statement contain at least
two items essential for a process thesis?
Have I supplied enough background infor-
mation to make my process understandable
to readers? Is there any special or technical
vocabulary that should be explained? Have
I mentioned any equipment or supplies
that are needed?
Is each step explained clearly enough with
examples, descriptions, and definitions
Checklist of Learning Outcomes for Chapter 11
where appropriate? Have I explained
potential problems or errors that might be
encountered?
Are the main stages and steps in exactly the
Are there enough transitions to make the
steps in the process clear?
Have I finished with an effective and appro-
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6: EDITING AND PROOFREADING: THE FINAL DRAFTS OF YOUR ESSAY
115
PART 1
ESSAY WRITING
3. Using Specific Words
Revise the following sentences, changing vague
, indefinite words into sharp, specific ones.
1.
food choices
Review Activity 1
Review Activity 2
4. Using Active Verbs
5. Using Concise Words
Revise the following sentences, changing verbs from the passive to the active voice
and making any other word changes necessary.
Example
Soccer is played by children all over the world.

Children all over the world play soccer.
1.
The pizza restaurant was closed by the health inspector.
Huge stacks of donated books were sorted by the workers in the library.
Gasoline prices will not be increased by suppliers this winter.
High-powered lights were used by the crew during filming of the commercial.
Revise the following sentences, omitting needless words.
1.
I finally made up my mind and decided to look for a new job.
Due to the fact that the printer was out of paper, Ayesha went to the store for the
purpose of buying some.
Review Activity
Review Activity
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PART 2
PATTERNS OF ESSAY
DEVELOPMENT
16: ARGUMENTATION AND PERSUASION
Arguing a point and persuading readers in an essay requires you to do three
In general, argumentation is the defence of a position based on logic; persuasion is
rooted in finding the forms of defence that will appeal specifically to your audience.
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PART 1: ESSAY WRITING
Each group below contains one topic, one thesis statement, and two supporting sen-
T„topic
TH„thesis statement
S„supporting sentence
a.
TV forces politicians to focus more on appearance than substance. __________
b.
Television is having an increasingly strong impact on the way Canadian elections
are conducted. __________
c.
The time and expense involved in creating commercials for parties and leaders
Review Activities
Review Activity: Relating the Parts of an Essay to Each Other
Review Activity: Outlining
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PART 5
READINGS FOR WRITING
41: INTRODUCTION TO THE READINGS
501
Magellan only made it halfway around the globe, to the Philippines, where he got into
trouble with the locals and died violently. But to his everlasting glory, Magellan had found
The past year has seen massive cuts in government spending and a wave of anti-
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116
PART 1: ESSAY WRITING
Marika realized suddenly that her date had not appeared on time and was not
going to show up.
The salesperson advised us not to buy the computer at this time because it was
going to have a drop in price in the very near future.
6. Varying Your Sentences
Combine the sentences in the following
paragraph to form four sentences. Omit
repeated words. Try to find combinations in each case that flow as smoothly and
clearly as possible.
Lena and Miles wanted a vacation. They wanted a vacation that was nice. They
Review Activity
Practice and learn online with Connect.
How does editing differ from revising? How
does editing differ from proofreading?
Explain parallel structure.
Why is it important to ensure verb tenses
are consistent in essays?
Why is it important to maintain a consistent
pronoun point of view in essays?
Why do readers prefer specific, rather than
vague word choices?
Checklist of Learning Outcomes for Chapter 6
What is an active verb, and why are active
verb forms preferable?
How do readers benefit from concise word-
ing in essays?
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PART 2: PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT
Although nearly every essay you write will contain elements of persuasion or argu-
To truly persuade readers to consider your viewpoint and open to the logic of your
knows that... Ž or People with any intelligence agree that....Ž Also, keep the focus on
involved in the debate. The third per-
Aristotle, a philosopher and educator in ancient Greece, defined key aspects of
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502
PART 5: READINGS FOR WRITING
on the other side of the road.
The fact that a
existed was an even bigger surprise, since Cabra del Santo
Cristo hardly has any residents left. One old man was sitting by himself, ending a late
Sunday lunch with some melon. Two other customers were discussing the price of
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117
Introduction to Essay
LEARNING OUTCOMES
After reading this chapter, you will
identify the main patterns of development for essays
know why various patterns are used, alone and in
combination with other patterns
and
are basic to all writing. Each time you relate a series of
you are
Patterns of Essay Development
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179
12
Cause or Effect
LEARNING OUTCOMES
After reading this chapter and working through its
offers a thesis statement giving your viewpoint on
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PART 2
PATTERNS OF ESSAY
DEVELOPMENT
16: ARGUMENTATION AND PERSUASION
Another way to persuade readers to consider your opinion is to point out common
Do not simply ignore opinions that conflict with yours. Acknowledging other view-
At what point in your essay should you acknowledge opposing arguments?
graduates.
Alternatively, try using one or two sentences (separate from the thesis) in the
A third technique is to use a paragraph within the body of your essay to summa-
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416
PART 4: HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE SKILLS
People often mistakenly use an adjective instead of an adverb after a verb.
Incorrect
Correct
Lindsay needs a haircut
bad.
Lindsay needs a haircut
badly.
I laugh too
when Im embarrassed.I laugh too
when Im embarrassed.
You might have won the race if you hadnt run
slow
at the beginning.
You might have won the race if you hadnt run
slowly
at the beginning.
Underline the adjective or ad
verb needed. (Remember that adjectives describe nouns,
and adverbs describe verbs or other adverbs.)
1.
As Alyssa texted, her thumbs moved (rapid, rapidly).
The speedboat operators were (foolish, fo
olishly) to think they could outrun the
Royal Newfoundland Constabulary officers.
The shock of the accident caused me to hiccup (continuous, continuously) for fif-
teen minutes.
ACTIVITY
REVIEW TEST 1
A Common Mistake with Adverbs and Adjectives
Tip:
Most sources rec-
well
in
reference to your health.
So if someone asks you
how you are feeling, its
appropriate to say, I am
well.Ž Otherwise, if no
one is asking specifically
about your health, it is
acceptable to say, I am
good.Ž
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PART 5
READINGS FOR WRITING
41: INTRODUCTION TO THE READINGS
503
In many cities the signs seem to hang from every other balcony. You
Of course, the
has also worked its way through the banking system. Rip-
in April„
It would be heartbreaking to see the Spanish way of life wiped out by the logic
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246
PART 2: PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT
prepared to write a paragraph summarizing opposing viewpoints (Canadian business
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Punctuation
Apostrophe
Quotation Marks
Comma
Other Punctuation Marks
Word Use
Commonly Confused Words
Effective Word Choice
Introduction to the Readings
Yesterday and Today
Today
Today and Tomorrow
Index
Part 5 Readings for Writing
Additional Chapters Online
Editing Tests
ESL Pointers
Manuscript Form
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504
PART 5: READINGS FOR WRITING
7.
People in small country towns do not stay abreast of the bad news about the Span-
ish economy because
a.
They have never really accepted the problems caused by the euro .
b.
They never read the papers .
c.
They are too far away from big cities and their problems .
d.
They just do not care .
8.
The author implies that
a.
The Mediterranean lifestyle is to blame for Spains problems .
b.
Personal overspending has led to Spains national debt .
c.
Spains membership in the European Union is the root cause of its debt
problems .
d.
Profound economic mismanagement has led to the state of the Spanish
economy .
9.
True or false?
It is possible to take from this essay that Spain has been irrespon-
sible financially .
10.
The author implies that
a.
The Spanish will never value their traditional culture again.
b.
Stockbrokers are ignorant of human values.
c.
Succumbing to the temptations of luxury and overspending is a global failing.
d.
Spain had always been poor, and so did not know how to handle money.
About Content
1.
Unless you already speak Spanish, look up the following Spanish words:
café
con leche, tostado, arena, conquistador, moroso,
and
jubilado.
What does Verton-
gens use of these words (a) say about his feelings for Spain, and (b) add to his
essay?
Using an atlas or online maps, look up the locations named in the reading. What
do these suggest about the extent of the Spanish empire 500 years ago? And how do
these places relate to Vertongens statement that Europe no longer rules the worldŽ
(8)? And if Europe no longer rules the world, who are its new
conquistadors?
What are three signs of economic distress that small towns in rural Spain are suf-
fering now?
About Structure
4.
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PART 2
PATTERNS OF ESSAY
DEVELOPMENT
16: ARGUMENTATION AND PERSUASION
247
Privileges and Public Places
Canada has an international reputation for fairness. Canada also prides itself on
its cultural diversity and religious tolerance. Religious freedom is guaranteed by the
Canadian Constitution, the constitution of a secular country. Canadas public spaces,
as they define and display its national character, are open to all to use and enjoy, as
guaranteed by the Charter (
Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms
). What happens,
Student Essays to Consider
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PART 5
READINGS FOR WRITING
41: INTRODUCTION TO THE READINGS
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PART #
PART TITLE
PART #
PART TITLE
PART #
PART TITLE
PART #
PART TITLE
PART 4
HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE
30: ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
417
Write a sentence that uses each of the following adjectives and adverbs correctly.
1.
angrily
well
most relaxing
best
REVIEW TEST 2
Practice and learn online with Connect.
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248
PART 2: PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT
increasingly secular, if not irreligious, is contradicted by the real problems concerning
highly diverse private religious practices in public spaces. The city of Montreal, for
example, was faced with a legal need to redefine
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506
PART 5: READINGS FOR WRITING
Virginia Satir
Virginia Satir was a psychologist and author who pioneered in the field of family therapy. She achieved
global renown for her work and her therapeutic techniques. In this essay, she asks readers to consider their
families, friendships, and other groups to which they belong as systems.Ž System may seem an odd choice
of word today, because we generally encounter it in the contexts of technology and computers rather than
of human relationships. Read on to see if you or your groups can relate to Satirs systems.
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PART 3
SPECIAL SKILLS AND
18: RESEARCH SKILLS
281
If the subject is new or unknown to you...
If you know almost nothing about your subject, or if it is an extremely broad one,
If your subject is a familiar one...
Research Tip: Primary and Secondary Sources
There are two broad categories of information available to you: primary and secondary
sources.
Primary sources
are original, first-hand sources that are the subject itself or inform
you directly about the subject. Primary sources
comment on, explain, or
analyze the subject. Primary sources are often eyewitness records of an event,
situation, or process, or original works of art or literature. A primary source could be
a story or article you discuss in a research paper, a fact-finding interview with a per-
son on the subject of your research, or an event or experiment you are observing as
the basis of your paper. These are all direct sources of information.
Secondary sources
are works in any medium that refer to, comment on, or analyze
your subject area. They are second-hand information„material that has been pub-
lished on the subject of your research. In other words, secondary sources are the
viewpoints of others. These include encyclopedia articles; reference books; journal,
newspaper, magazine, and even blog articles; TV programs; and websites.
Once you have selected and explored a subject, it is time to define a focus area
ics; they examine a single aspect of a subject in depth. The general background
Step 3: Establish Your Topic Focus
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PART 2
PATTERNS OF ESSAY
DEVELOPMENT
16: ARGUMENTATION AND PERSUASION
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PART 5
READINGS FOR WRITING
41: INTRODUCTION TO THE READINGS
507
out. When parts are disconnected, they often appear as if they are operating: informa-
tion leaks in and out but without any direction. There are no boundaries.
An open system is one in which the parts interconnect, are responsive and sensi-
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180
PART 2: PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT
In this chapter, you will be asked to write an essay about causes or effects. To
the questions.
Student Essays to Consider
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418
Misplaced Modifiers
31
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3: PREPARING YOUR ESSAY: DEVELOPING AN OUTLINE AND SUPPORTING YOUR THESIS
PART 1
ESSAY WRITING
1.
Downtown high schools have multiple problem areas.
a.
Leaky ceilings
(1)
(2)
Teachers unwilling to help after class
b.
Few after-school programs
(1)
Doors locked at 4:30 p.m.
(2)
c.
Poorly equipped gyms
(1)
Much too strict
(2)
No morning or afternoon community
involvement
d.
(1)
Teachers
(2)
Starting fitness programs early in life is a wise move.
Make new friends
a.
Reduce mental stress
(1)
Social benefits
(2)
Lifelong good habit
b.
Improve self-image
(1)
Mental benefits
(2)
Tone muscles
c.
(1)
Physical benefits
(2)
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PART 2
PATTERNS OF ESSAY
DEVELOPMENT
12: CAUSE OR EFFECT
181
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250
PART 2: PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT
apotheosized into the virtual, a cybermall? This is precisely what has happened„the
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PART 3: SPECIAL SKILLS AND RESEARCH
information you read while exploring your subject is therefore not suitable for a
research essay. The information you will seek, once you have narrowed your topic
and made a rough outline, will be specific and clearly tied to your essays points
and support.
The length of the essay required by your instructor will be one guide to how
a short seven-hundred-word essay could
Your task is to discover a topic. Your research paper then presents
on one single aspect (a topic) of some subject. Your support for your viewpoint
Your goal in narrowing your topic is to discover one aspect that interests you

What
do I want to discover about _____ ?

are the relevant people (or characters) I should find out about?

When
do things occur in _____ ?

Where
does/do _____ happen ?

Why
or
how
does/do _____ occur, or
why
is/are _____ so _____ ?
Having answered one or more of these questions, you may be prepared to state
_____ .Ž It is a guide to help you move on to a trial outline. Moreover, you may, as
An interesting way to explore a range of aspects connected to your topic is to
try a directory search with a good search engine such as Google ( http://google.ca ),
or Google Scholar ( http://scholar.google.ca ). Type in a keyword or phrase related to
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118
PART 2: PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT
1. Essays Generally Use Primary and Secondary Patterns
of Development
You will practise writing essays that mainly follow a single pattern for supporting your

Illustration by Examples:
essays that present specific facts, observations, or
or
naturally occurs in many well-supported essays

Essays whose
main
goal is arguing a point use specific tactics either to gain sup-
port for a potentially contentious idea or to defend a position about which there
might be differences of opinion.

Essays whose
main
goal is persuasion are intended to alter the thinking of the
reading audience, or to move readers emotions in the direction of the writers
position. Persuasion is meant to lead to action on the readers part„or at least
to an openness to change. Persuasion, unlike argumentation, will rarely openly
challenge a reader; instead, it will offer a series of appeals, based on knowledge
of the audience. Essays that argue or persuade will often make use of several pat-
terns of development as part of making their point.
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508
PART 5: READINGS FOR WRITING
The following chart shows how the closed system applies to troubled families,
CLOSED SYSTEM
low
COMMUNICATION STYLES indirect, unclear, unspecific, incongruent, growth-impeding
computing
distracting
RULES
covert, out-of-date, inhumane rules remain fixed; people
change their needs to conform to established rules
restrictions on commenting
OUTCOME
accidental, chaotic, destructive, inappropriate
Self-worth grows ever more doubtful and depends more and more heavily on
OPEN SYSTEM
COMMUNICATION STYLE direct, clear, specific, congruent, growth-producing
leveling
RULES
overt, up-to-date, human rules; rules change when need arises

full freedom to comment on anything
OUTCOME
related to reality; appropriate, constructive
Self-worth grows ever more reliable, confident, and draws increasingly more from
All right. When three or more people are related in any way and are joined in
a
basis; fear permeates the atmosphere. If open, it probably
and
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PART 1: ESSAY WRITING
First Supporting Paragraph
Instead, this disorder sends them to the store. OniomaniaŽ is the technical term for what
One of the first reasons people shop compulsively is to keep up with real or imaginary
More often than they mention the need to keep up,Ž shopaholics say that shopping
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PART 2: PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT
animals and destroying the living conditions of native peoples in one of the worlds
most diverse tropical rainforests.
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PART 2
PATTERNS OF ESSAY
DEVELOPMENT
16: ARGUMENTATION AND PERSUASION
251
About Unity
1.
In which paragraph of The Life and Death of the MallŽ is the topic sentence bur-
ied within the paragraph instead of appearing in its opening?
2.
Which sentence in paragraph 5 of The Life and Death of the MallŽ should be
omitted in the interests of paragraph unity?
3.
Which sentences in paragraphs 3 and 4 of Privileges and Public SpacesŽ should
be omitted in the interests of paragraph unity? Why?
About Support
4.
Which sentence in paragraph 3 of Privile
ges and Public SpacesŽ needs to be fol-
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Table of Contents
Part 1 Essay Writing
An Introduction to Writing
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PART 3: SPECIAL SKILLS AND RESEARCH
Once you have checked each in-text citation for accuracy, you are ready to cre-
ate your References page. In this chapter are instructions for creating an accurate
APA References list. Follow the instructions exactly; correctness is essential to
good research.
Like MLA style, APA style (the documentation style of the
), requires that you use in-text citation of sources
end of the research paper. The information below is from the 6 th edition of the APA
Introductory coverage of some aspects of APA style follows; as always, for
MLA and APA styles differ in a number of specific areas. One significant difference
concerns the importance of dates of publication in the social sciences. Therefore, in
APA style, the date is always included in in-text citations.
There are a few other rules that apply to essays and documents formatted in APA

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PART #
PART TITLE
PART #
PART TITLE
PART #
PART TITLE
PART #
PART TITLE
PART #
PART TITLE
PART 4
HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE
31: MISPLACED MODIFIERS
Misplaced Words
Correctly Placed Words
Kevin couldnt drive to work in his small sports
with a broken leg.
(The sports car had a broken leg?)
With a broken leg, Kevin couldnt drive to work
in his small sports car.
(The words describing Kevin are now placed
next to
Kevin.
The toaster oven was sold to us by a charming
with a money-back guarantee.
(The salesperson had a money-back guarantee?)
The toaster oven with a money-back guarantee
was sold to us by a charming salesperson.
(The words describing the toaster are now
placed next to it.)
POST-TEST 1

Tip:
Look at how the
placement of the word
changes the mean-
ing in the following
sentences:
Sue was
chosen to
organize the contest.
Sue was chosen to
organize the contest.
Sue was chosen
to
organize the contest.
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PART 2
PATTERNS OF ESSAY
DEVELOPMENT
7: INTRODUCTION TO ESSAY DEVELOPMENT
119
write about their topics.
2. Essays Generally Involve Presenting an Argument
No matter which pattern you choose for your subject, your essay will often present
Why is argumentation or persuasion consis-
tently part of essay writing?
Checklist of Learning Outcomes for Chapter 7
Practice and learn online with Connect.
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PART 5
READINGS FOR WRITING
41: INTRODUCTION TO THE READINGS
509
Reading Comprehension Questions
1.
The word
whims
in the sentence Actions are subject to the whims of the bossŽ
(paragraph 15) means
a.
plans
b.
fancies
c.
rules
d.
judgments
2.
The word
covert
in the sentence if your rules are inhuman, covert, and out of
dateŽ (paragraph 20) means
a.
unfair
b.
concealed
c.
obvious
d.
inappropriate
3.
An alternative title for this selection might be
a.
People Who Need People
b.
Systems and Self-Worth
c.
How Families Grow
d.
Patterns of Humans in Groups
4.
Write a sentence or two that you believe expresses the main idea of Systems:
Open or Closed?Ž
5.
According to the author, systems are revealed to us through
a.
our ability to recognize their parts
b.
the interactivity between their component parts
c.
their resemblance to systems we know
d.
the fact that they are everywhere in our lives
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PART 3
SPECIAL SKILLS AND
18: RESEARCH SKILLS
283
With a trial thesis, you can begin a trial outline to shape your research. Do not expect
Below is a diagram of a partial trial outline. Create a word-processed version of
Step 4: Create a Trial Outline
Trial Outline Diagram
Paragraph I:
Thesis Statement/Or do I first need a
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3: PREPARING YOUR ESSAY: DEVELOPING AN OUTLINE AND SUPPORTING YOUR THESIS
PART 1
ESSAY WRITING
Conclusion
______________
______________
______________
raise interest rates for everyone.
Review Activity: Developing Adequate Support
The following body paragraphs were taken from student essays. Two of the para-
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PART 5: READINGS FOR WRITING
6.
Briefly explain the five parts of an operating system, as Satir sees it.
7.
True or false?
Open systems can never act as closed systems.
8.
The author implies that
a.
Closed systems are open in that they lack boundaries.
b.
Closed systems have some capacity for responding to information.
c.
Closed systems are inefficient in terms of their operation.
d.
Closed systems are necessary, in some instances.
9.
The author implies that
a.
There may be a need for closed systems in some situations.
b.
Almost no human institutions value humanity.
c.
Readers are probably products of defective families.
d.
Therapists work to create open systems.
10.
True or false?
Not knowing you exist in a system makes group members less
self-conscious and freer.
Discussion Questions
About Content
1.
refer
(paragraph 21)?
as she uses the word in paragraph 26? Does
this odd usage add to your understanding of the concept she is explaining here?
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PART 2
PATTERNS OF ESSAY
DEVELOPMENT
12: CAUSE OR EFFECT
183
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21: DOCUMENTING AND WRITING AN APASTYLE RESEARCH PAPER
339
Integrating a Paraphrase into a Sentence
Developments in satellite carrier digital transmission have sped up the progress
of convergence among different media, according to Millers 2003 article.
If you do not mention the authors name or date at the beginning or end of a
As noted in a recent article (Miller, 2003), developments in satellite carrier digital
transmission have sped up the progress of convergence among different media.
Both citations above refer to a listing of Millers article in the References list.
Integrating a Quotation into a Sentence
More students than ever are suffering financially through years, even decades
of their careers because of enormous loans incurred to pay tuition feesŽ (LaRose,
2002, p. 310).
In the example above, the student is quoting a specific sentence from the source.
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PART 1: ESSAY WRITING
After all, people are the same everywhere.
Political leaders make a lot of meaningless statements, even Barack Obama, who said, I take
a lot of tips from Canada.Ž
Shopping malls have replaced village squares, according to some people.
Review Activity: Organizing Through Time, Spatial, or Emphatic Order
Use
to organize the scrambled lists of supporting ideas below. Write
beside the idea that logi-
beside the idea that comes last in time.
Applying for unemployment benefits is often a depressing, frustrating experience.
______________ People arrive at the office feeling downhearted, and the tangle of paperwork they face only adds
to their misery.
______________ Long lineups are only the beginning; processing a claim is not straightforward.
______________ There are weeks to wait for that first cheque, even after a claim goes through.
Part-time jobs can be valuable life experiences for students.
An examination of the building will show why it is condemned.
______________On the second floor, walls and ceilings are broken down.
______________Starting in the basement, all evidence points to massive leakage.
______________Throughout the main floor, all electrical work is substandard.
______________Under the eaves, families of resident raccoons have caused damage.
Use
or order of importance, to organize the following scrambled
beside the supporting point that
beside the point that
beside the point that should be most
Use
organizing by location, to organize the following scrambled lists of
by their locations.
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PART 2: PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT
Developing an Argumentation Essay
Persuading your audience of your viewpoint about a certain controversial subject is
Be direct and unambiguous about your position. If possible, avoid the use of
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PART 5
READINGS FOR WRITING
41: INTRODUCTION TO THE READINGS
511
Before achieving great fame, Satir was occasionally criticized by more conven-
tional psychologists for being too intuitive and not coldly scientificŽ enough in her
approach. In the question above, you are asked about her voiceŽ as a writer. In this
Heres to Your Health
Dunayer contrasts the glamorous myth about alcohol, as presented in advertising and popular culture,
with the reality„which is often far less appealing. After reading her essay, you will be more aware of how
we are encouraged to think of alcohol as being tied to happiness and success. You may also become a
more critical observer of images presented by advertisers.
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2
PART 1: ESSAY WRITING
Why Do You Write?

Assignment
Tamira Swain
Prof Marion Taylor
Hello Marion i have missed two classes so i am missing to assignments, one was
The writting sample and The research sources Chapter 1 Group assignment. I need
to be put into a group as well i wanted to know if i was still able to do the writting
assignment. Thank you so much for your time I will make sure i am in class on time.
Tamira
Each time you write, you write for a reason. For even the shortest casual message, you
have a purpose that prompts you to communicate in text.


ACTIVITY

1
ACTIVITY 2
QUESTIONS
1.
What is the writers purpose here?
2.
Could he or she have more than one purpose, and if so, what are
they?
3.
Which part(s) of the message display the writers purpose(s)?
People tend to plunge directly into writing without con-
sciously thinking about their purpose or purposes. Then they
wonder why what they have written seems so muddled or why the
person reading it does not understand what they mean or what
they want.
QUESTIONS
1.
What is the writers purpose in writing this email? Could there be other purposes?
If so, what are they?
2.
Is one of the purposes more important than the others?
3.
How could the writer express any of her purposes more clearly?
4.
How would you respond to this message if you were Tamiras instructor?
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Final PDF to printer
284
PART 3: SPECIAL SKILLS AND RESEARCH
A Note About Research Essay Length
If you turn to the model research papers in Chapters 20 and 21, you will notice that they,
like nearly all research papers, are significantly longer than typical essay assignments.
The basic essay model you learned in Parts 1 and 2 is a convenient one for rou-
Paragraph III:
Supporting Point B
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120
Narrating or telling stories is a basic human activity; we experience things every day
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PART 2: PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT
About Unity
1.
topic sentence for each one.
2.
Rewrite the thesis statement of Canada: Education DestinationŽ so that it is an
extended thesis. Refer to Chapter 2 for information and examples of extended
thesis statements; such statements present the viewpoint of the thesis as well as
the writers supporting points.
3.
Which sentence in paragraph 2 of Canada: Education DestinationŽ should be omit-
ted in the interests of paragraph unity? Which se
ntence in paragraph 4 of this essay?
About Support
4.
In paragraph 3 of Choking the Lungs of the World,Ž the author supports the
point the severity of the consequences of this pollution for the plant lifeŽ with
how many of the following?
a.
Statistics and objective facts
b.
An explanation
c.
A quotation from an authority
d.
Examples
e.
Definitions
From paragraph 3, give one example of each form of support that you find.
5.
In Canada: Education Destination,Ž what types of examples does Rama use to
support the topic sentence of paragraph 2?
About Coherence
6.
Paragraph 4 of Choking the Lungs of the WorldŽ includes two main transition
words or phrases. Identify those words or phrases, and explain their function
within the paragraph.
7.
Add (or revise existing) transitional openings to the body paragraphs of Canada:
Education Destination.Ž Why, based on the essays thesis and content, have you
made the choices you did?
About Introductions and Conclusions
8.
What facts did you learn from the second paragraph of Choking the Lungs of the
WorldŽ that helped you to understand specific aspects of the essay?
9.
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3: PREPARING YOUR ESSAY: DEVELOPING AN OUTLINE AND SUPPORTING YOUR THESIS
PART 1
ESSAY WRITING
Why make an outline so late in the
writing process? What are the main values
Evaluate three types of information not
drawn from personal experience.
How do readers respond to insufficient
Describe the three main ordering principles
for essay content.
Practice and learn online with Connect.
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512
PART 5: READINGS FOR WRITING
As the only freshman on his high schools varsity wrestling team, Tod was anx-
stomach was pumped, Tod learned that his blood alcohol level had been so high that
he was lucky not to be in a coma or dead.
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PART 2
PATTERNS OF ESSAY
DEVELOPMENT
16: ARGUMENTATION AND PERSUASION
253
The main purpose of your argumentation/persuasion essay is to convince your audi-
To convince your readers in an argumentation essay, it is important to provide
Compare the forcefulness of the following argumentation thesis with the


If your reading audience is a hostile group, what is your best position as a writer?

Which of the classic appeals to readers will you use? Why?

What types of support will you use?
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340
PART 3: SPECIAL SKILLS AND RESEARCH
If you are citing a specific page within a book by a single author,
place
plus
the page number (or
pp.
for a sequence of pages) after the year of publication and a
comma within the parentheses.
Photosynthesis is the start of the journey of energy and the basic materials of life
from plant to animal to animal to decomposer (Watson, 2009, p. 12).
If you are citing a work with two authors,
13/12/13 8:41 AM
PART 5
READINGS FOR WRITING
41: INTRODUCTION TO THE READINGS
513
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Developing a First Draft from an Outline
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514
PART 5: READINGS FOR WRITING
3.
Which one of the following would be a good alternative title for this selection?
a.
The Taste of Success
b.
Alcohol and Your Social Life
c.
Too Much Tequila
d.
Alcohol: Image and Reality
4.
Which sentence best expresses the main idea of the selection?
a.
Sports and alcohol dont mix.
b.
The media and our culture promote false images about success and
happiness.
c.
The media and our culture promote false beliefs about alcohol.
d.
Liquor companies should not be allowed to use misleading ads about alcohol.
5.
According to the selection, drinking can
a.
actually unify a family
b.
lower hormone levels
c.
temporarily improve performance in sports
d.
increase the likelihood of pregnancy
6.
True or false?
Alcohol abuse is most severe among the middle class.
7.
True or false?
The leading cause of death among teenagers is drinking and
driving.
8.
From the first paragraph of the essay, we can conclude that
a.
Even one encounter with alcohol can actually lead to death .
b.
Tequila is the worst type of alcohol to drink .
c.
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PART 3
SPECIAL SKILLS AND
21: DOCUMENTING AND WRITING AN APASTYLE RESEARCH PAPER
341
For example, when quoting from two different books by Michael Mann for a soci-
ology essay, if you have not previously introduced Manns name, your first citation,
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PART 5
READINGS FOR WRITING
41: INTRODUCTION TO THE READINGS
515
four main supporting points. What is the pattern by which she divides each point
into two paragraphs?
Dunayer introduces the first part of the myth about alcohol with the words, Part
of the myth isŽ (paragraph 3). She then goes on to use an addition transition to
introduce each of the three other parts of the myth„in the first sentences of para-
graphs 5, 7, and 9. What are those transitions?
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420
PART 4: HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE SKILLS
Make the changes needed to correct the misplaced modifier in each sentence.
1.
Practice and learn online with Connect.
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342
PART 3: SPECIAL SKILLS AND RESEARCH
personal communication,
and the full date of the communication. In APA style,
items of personal communication are not included in the References list.
The survey results received were insufficient to include in a report (D. Ibare-Keith,
personal communication, May 13, 2009).
APA In-Text Citation for Electronic Sources
1.
you place
As an introduction to museology, the International Council of Museums website
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PART 5: READINGS FOR WRITING
S tart with the leaves, the small twigs, and the nests that have been shaken, ripped, or
tive places. It is not arduous work, unless major limbs have been smashed or mutilated.
pening will have been reduced. Again, much depends upon the size, age, shape, and
Today and Tomorrow
Unchopping a Tree
In Unchopping a Tree,Ž the author presents readers with a how-to for an impossible task: putting a felled
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PART 2
PATTERNS OF ESSAY
DEVELOPMENT
12: CAUSE OR EFFECT
185
Developing a Cause or Effect Essay
Your primary purpose for a cause or effect essay will be to inform as you explain
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PART 3
SPECIAL SKILLS AND
21: DOCUMENTING AND WRITING AN APASTYLE RESEARCH PAPER
If you cite an online article where no page numbers appear,
check for numbered
paragraphs.
Smyths coverage of the increases in the size and number of fandoms with a
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PART 5
READINGS FOR WRITING
41: INTRODUCTION TO THE READINGS
517
At last the time comes for the erecting of the trunk. By now it will scarcely
raises its head in the tight echoless passages. The day comes when it is all restored,
even to the moss (now dead) over the wound. You will sleep badly, thinking of the
removal of the scaffolding that must begin the next morning. How you will hope
for sun and a still day!
The removal of the scaffolding or tackle is not so dangerous, perhaps, to the sur-
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186
PART 2: PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT
You can certainly use cause or effect essays for argumentation or persuasion.
Writers Tips for Cause or Effect Essays
1.
Cause or effect essays begin with topics that are usually situations, events, or problems. Working out
logically correct causes or effects for your topic means you need to
before you write. You
break
apart
your topic, and you
examine
its causes or effects:

A cause is an action or situation that provokes some result or effect„it is a stimulus. Useful syn-
onyms for
cause
include
reason (why), root, factor, source, origin,
and
basis.

An effect is the result of some cause, stimulus, or event„it is an outcome. Useful synonyms for
effect
consequence, result, upshot,
and
conclusion.
Therefore, performing a logic check on supporting points for a cause or effect thesis is necessary before
drafting. List the cause and its effects in your outline, or list the effect and its causes, then use the Logic
Checklist below to ensure that your causes and effects are truly and logically related.
LOGIC CHECKLIST
I Time…sequenceŽ logical errors:
A cause is not necessarily a cause because it happens before
an effect: if a dog crosses the road before your car stalls, it is not the cause of the stalling. Similarly,
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4: DRAFTING AND PREPARING TO REVISE: CREATING COHERENCE, INTRODUCTIONS, AND CONCLUSIONS
PART 1
ESSAY WRITING
pared draft.
Writers Tips for Writing Your First Draft
The First Draft: Jeds Work in Progress
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421
32
Dangling Modifiers
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PART 5: READINGS FOR WRITING
by one vacate their positions. Finally the moment arrives when the last sustaining
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344
PART 3: SPECIAL SKILLS AND RESEARCH
three-dot ellipsis, followed by the last authors name. Use commas after authors
names.
9.
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Student Essays to Consider
PART 2
PATTERNS OF ESSAY
DEVELOPMENT
8: NARRATION
121
Accessing a Challenge
During my third semester in Social Services, I was an intern at a provincial gov-
ernment agency during their Accessibility Awareness campaign. The purpose of the
campaign was to make service workers more sensitive to the problems faced by peo-
ple with various physical challenges. Along with two other students from Fanshawe,
I was asked to adopt a challengeŽ for a day, doing all my work without one physical
ability. Some of the workers, like me, chose to use wheelchairs; others wore sound-
blocking earplugs, hobbled around on crutches, or wore eye masks.
Just sitting in the wheelchair was instructive. I had never considered before how
awkward it would be to use one. As soon as I sat down, my weight made the chair
begin to roll. Its wheels were not locked, and I fumbled clumsily to correct that. Another
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PART 2
PATTERNS OF ESSAY
DEVELOPMENT
12: CAUSE OR EFFECT
187
II Logical forms of causes:
There are three main types of causal relationships:
a.
necessary cause
must be present for an effect to occur. For example, you must take the courses
in your program to achieve your diploma or degree: the courses are
necessary
for obtaining that
certificate.
b.
sufficient cause
is
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PART 1: ESSAY WRITING
Football is built on tackling and maiming opposition players. In the NHL, its the
Evaluating Your Essay: Preparing to Revise
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PART 5
READINGS FOR WRITING
41: INTRODUCTION TO THE READINGS
519
8.
The author implies that
a.
Machines are the enemy of nature .
b.
The forest animals are wiser than humans .
c.
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254
PART 2: PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT

Will your support be factual and backed up with research, appealing to readers
logic (
) and their sense of you as a person of knowledge and good values
Writers Tips for Argumentation and Persuasion Essays
This book is rooted in the fundamentals of arguing and persuading. From the start you have planned and
written essays based on the PAT formula„purpose, audience, and thesis, and what you learn in this chap-
ter are refines and adds to that basic approach to writing.
1.
Working with Possible Objections:
You learned about rebuttal earlier in this chapter, but there are three techniques that you will find useful in
arguing and/or persuading. Each of these requires you to admit the oppositions point (raise it), then rebut
(counter) it.

Make the Objection Equal to Your Point.
In this case, state the objection; for example, Going on
to graduate school is expensive and does not guarantee a higher- paying career.Ž To counter this
objection with equal force and support, try the following: MBAs and graduate degrees in technical
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188
PART 2: PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT
3. TRANSITIONS
Readers of cause or effect essays benefit from the reinforcement that consistent use of transitions will
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4: DRAFTING AND PREPARING TO REVISE: CREATING COHERENCE, INTRODUCTIONS, AND CONCLUSIONS
PART 1
ESSAY WRITING
Coherence is the product of choices you make in the outlining, drafting, and
To Create Coherence at the Essay Level
Write an effective thesis statement with clear, logically derived supporting points.
Indicate the order for the supporting points of your thesis, and sustain that order through your topic
sentences and body paragraphs.
Write topic sentences that refer clearly to the thesis point covered by that paragraph.
Transitions and Transitional Sentences
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520
PART 5: READINGS FOR WRITING
Assignment 2
of the problem.
Assignment 3
Merwin compares human-made beauty with natural beauty in Unchopping a Tree.Ž
In a comparison or contrast essay, examine a natural object and a similar or related
human-created object, such as a real flower and a silk flower, or the sound of thunder
Have you spent much time thinking about the water you drink? In this selection, Eve Tulbert explores some
Just a Little Drop of Water:
Eve Tulbert
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422
PART 4: HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE SKILLS
In this sentence, the unintended meaning is that the
was reading the paper.
(or
), the writer, was reading the
While reading the newspaper,
sat with my dog on the front steps.
The dangling modifier could also be corrected by placing the subject within the
While
was reading the newspaper, my dog sat with me on the front steps.
Here are other sentences with dangling modifiers. Read the explanations of why
they are dangling, and look carefully at the ways they are corrected.
Dangling
Correct
Shaving in front of the steamy mirror, the razor
nicked Seans chin.
Shaving in front of the steamy mirror,
Sean
nicked his chin with the razor.
was shaving in front of the mirror? The
answer is not
razor,
but
Sean.
The subject
Sean
must be added.)
Or:
When
Sean
was shaving in front of the
steamy mirror, he nicked his chin with the
razor.
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Narration
No Way Home: The Uncertain
Vakis Boutsalis
Future of Robert
Thomas Payne,
Homeless Zinester
Freedom Bound
Lawrence Hill
The Story of Mouseland
As Told
Tommy Do uglas
in 1944
Unchopping a Tree
W.S. Merwin
Castles in Spain
Derek Vertongen
Food on the Home Front
Ian Mosby
During the Second
World War
No Way Home: The Uncertain
Vakis Boutsalis
Future of Robert
Thomas Payne,
Homeless Zinester
Freedom Bound
Lawrence Hill
The Nobel Lecture
Kofi Annan
Just a Little Drop of Water
Eve Tulbert
Food on the Home Front
Ian Mosby
During the Second
World War
Castles in Spain
Derek Vertongen
Process
Unchopping a Tree
W.S. Merwin
Kiddy Thinks
Alison Gopnik
Systems: Open or Closed?
Virginia Satir
Just a Little Drop of Water
Eve Tulbert
Cause and Effect
Plagiarism Lines Blur
Trip Gabriel
for Students in Digital Age
The Nobel Lecture
Kofi Annan
Castles in Spain
Derek Vertongen
Food on the Home
Ian Mosby
Front During the Second
World War
Just a Little Drop of Water
Eve Tulbert
Comparison or Contrast
The Story of Mouseland
As Told by
Tommy Douglas
in 1944
Castles in Spain
Derek Vertongen
Systems: Open or Closed?
Virginia Satir
Kiddy Thinks
Alison Gopnik
Just a Little Drop of Water
Eve Tulbert
Freedom Bound
Lawrence Hill
No Way Home: The Uncertain
Vakis Boutsalis
Future of Robert
Thomas Payne,
Homeless Zinester
Plagiarism Lines Blur for
Trip Gabriel
Students in Digital Age
Division and Classification
Systems: Open or Closed?
Virginia Satir
Food on the Home Front
Ian Mosby
During the Second
World War
Plagiarism Lines Blur
Trip Gabriel
for Students in Digital Age
Unchopping a Tree
W.S. Merwin
Argumentation
The Nobel Lecture
Kofi Annan
Just a Little Drop of Water
Eve Tulbert
Kiddy Thinks
Alison Gopnik
Freedom Bound
Lawrence Hill
No Way Home: The Uncertain
Vakis Boutsalis
Future of Robert
Thomas Payne,
Homeless Zinester
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PART 2
PATTERNS OF ESSAY
DEVELOPMENT
16: ARGUMENTATION AND PERSUASION
255

Neutral or Undecided Reader.
Consider what this audience already knows and how they are
likely to feel about the main point of your argument. These readers might not know enough about
your issue or position to hold an opinion, so one strategy would be to provide reliable, objective
What Is Your Point of View in Your Argumentation Essay?
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PART 3
SPECIAL SKILLS AND
18: RESEARCH SKILLS
Your instructor may specify the types of research material required for your assign-

1.
Record your source material as

Quotations: the exact words of another writer, enclosed by double quotation
marks; or

Step 5: Decide on Research Strategies
and Make Research Notes
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PART 1: ESSAY WRITING
Sentence- and Paragraph-Level Transition Words and Phrases
All transitions
readers what you mean more accurately. When you use transi-
and
transitions listed below.
In the box below are some common transitions, grouped by the type of expres-
Addition signals:
again, besides, for one thing, then, one, first of all, second, the third
reason, also, next, another, and, in addition, moreover, furthermore, finally, last of all
Cause or effect:
since, because, therefore, thus, hence, for the reason that, so, accord-
ingly, otherwise, if, then
Conceding or allowing a point:
indeed, although, admittedly, it is true that, no doubt,
naturally, to be sure, though
Time signals:
first, then, next, after, after that, afterward, as, at that time, at the moment,
before, currently, presently, earlier, while, meanwhile, soon, now, during, while, eventu-
ally, gradually, immediately, finally, in the future, in the past, one day, so far
course, in effect
Space signals:
above, behind, beyond, beside, next to, across, on one (the other) side,
on the opposite side, to (on) the left, to (on) the right, closer in, farther out, above,
below, on the top (bottom), near(by), north, south, east, west
Change-of-direction or contrast signals:
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PART 5
READINGS FOR WRITING
41: INTRODUCTION TO THE READINGS
521
With this philosophy, Trono founded a community arts center in El Alto that
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Permissions
Lawrence Hill, Freedom Bound.Ž Published in
The Beaver,
Feb-March 2007. Copy-
right © 2007 by Lawrence Hill, Reprinted by permission of Lawrence Hill.
Ian Mosby, Food on the Home Front During the Second World War.Ž Ian Mosby,
University of Guelph. Originally published at WartimeCanada.ca, 7 June 2012.
Vakis Boutsalis, No Way Home: The Uncert
ain Future of Robert Thomas Payne,
Homeless Zinester.Ž
Broken Pencil,
July 11, 2011. Reprinted by permission of the
author.
The Story of Mouseland, as Told by Tommy Douglas.Ž Courtesy of the Saskatchewan
New Democratic Party.
Trip Gabriel, Plagiarism Lines Blur for Students in Digital Age.Ž From the
New York
Times,
online 2010/08/02. © The New York Times.
Derek Vertongen, Castles in Spain.Ž Reprinted by permission of the author.
Virginia Satir, Systems: Open or Closed?Ž Excerpted from
The New Peoplemaking
(Palo Alto, California: Science & Behavior Books, 1988).
Dunayer, Joan, Heres To Your Health.Ž Reprinted by permission of Townsend Press.
W.S. Merwin, Unchopping a Tree.Ž Copyright © 2007 by W.S. Merwin, used by per-
mission of The Wylie Agency LLC.
Eve Tulbert, Just a Little Drop of Water.Ž Reprinted with permission of the author.
Alison Gopnik, Kiddy Thinks.Ž Published in the
Guardian Weekly,
February 3-9,
2000. Adapted from a chapter in
The Scientist in the Crib.
Reprinted by permission of
the author.
Kofi Anan, The Nobel Peace Prize 2001.Ž Nobel Lecture, Oslo, December 10, 2001.
Courtesy of the United Nations and the Nobel Foundation.
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256
PART 2: PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT
The general categories of support for an argumentation essay are based on the tradi-
) based on objective
Where in Privileges and Public SpacesŽ do you find examples of supporting
information from acknowledged authorities derived from research? Why, given
the subject of the essay, does the author use such support?

Where in The Life and Death of the MallŽ do you find evidence of logically
derived support?
may be equally derived from
research, interviews, and personal observations. But this type of support seeks to
move the readers feelings, and so uses emotionally charged language to make a
wrenching anecdotes and vivid descriptions; readers easily feel manipulated.
When you wish to persuade readers by appealing to their emotions, attitudes, or
beliefs, you should be certain first of all that your audience will be receptive to such
evidence.
are effective only when you write for an audi-
How Will You Support Your Argumentation Essay?
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522
PART 5: READINGS FOR WRITING
Fifty-six countries around the globe now have contracts with private, for-profit
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This seventh edition of
Essay Writing Skills with Readings
builds and expands on its
re-envisioned purpose and position as a textbook for first-year college and university
writing courses. Beginning a few editions ago, it became increasingly evident that
introductory-writing students in colleges and universities face challenges that are
more similar than has been supposed. Moreover, with the increased volume of career,
academic, and professional writing contingent upon audience and situation ushered
in by the digital era, the appeal and practicality of a return to, and re-thinking of a
Preface
Part 1: Essay Writing
How This Book Is Organized
The seventh Canadian edition of
Essay Writing Skills with Readings
offers a number
of meaningful changes designed with care to speak to the specific requirements of
Whats New in the Seventh Canadian Edition?
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PART 2
PATTERNS OF ESSAY
DEVELOPMENT
16: ARGUMENTATION AND PERSUASION
257
Lindsay, the writer of Privileges and Public Places,Ž is an English and philosophy
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4: DRAFTING AND PREPARING TO REVISE: CREATING COHERENCE, INTRODUCTIONS, AND CONCLUSIONS
PART 1
ESSAY WRITING
The following activity will give you practice with transitional words and phrases.
1.
_________ youve snagged the job of TV sports reporter, you have to begin working on
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PART #
PART TITLE
PART #
PART TITLE
PART #
PART TITLE
PART #
PART TITLE
PART #
PART TITLE
PART #
PART TITLE
PART 4
HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE
32: DANGLING MODIFIERS
423
Example:
While pitching his tent, a snake bit Steve on the ankle.
While Steve was pitching his tent, a snake bit him on the ankle.
Or: While pitching his tent, Steve was bitten on the ankle by a snake.
1.
Dancing on their hind legs, the audience cheered wildly as the elephants paraded by.
Last seen wearing dark glasses and a blond wig, the police spokesperson said the
suspect was still being sought.
Pouring out the cereal, a coupon fell into my bowl of milk.
Escorted by dozens of police motorcycles, I knew the limousine carried someone
important.
Tired and exasperated, the fight we had was inevitable.
Packed tightly in a tiny can, Farida had difficulty removing the anchovies.
Kicked carelessly under the bed, Lisa finally found her sneakers.
Working at the photocopy machine, the morning dragged on.
Write
for
dangling modifier
or
for
correct
in the space provided for each
sentence.
1.
While riding the bicycle, a vicious-looking Rottweiler snapped at Tims ankles.
While Tim was riding the bicycle, a vicious-looking Rottweiler snapped at his
ankles.
Afraid to look his father in the eye, Scott kept his head bowed.
Afraid to look his father in the eye, Scotts head remained bowed.
Boring and silly, I turned the TV show off.
I turned off the boring and silly TV show.
Munching leaves from a tall tree, the giraffe fascinated the children.
Munching leaves from a tall tree, the children were fascinated by the giraffe.
Make the changes needed to correct the dangling modifier in each sentence.
1.
Not having had much sleep, my concentration during class was weak.
Joined at the hip, a team of surgeons successfully separated the Siamese twins.
Wading by the lakeshore, a water snake brushed past my leg.
While being restrained by court officials, the judge sentenced the kidnapper.
In a sentimental frame of mind, Adeles song brought tears to Beths eyes.
POST-TEST 2
POST-TEST 3
Practice and learn online with Connect.
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PART 5
READINGS FOR WRITING
41: INTRODUCTION TO THE READINGS
523
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PREFACE
Canadian college and university students. In response to extensive reviewer feedback,
the following are the highlights of what is new in this edition:

Part 1 takes students through the writing process, from prewriting through
proofreading, in a clear, concise, and direct fashion.

Parts 1, 2, and 3 offer students new Writers Tips boxes, presenting specific tech-
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PART 2: PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT
Canadian law, Canada is a secular country, giving preference to religious groups
doesnt work„it creates antagonism.
A public space is one legally open to all, and not the responsibility of a private
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PART 1: ESSAY WRITING
formatting. Unlike parking data in the cloud,Ž keys are always accessible, and easily store
huge MP3, image, video, and text files. _________ , now that the hard drive is clean, and
the computer is running quickly, do not lose the keys.
In addition to transitional words and expressions, you can use three other kinds
Other Transitional Structures for
Sentence- and Paragraph-Level Coherence
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122
PART 2: PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT
not just stand up to see him or her. No matter how I strained to raise myself with my
arms, I could not see over the partition. I had to figure out how to turn my wheels in the
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524
PART 5: READINGS FOR WRITING
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PREFACE

Part 1 emphasizes the essential nature of knowing purpose and audience from
Chapter 1s pedagogy and introduction of the PAT formula onward.

In this edition, new pedagogy and Writers Tips boxes focus on and explain the
importance of audience focus in effective writing, and offer techniques and strat-
Part 1: Essay Writing
examples showing research citation in each chapter of Part 2, constituting most
of Part 3, and featured in assignments in Part 5. Research is an essential skill at
the postsecondary level, and this edition treats it as such. Chapters 18 and 19
have been revised to present research skills, and effective techniques for planning
and writing a research essay. New to this edition, Chapter 20 presents current
MLA 7 documentation information and a full example of an annotated research
essay in MLA style. A new chapter, Chapter 21, presents current documentation
from the 6
edition, second printing, of the APA manual and a full example of an
annotated research essay in APA style.

Connect Composition logos at the end of the chapters alert students and instruc-
tors to expanded coverage of topics, acti
vities, and further assignments available
online.
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4: DRAFTING AND PREPARING TO REVISE: CREATING COHERENCE, INTRODUCTIONS, AND CONCLUSIONS
PART 1
ESSAY WRITING
Pronouns (he, she, it, you, they) are another way to connect ideas. Also,
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PART 2
PATTERNS OF ESSAY
DEVELOPMENT
8: NARRATION
123
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PART 1: ESSAY WRITING
related. Their minds say, If that sentence started with The pursuit of happiness...
Paragraph-to-Paragraph Transitions:
Transitional Sentences
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PART 5
READINGS FOR WRITING
41: INTRODUCTION TO THE READINGS
525
But what would it mean if this fantasy ending
the real life ending, too?
The Western model of privatization is wrong development. Its the wrong
Were experimenting with other models. Like here, we collect our rain water
At El Poncho, they live in adobe houses, take showers heated by solar power and
This kind of right developmentŽ is perhaps what the Water Gods are trying to
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PREFACE

Part 2: Patterns of Essay Development
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424
Tip:
13/12/13 1:28 PM
PART 2
PATTERNS OF ESSAY
DEVELOPMENT
12: CAUSE OR EFFECT
189
First, from your prewriting on, take care to separate causes from effects. Ask yourself,
Rama, the author of Canada: Education Destination,Ž was assigned a cause or
tional student from Botswana studying in Nova Scotia and belongs to several clubs
ences during her first year in Canada and about what brought her here in the first
place. It would be easy to write a narrative essay explaining my experiences,Ž she
said. But that isnt what I need to do here, so its time to go beyond my own feelings
and ideas.Ž
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124
PART 2: PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT
A list of sources used by Warren, the author of Wireless Days,Ž is available on
Connect. There you will see his sources noted as an MLA Works Cited list.
About Unity
1.
Which essay lacks an opening thesis statement? How could its author have stated
his or her point in a thesis?
2.
Which sentence in paragraph 4 of Accessing a ChallengeŽ should be omitted in
the interests of paragraph unity?
3.
Which sentence in paragraph 2 of Wireless DaysŽ should be omitted in the inter-
ests of paragraph unity?
About Support
4.
Blending narration and description: label as
sight, touch, hearing,
or
smell
all the
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PART 3
SPECIAL SKILLS AND
21: DOCUMENTING AND WRITING AN APASTYLE RESEARCH PAPER
345
Books in Print
Book by One Author
Authors last name, Initials. (Year of publication). Title: Subtitle.
Stanley, R. (2003).
Making sense of movies: Filmmaking in the Hollywood
style.
New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Hanging indent, City and state (province or country) of publication: Publisher
5 spaces
Book by Two or More Authors
Marriott, L., & Lennard, P. (1997).
Heralding the new age.
Vancouver, BC: Raincoast
Press.
Two or More Books by the Same Author (published the same year)
McLuhan, M. (1970a).
Culture is our business.
New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
McLuhan, M. (1970b).
13/12/13 8:41 AM
4: DRAFTING AND PREPARING TO REVISE: CREATING COHERENCE, INTRODUCTIONS, AND CONCLUSIONS
PART 1
ESSAY WRITING
Thesis

The most important values parents can teach are the impor-
tance of family support, hard work, and a good education.
First Supporting Paragraph
First, good parents show that family members should stick
A good introduction welcomes your readers, makes them comfortable with your sub-
Introductions, Conclusions, and Titles
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526
PART 5: READINGS FOR WRITING
2.
The term
privatization
in the sentence In some cases water privatization leads to
devastating effectsŽ (paragraph 18) means
a.
to close doors
b.
to control all of the worlds water
c.
to remove from government ownership
d.
to pollute
3.
What would be a good alternative title for this selection?
a.
Water Pollution
b.
The Water Gods
c.
Restoring Bolivia
d.
Hope Springs Eternal
4.
Write a sentence or two that you believe expresses the main idea of Just a Little
Drop of Water.Ž
5.
According to this selection, how many countries have private, for-profit corpora-
tions running municipal water supplies?
a.
b.
c.
d.
6.
Why is Blue Gold . . . a lucrative investment . . . its impossible to refuse the sellerŽ
(paragraph 15)?
a.
Its profitable.
b.
Its a natural, renewable product.
c.
Its essential to life.
d.
Sellers are persuasive, if dishonest.
7.
The author describes the businessman in the play as sinister.Ž Why, relative to the
situation?
8.
True or false?
The author implies that capitalism is mainly to blame for most
resource problems.
9.
The author implies that the travelling play is designed to
a.
charge a small fee for entertainment
b.
keep children out of prison
c.
educate people in Bolivia about water consumption
d.
teach the corporations a lesson
10.
The author implies that for the actors, the benefit of putting on a play goes beyond
educating people. It also allows them to
a.
wear costumes
b.
reconnect with their culture
c.
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PREFACE

Part 3: Special Skills and Research
Throughout Part 4, there has been extensive revision of sentence and paragraph
exemplars to show Canadian media and news references, and updated for currency to
publication date.

Most sentence-style exemplars in these chapters have been revised to be more
challenging to students than previously.

As well, many chapters offer paragraph-style activities and exercises, rather than
single-sentence models.
Part 4: Handbook of Sentence Skills
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190
PART 2: PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT

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PART 1: ESSAY WRITING
Because you must know what your essay will say, and why and how it will
say it, before you try to interest readers you may find it awkward or wasteful to
write a full introduction with your first draft. In fact, many writers compose their
introductory paragraph after writing the body of their essay. It is easier to work on
your opening paragraph after revising your first draft. This is the approach that
PAT and Your Introduction
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PART 5
READINGS FOR WRITING
41: INTRODUCTION TO THE READINGS
Why have so many countries turned their water supply over to for-profit corpora-
tions? Why are there so few corporations for so many countries?
According to this article, what role does the World Bank play in water privatization?
About Structure
4.
The author uses seven headings in this selection. What purpose do these headings
serve? Do you find this structure effective?
Many news articles take excerpts of text and enlarge them alongside the story.
What purpose does this serve?
About Style and Tone
6.
How would you describe the style of this authors writing (argumentative, process-
oriented, informational, narrative, or another style)? What evidence from the text
can you find to support your answer?
The author intersperses factual content with reported events. What effect does this
have on your understanding of the issues described in this selection?
Writing Assignments
Assignment 1
your point of view on this corporations policy using examples based on your research.
Assignment 2
Write an essay that compares and contrasts both perspectives.
Assignment 3
Alison Gopnik
Alison Gopnik is a professor of psychology at the University of California at Berkeley and the author of sev-
eral books about how the mind works and develops. She is a frequent guest on TV talk shows and topical
programs such as
The Colbert Report,
and her theories are considered to be among the most exciting and
forward- thinking in current psychology.
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346
PART 3: SPECIAL SKILLS AND RESEARCH
Book by Unknown Author
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PREFACE

Many new exemplar paragraphs and sentences are academic in nature; their con-
tent is more mature and more demanding of students.

The order of chapters on subjects and verbs has been changed to reflect continu-
ity in the sequence of subjects covered by those chapters.
Part 5: Readings for Writing
Part 5 is significantly revised for this seventh edition, beginning with its introduction.
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PART 2
PATTERNS OF ESSAY
DEVELOPMENT
16: ARGUMENTATION AND PERSUASION
First Draft and Revision
Referring to her revised list of supporting points, Lindsay wrote the following first
Everyone recognizes Canadas religious tolerance and cultural diversity. These
make Canada the goal of immigrants of many nationalities and faiths, seeking such
freedoms. Often these first-generation Canadians make the greatest use of our public
places. And the Canadian Constitution and Charter guarantee them the right to do
so. Canada is a secular country„a place of religious freedom. People are
free to
follow
their faiths, but are they
free from
having others faiths imposed on them? Religious
accommodation in the use of public spaces is not justified by the idea of religion as a
basic good,Ž by Canadas status as a secular nation or by its laws.
We put religion in a special category. People for centuries called this a basic
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PART #
PART TITLE
PART #
PART TITLE
PART #
PART TITLE
PART #
PART TITLE
PART #
PART TITLE
PART #
PART TITLE
PART #
PART TITLE
PART 4
HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE
33: CAPITAL LETTERS
425
The corner grocery was robbed last night.
The doctor said, Please roll up your sleeve.Ž
If you feel lonely,Ž said Teri, call us. Well be over in no time.Ž
In the third example above,
and
are capitalized because they start new
is not capitalized because it is part of the first sentence.
Last night, I saw a movie starring Jennifer Lawrence and Channing Tatum.
Although James dropped out of Port Charles High School, he eventually earned his
degree and got a job with Atlas Realty Company.
I
Shows, Songs, Papers That You Write, and the Like
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PART 2
PATTERNS OF ESSAY
DEVELOPMENT
12: CAUSE OR EFFECT
191
Below are the three categories of causes (supporting points) for international stu-
Cause #1: Want to start a new life
- Does feeling hemmed in at home belong here?
- Is it a sub-category?
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528
PART 5: READINGS FOR WRITING
W hen my son was a toddler his first question about a meal was always: Whats
When we look around a room full of people, we dont see bags of skin and cloth
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PART 3
SPECIAL SKILLS AND
21: DOCUMENTING AND WRITING AN APASTYLE RESEARCH PAPER
347
Editorial
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4: DRAFTING AND PREPARING TO REVISE: CREATING COHERENCE, INTRODUCTIONS, AND CONCLUSIONS
PART 1
ESSAY WRITING
There are three basic approaches to writing an introduction, and there are specific
More speciÞc
SpeciÞc
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As with each edition, I am grateful for the continuing enthusiasm, support, and dedi-
cation of the editors at McGraw-Hill Ryerson. Each editors desire for excellence is
an inspiration, and each ones expertise teaches me invaluable lessons. They are the
voices at the other end of the lineŽ who reassure me and offer fresh perspectives on
familiar tasks. I would like to thank Karen Fozard, humanities product manager, for
her help with this edition, and I am once again, and always grateful to Sara Braith-
waite, senior product developer extraordinaire, for her consistent helpfulness and
support. I also wish to thank Graeme Powell, supervising editor, and Judy Sturrup for
her careful handling of the copy editing and proofreading.
My thanks go to my students in the York/Seneca Professional Writing program,
and to my students at [email protected] They inspire me, delight me, amuse me, and
make me happy to teach them.
My gratitude as well goes to two specific York Professional Writing students who
Acknowledgments
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260
PART 2: PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT
situationŽ (SecularizationŽ). The Canadian Charter backs up (find section) Seljak:
Whereas Canada is founded upon principles that recognize the supremacy of God
and the rule of law... Ž (
Charter
). Canada is secular, but God is still there. The rule of
law is a uniform standard that applies to everyoneŽ (Baxter), so the religious should be
treated the same as atheists and others. Should groups be allowed to close down city
Writing an Argumentation Essay
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192
PART 2: PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT
Waterloo who says, I was always supposed to enter my familys restaurant business in
Budapest, but I felt suffocated even working part-time as a server. Web design is my
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348
PART 3: SPECIAL SKILLS AND RESEARCH
Article from a Website
Authors last (Year of
name, initials. publication, month). Title of article.
Title of site.
Ioannou, S. (2004, May). Essay tips for student writers.
Canadian
Student Writing Resources.
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PART 5
READINGS FOR WRITING
41: INTRODUCTION TO THE READINGS
529
covered that its initial emotional rapport with other people extends to joint attitudes
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286
PART 3: SPECIAL SKILLS AND RESEARCH
For each item of research you record, you will note specific citation and location
For each research note, you will then need to record

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PART 2
PATTERNS OF ESSAY
DEVELOPMENT
16: ARGUMENTATION AND PERSUASION
261
opinion. Show
why
you feel as you do, persuading your audience that your point of
view is a valid one.
Your concluding paragraph is your final chance to persuade your readers to accept
your argument. Consider ending with a prediction of what will happen if your
point of view does not prevail. Will an existing situation grow worse? Will a new
problem arise?
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PART 3
SPECIAL SKILLS AND
21: DOCUMENTING AND WRITING AN APASTYLE RESEARCH PAPER
Article in an Online Newspaper
Bradsher, K. (2005, November 3). Poverty and superstition hinder drive to
block bird flu at source.
New York Times.
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426
PART 4: HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE SKILLS
Joe Duffy is a Roman Catholic, but his wife is Baptist.
Other Organizations
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PART 2
PATTERNS OF ESSAY
DEVELOPMENT
12: CAUSE OR EFFECT
193
Writing Assignment 1
Choose one of the statements below, and begin by generating three briefly stated causes
1.
and universities.
Many politicians and top executives are the offspring of first-generation Canadian
families.
Garbage disposal problems in Canadian cities and towns have damaged the
environment.
Prewriting
1.
Examine the series of causes or effects you created and formulate a thesis state-
ment. The three causes or effects will function as your main points. Make sure that
each of your main points is a
separate
and
distinct
point, not a restatement of one
of the other points. Also, make sure that
causes
really cause or create the situation
identified in your thesis statement and dont simply come before it, and that
effects
actually result from the situation and dont just occur after that situation.
Writing a Cause or Effect Essay
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530
PART 5: READINGS FOR WRITING
Like scientists, children change their theories precisely because they make the
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An Introduction
LEARNING OUTCOMES
Work through this chapter carefully so that you
develop audience awareness and understand its
impact on writing
consider the purposes for each writing project
identify the importance of essay writing
can define tone as it relates to purpose and audience
can explain the importance, in essay writing, of the
know the meaning of
voice
and how readers perceive
different voices
learn the structure and parts of the essay
Canadian college and university students like you ask questions that shape each new
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PART 2: PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT
Writing Assignment 3
Write a third person persuasive or argumentation essay in which you argue for
Does your opening paragraph provide
appropriate background for your thesis?
Does the thesis clearly state the point your
essay will argue?
Does your essay acknowledge and counter
any opposing views?
Checklist of Learning Outcomes for Chapter 16
Have you maintained both an objective
approach and a courteous tone in present-
ing your argument?
Does your concluding statement reinforce
your argument?
Practice and learn online with Connect.
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PART #
PART TITLE
PART #
PART TITLE
PART #
PART TITLE
PART #
PART TITLE
PART #
PART TITLE
PART #
PART TITLE
PART #
PART TITLE
PART 4
HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE
33: CAPITAL LETTERS
Do not capitalize words like
).
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PART 5
READINGS FOR WRITING
41: INTRODUCTION TO THE READINGS
531
2.
The word
unremunerated
in the research does suggest that the everyday, unre-
munerated, unremarkable work of caring for babiesŽ (paragraph 21) means
a.
unpaid
b.
unappealing
c.
unattractive
d.
unrequited
3.
Which of the following would be a good alternative title for this selection?
a.
A Little One Learning Is a Dangerous Thing
b.
Gifted Children
c.
Baby Scientists
d.
Lively Little Learners
4.
Write a sentence or two that you believe expresses the main idea of Kiddy
Thinks.Ž
5.
According to the author, until quite recently
a.
Babies were thought to be unable to learn .
b.
Babies were assumed to observe and feel, but not to think .
c.
People thought babies should be programmedŽ to learn early in their lives .
d.
People thought babies were mainly unaware of other people .
6.
True or false?
Babies know what they look like, even if they have never looked in a
mirror.
7.
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18: RESEARCH SKILLS
287
Specialized Information versus Common Knowledge
edge or a matter of historical record. For example, Stephen Harpers birth date is
an established fact and does not need documenting. As you read several sources
on a subject, you will develop a sense of what authors regard as generally shared
or common information about a subject and what is more specialized information
ized information about a subject, you are plagiarizing, in effect stealing someone
elses work.
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PART 3: SPECIAL SKILLS AND RESEARCH
YouTube Video or Video Blog Post
This is APAs most recent listing from their guide; example 277, page 215:
Author or Producer (Year, Month Date
Title of the video. Type of file or entry.
Last Name, of items posting).

The APA-Style Research Paper: The Format
Unlike MLA-style papers, research essays in APA format must have title pages. The
essay in APA style, but always confirm such arrangements with your own instructor.
An APA-style research essay, like any other essay, is word-processed on 8.5"
11"
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PART 1: ESSAY WRITING
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194
PART 2: PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT
Writing Assignment 2
Writing for a specific purpose and audience: If students from another country
visited your college or university, they would encounter some surprising customs
and attitudes. You could feel proud and perhaps embarrassed by the situations
those students would encounter. Write a causes essay explaining your feelings
1.
You will probably have an instant reaction to the question, Am I more proud
of or embarrassed by my everyday academic and lifestyle habits?Ž Go with that
reaction to help you come up with supporting points for the thesis. Generate
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428
PART 4: HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE SKILLS
Dear Sir, Sincerely yours,
Dear Ms. Henderson, Truly yours,
Capitalize only the first word in a closing.
Underline the words that need capitals
in the following sentences. Then rewrite the
capitalized forms of the words.
1.
British Columbia.
On their job site in south korea, the french, swiss, and chinese coworkers used
English to communicate.
When uncle harvey got the bill from his doctor, he called the ontario medical asso-
ciation to complain.
Dr. freeling of the business department is offering a new course called Introduction
to biostatistics.
ACTIVITY
REVIEW TEST 1
Many errors in capitalization are caused by using capitals where they are not needed.
hy wasnt (U)u
ncle lou
invited to the party?Ž
1.
Unnecessary Use of Capitals
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PART 5: READINGS FOR WRITING
What is a mistaken beliefŽ experiment? What do children and scientists have in
common where this type of learning is concerned? What did the author learn from
her experiment with the three-year-olds?
About Structure
4.
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SPECIAL SKILLS AND
21: DOCUMENTING AND WRITING AN APASTYLE RESEARCH PAPER
351
The Abstract
Because the abstract is actually page two of your essay, your running head
) will appear at the top, and you will title this page
Abstract, centred at the top of the page. This title appears in regular font, with no ital-
The abstract paragraph does not begin with an indentation; it begins flush left
with the margin.
The Body
ring to this chapters model entries as needed.
The References
The APA-Style Research Paper: A Model
Running head: SPECIALIZATION AND SURVIVAL
Specialization and Survival: Dinosaurs and Gigantism
Mark Moreira
Simon Fraser University
On title page only, the
words Running headŽ
appear before the text of
the running head. For all
pages following only the
text of the running head
itself appears at the top
of each page, as does the
page number.
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PART 2
PATTERNS OF ESSAY
DEVELOPMENT
12: CAUSE OR EFFECT
195
Does the thesis state a clear viewpoint
Is each cause or effect truly a cause or
effect? Does each clearly support the point
of your thesis?
Are your causes or effects presented in an
effective order with appropriate transitions
to reinforce meaning and to guide the
reader?
Checklist of Learning Outcomes for Chapter 12
Are the supporting points adequately
Does the conclusion reinforce the point of
the thesis?
Practice and learn online with Connect.
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17
Writing a Summary
LEARNING OUTCOMES
After reading this chapter and working through its
identify the essential characteristics of a summary and
understand how it differs from an essay
analyze a piece of material for its essential content
paraphrase another writers words correctly
create a list of the main ideas and support in an
original source
revise and tighten drafts of a summary using three
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PART 3: SPECIAL SKILLS AND RESEARCH
Plagiarism is defined as using and presenting, knowingly or unknowingly, someone
elses ideas, words, technical data, or images as your own. You will suffer the same
All colleges and universities teach and
giarism, which can result in a record on your transcripts, failure, and possible expulsion.
Plagiarism does not depend on the quantity of borrowed material; it is
a
What Constitutes Plagiarism?
Following is a partial list of actions that constitute plagiarism:

Turning in an assignment or essay bought from any source

Submitting any published material in any subject or course as the students work;
for example, but not limited to, lab reports, class assignments, html coding,
images from any source

Submitting any copied and pasted material from any online source as the stu-
dents own work

Making use of the exact words from any source other than the student him- or
herself without the use of quotation marks and without giving proper credit to
the author

Submitting a pattern or sequence of ideas from someone elses work, even if
either of these is expressed in the students own words, without giving appropri-
ate acknowledgment

Attending classes or a course for another student

Paying another student to write a paper and submitting it as ones own

Doing assignments of any type for another student

Working as a group on an assignment when it is not permitted

Taking assignments from other students and submitting them as ones own

Listing false or unused items in a bibliography, works cited, or references list
Avoid unconscious plagiarismŽ: Quote, paraphrase, and cite correctly.
As you start college or university, you may not be aware of how easy it is to uncon-
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PART #
PART TITLE
PART #
PART TITLE
PART #
PART TITLE
PART #
PART TITLE
PART #
PART TITLE
PART #
PART TITLE
PART #
PART TITLE
PART 4
HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE
33: CAPITAL LETTERS
429
Unique in Canada to the carolinian zone of southwestern ontario are such plants as
the green dragon Lily and sassafras trees.
When Jean chrétien was first in ottawa, his idols were Wilfrid laurier and Louis st.
laurent.
In an old movie, an attractive young lady invites groucho marx to join her.
why?Ž asks groucho. are you coming apart?Ž
Practice and learn online with Connect.
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PART 5
READINGS FOR WRITING
41: INTRODUCTION TO THE READINGS
Assignment 3
2011. Watch her presentation here: http://www.ted.com/talks/alison_gopnik_what_
Consider her point about how we underestimate childrens ability to learn, and
Take a position on Gopniks point, and write a persuasive or argumentative essay
into Gopniks ideas or into opposing viewpoints.
Kofi Annan
Your Majesties, Your Royal Highnesses, Excellencies
Members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee, ladies and gentlemen
Today, in Afghanistan, a girl will be born. Her mother will hold her and feed her,
I speak of a girl in Afghanistan, but I might equally well have mentioned a baby
The Nobel Lecture
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PART 2
PATTERNS OF ESSAY
DEVELOPMENT
8: NARRATION
125
Making a Point: Are You Writing a Narrative Essay or a Story?
While some narrative essays have the feel of a story, their structure is that of an
essay. When you write a fictional story, you may not reveal a clear point at all;
your storys point may be woven throughout it, or it may be in your characters
actions or feelings. But when you write a narrative essay, your job is to make your
point in your thesis, then to select events, scenes, and emotions that will maintain
Developing a Narrative Essay
Writing a Thesis Statement for a Narrative Essay
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PART 3: SPECIAL SKILLS AND RESEARCH
SPECIALIZATION AND SURVIVAL: DINOSAURS AND GIGANTISM
Abstract
Dinosaurs dominated the earths terrain from 250 million years ago to 65 million
essays full title or a short
version of it. The running
head is printed in full
caps, and is flush with the
left margin.
Titles summarize the
essays general idea, then
name the specific aspects
to be covered.
Titles are centred on the
page in 12-point Times
New Roman. Titles are
not bolded, underlined,
or italicized. They follow
standard capitalization.
Writers name and edu-
cational institution are
double-spaced and cen-
tred under title.
AbstractŽ is centred as
a title.
There is no indent for
graph that contains the
abstract. This rule applies
only to the Abstract page.
Abstracts should contain
150…250 words. Any
abbreviations or acro-
nyms used in the essay
abstract.
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196
13
LEARNING OUTCOMES
After reading this chapter and working through its
compares or contrasts limited aspects of two subjects
or two sides of a subject
contains in its thesis statement (1) both subjects, (2)
the intention to compare or contrast, and (3) a clear
point about the comparison or contrast
uses either the one-side-at-a-time or the point-by-
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534
PART 5: READINGS FOR WRITING
Ladies and gentlemen
We have entered the third millennium through a gate of fire. If today, after
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PART 3
SPECIAL SKILLS AND
18: RESEARCH SKILLS
graph of yours even once or twice, phrases in another persons style are immediately
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126
PART 2: PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT

Why do you believe she chose the events she did to support her point?

If Dorota had written about her experience as a fictional short story, how would
it differ from her essay?
Ultimately, your narrative essay will persuade your readers of the truth of your
thesis lesson,Ž and help them to feel that they have learned something of value.
Writers Tips for Narrative Essays
Narrative Essays Have Some Special Characteristics
1.
As noted in the chapter introduction and in the Point of View section to follow, narrative essays are
told from one of two points of view, first person (depending on the writers level of connection to
the experience) or third person. Either viewpoint must be consistently maintained.
Narrative essays follow chronological or time-sequence order only. They recount a narrative line only
in the order in which it occurred, and reinforce this order with careful use of time transitions and transi-
tional phrases.
Narrative essays always have a clear thesis, and present events, scenes, or records of the writers reac-
tions to support that thesis. Narrative essays may show extended thesis statements less frequently
than other essay-development patterns, though.
Narrative essays, to be successful, showŽ their audiences what the writer feels or means with the use
of careful descriptions and word choices. Such essays depend for their quality on the vividness with
which the writer can bring to lifeŽ situations and emotions, with the use of strong verbs, adjectives,
and adverbs.
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PART 3
SPECIAL SKILLS AND
21: DOCUMENTING AND WRITING AN APASTYLE RESEARCH PAPER
SPECIALIZATION AND SURVIVAL
Specialization and Survival: Dinosaurs and Gigantism
Dinosaurs, especially the largest among them, the sauropods, must have been
highly efficient animals. They thrived for over one hundred million years from the
Title of paper is centred,
not bolded.
The first paragraph here
In-text citations include
authors names(s) and
year of publication.
If there are three to five
authors for an article,
place all authors names
in the first citation; after
authors name and the
The thesis or statement
of the problem to be
addressed appears in the
second paragraph.
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PART 5
READINGS FOR WRITING
41: INTRODUCTION TO THE READINGS
The rights of the individual are of no less importance to immigrants and minori-
From this vision of the role of the United Nations in the next century flow three
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Here are three helpful rules for using numbers:
Spell out numbers that are made up of no more than two words. Otherwise,
use the numbers themselves.
In Jodys kitchen is her collection of seventy-two cookbooks.
Jody has a file of 350 recipes.
It will take about two weeks to fix the computer database.
Since a number of people use the database, the company will lose over 150 workdays.
Only nine students have signed up for the field trip.
Nearly 250 students came to the lecture.
Numbers and
34
Tip:
In general, numbers
smaller than ten should
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PART 2
PATTERNS OF ESSAY
DEVELOPMENT
8: NARRATION
127
The main purpose of your narrative essay is to engage readers with real-life events
What Is Your Purpose and Who is Your Audience?
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5: REVISING YOUR ESSAY: USING THE BASES FOR EFFECTIVE WRITING
77
PART 1
ESSAY WRITING
Revising Content and Structure
Coherence
I.
Principle of Organization
a.
What is my principle of organization for my essays supporting points?
b.
How is this principle appropriate to my thesis?
c.
Is my principle of organization emphasized in each of my topic sentences?
d.
Does each of my body paragraphs contain transitions or signal words that reinforce
my organizing principle (if appropriate)?
II.
Paragraph- and Sentence-Level Coherence
a.
Have I used sentence-to-sentence transitions within each body paragraph so that
the sentences flow in a logical sequence?
b.
Are there places in my paragraphs where synonyms, variations on words, pronouns,
or parallel sentence structures might add coherence?
c.
Have I used paragraph-to-parag
raph transitional sentences at the opening and
closing sentences of the body paragraphs,
so that there is a sense of continuous
flow for readers?
III.
Introductions, Titles, and Conclusions
a.
Is my introductory approach suitable for my thesis and audience?
b.
II.
Support
a.
Are my supporting points truly distinct and clear?
b.
Do my supporting points answer a specific question related to my thesis? What is it?
c.
Do my topic sentences follow the order that my thesis presents (if it is an extended
thesis)?
d.
Does each of my paragraphs open with a t
opic sentence that presents one of my
supporting points?
e.
than vague or general? If not, what can I change?
f.
and my purpose? If not, what should I change?
g.
Do my supporting paragraphs contain unsupportable personal opinions or obvious
items of common knowledge?
h.
If I have used external research, do I have research notes with essential citation
material? (See Chapters xxx)
i.
and credible to readers? If not, where should I add support?
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06/12/13 10:22 AM
Final PDF to printer
290
PART 3: SPECIAL SKILLS AND RESEARCH
How to Avoid Plagiarizing
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PART 3: SPECIAL SKILLS AND RESEARCH
SPECIALIZATION AND SURVIVAL
The relatively small, light head was critical for the development of the long
neck. Like a bowling ball on a finger, a long neck would not support a large, heavy
skull. One reason for the lightness of this dinosaurs cranium is the general lack of
any major dental development„the sauropods were not chewers. Sander and
Clauss (2008) report that, unlike modern herbivores such as cows, sauropods did
In-text citations for mul-
tiple articles consulted for
any statement show the
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PART 5: READINGS FOR WRITING
Distinguished guests
The idea that there is one people in possession of the truth, one answer to the
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PART #
PART TITLE
PART #
PART TITLE
PART #
PART TITLE
PART #
PART TITLE
PART #
PART TITLE
PART #
PART TITLE
PART #
PART TITLE
PART #
PART TITLE
PART 4
HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE
34: NUMBERS AND ABBREVIATIONS
431
Be consistent when you use a series of numbers. If some numbers in a sen-
After the storm, maintenance workers unclogged 46 drains, removed 123 broken tree
limbs, and rescued 3 kittens that were stuck in a drainpipe.
Use numbers to show dates, times, addresses, percentages, and parts of a book.
The burglary was committed on October 30, 2013, but not discovered until January 2,
Using abbreviations can save you time when you take notes. In formal writing, how-
1.
when used with proper names:
Mrs. Levesque Dr. DaSilva Howard Kelley, Jr.
Time references:
A.M. or a.m. P.M. or p.m. B.C. or B.C.E., A.D. or C.E.
Initials in a persons name:
Pierre E. Trudeau John F. Kennedy Philip C. Hoffman
Organizations, technical words, and company names known primarily by their ini-
tials often omit the periods:
IBM UNICEF CBC NHL NDP AIDS CAT scan
Cross out the words that should not be abbreviated, and rewrite them.
1.
Abbreviations
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PART 3
SPECIAL SKILLS AND
21: DOCUMENTING AND WRITING AN APASTYLE RESEARCH PAPER
SPECIALIZATION AND SURVIVAL
two main purposes: first, they ventilated the lungs by ensuring that air only flowed
in one direction through the long neck at any given time. Second, using air sacs
created increased surface area for gas exchange, and in turn, more efficient oxygen
exchange with the blood (Bakker, 1972). Efficient oxygen exchange, the process of
oxygenating the blood, was crucial for the massive sauropods during the Meso-
zoic era, as the atmospheric oxygen levels were less than todays levels (Berner &
VandenBrooks, 2007). Using such a diversified respiratory system allowed for the
development of long dinosaur necks without resultant oxygen deprivation.
Although sauropods did reach gigantic sizes, it is not likely that they were born
that way. Sauropod mothers are believed to have laid many eggs at once, a fairly
primitive form of reproduction, but one that increases the odds of survival (Sander
& Clauss, 2008). Once the eggs hatched, the newborn sauropds weighed only ten
kilograms, meaning that there would have been significant growth from infancy
to adulthood. Scientists now believe that growth among these creatures was not
constant throughout life, but was much more rapid during infancy, slowing over
the thirty years it would take the dinosaur to reach adulthood (Sander & Clauss,
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PART 2
PATTERNS OF ESSAY
DEVELOPMENT
13: COMPARISON ORCONTRAST
197
In this chapter, you will be asked to write a comparison or contrast essay, using
06/12/13 10:45 AM
PART 3
SPECIAL SKILLS AND
18: RESEARCH SKILLS
291

Library collections
Research Tip: Learn the Value of Author, Title, and Subject Searches
Most library catalogues allow you to search by author, title, or subject, or by keywords.
Author and title screens display useful information, including call numbers, to help you
locate items and current availability status. For these searches, you will need to know
the authors and/or titles of items you seek.
Most often, searching initially by
subject
will be most productive.
The subject section of the catalogue performs three valuable functions:
1.
It will give you a list of books, articles, and other publications on a given topic.
2.
It will often provide related topics that may yield information on your subject.
3.
It will suggest more limited topics, helping you to further narrow your topic.
As you look at
subject
section screens, you see books, the traditional source of infor-
mation, listed. You also see listings for other sources, such as articles from special-inter-
est and professional journals, as well as periodicals. Libraries and resource centres have
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PART 5
READINGS FOR WRITING
41: INTRODUCTION TO THE READINGS
I believe the Committee also recognized that this era of global challenges leaves
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128
PART 2: PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT
1.
Which of the samples above uses third person point of view? Why, relative to its
purpose and audience?
How do the first two samples differ, in terms of the writers word choices and
When narrative essays depend on your presence as a writer involved in the experi-
the essays subject, but the hostŽ presenting a meaningful truth to an
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198
PART 2: PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT
The one-side-at-a-time structure may be used either for the supporting paragraphs
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PART 3: SPECIAL SKILLS AND RESEARCH
SPECIALIZATION AND SURVIVAL
Mesozoic sauropods had several defining characteristics as creatures, as well
as causes for their extreme growth. Their massive body dimensions were largely
a result of specialized anatomical and biological specializations. Their long necks
The conclusion restates
the problem addressed
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538
PART 5: READINGS FOR WRITING
5.
For what area of excellence is this Nobel Prize awarded?
a.
writing
b.
drama
c.
peace
d.
public speaking
6.
If the Centennial Nobel Prize was awarded in 2001, when was the first prize given
out?
a.
b.
c.
d.
6.
In the sentence It has resulted in endless enmity and conflict, leading men to
commit the greatest of crimes in the name of a higher powerŽ (paragraph 29),
what does the author refer to?
7.
When Annan chooses the alliteration of the words
peace, parade,
and
pantheon
(paragraph 21), why do you believe he does so?
8.
The United Nations is founded on which of the following?
a.
the law of religion
b.
the idea that power is more important than people
c.
the principle of the equal worth of every human being
d.
the site of the World Trade Center
9.
True or false?
The author implies that most of people find it easier to find reasons
to be divisive than to live in harmony.
10.
Given Afghanistans continuing unrest and political entanglements today, is
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PART 3: SPECIAL SKILLS AND RESEARCH

Look at the front and back pages and cover text on the book. Check the date of
publication, and look for information on the authors credentials.

Check the table of contents for material related to your topic. If many chapters
relate to your topic, the book may be a good resource.

Look through the back index of the book for words and phrases related to your
topic. If there are many pages pertaining to those words and phrases, consider
using the book.

Scan the introduction or preface for the authors statement of intentions, view-
point, and a summary of the books content.

Look for a bibliography at the end of the book to find related books on the same
subject.
Examine at least two books on your topic so that you can practise thinking criti-
cally; weigh one authors views against anothers and against your own ideas.
Periodicals
must learn to locate them and then judge their content for quality and currency.
Periodical Indexes
Librarians can direct you to the large bound indexes of various periodicals and
and the
are good places to begin; these are printed each year and include
or
lists articles from Canadian
The CPI.Q (the
search service)
and other periodical
Once you have found articles whose titles sound promising, or whose listings
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4: DRAFTING AND PREPARING TO REVISE: CREATING COHERENCE, INTRODUCTIONS, AND CONCLUSIONS
PART 1
ESSAY WRITING
compression matches twelve bytes of a WAV with only a single byte in MP3 for-
mat; it removes sounds peoples ears cannot usually hear. MP3s are an important
part of the downsizing and uploading of media since they offer good audio qual-
ity, they are divisible into cuts or sections, and they are very portable.
3.
Begin with familiar, known information or situations, and move to the lesser
known or unfamiliar.
This is sometimes called a comparisonŽ or analogy introduc-
tion because it makes use of the way humans learn about most things: by comparing
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PART 3: SPECIAL SKILLS AND RESEARCH
A summary is not ...
A summary is ...
A summary is
not an essay.
A summary
does not present or support your point
of view on the original material. A sum-
mary does not use the wording of the
original source and rarely uses quota-
tions from that source.
A summary is a
concentrated version of
the original material,
presenting the main
ideas in your own words. It reproduces, in
reduced form and in third person voice, the
viewpoint and support of the original text.
A summary is
not an outline.
It is writ-
ten in sentences and paragraphs so read-
ers understand the general ideas of the
original text, and their relationships, in
an easy-to-follow form.
A summary presents
ideas of the
original in the same order and preserves
its sense and flavour.
Its length depends
on the situation or assignment.
A summary is
not simply a paraphrase,
Using the Summary Now
You will write academic summaries as separate writing assignments and as compo-
nents of research papers. Summarizing material in any subject is also a key study
technique; as you note the main ideas of the material to be learned, you absorb
those ideas. Most postsecondary subjects require students to summarize material,
and examinations frequently ask for summaries of some area of study.
Using the Summary in Your Career
Writing concise, accurate summaries is an invaluable career skill. You could be asked to
What Is a Summary?
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432
PART 4: HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE SKILLS
Cross out the mistakes in numbers and abbreviations, and rewrite them.
1.
Practice and learn online with Connect.
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PART 2
PATTERNS OF ESSAY
DEVELOPMENT
8: NARRATION
129
To generate support, try asking yourself the journalists five Ws and an H.Ž
and
This sort of questioning will yield supporting
Choose one effective descriptive phrase and one interesting verb from each of the
two student essays. Why is each so effective?
ACTIVITY
The first stage of prewriting for a narrative essay involves
Freewriting is a particularly helpful technique at this stage. (For more
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PART 2
PATTERNS OF ESSAY
DEVELOPMENT
13: COMPARISON ORCONTRAST
199
Now look at the supporting paragraph below, which is taken from Whats for
Another area where the home-cooked meal shines is nutrition. Fast-food options
are often full of empty calories and fat. A fast-food burger, if it is a Big Mac, contains
approximately 576 calories, of which 270 come from fat; the fat makes up 46 percent
of the burger (
Weightloss for All
). Add fries, and it adds another 610 calories, with 261
of those coming from fat. A quarter-pound burger pan-broiled at home amounts to
Nutrition and Hamburgers
a.
(Fast Food: Subject A) Big Mac with fries
b.
(Home-made Food: Subject B) Home-cooked burger with oven-roasted potatoes
Nutrition and Chicken
a.
Two Mothers
Nowhere in the world does an ideal mother exist, as every child and every family
has different needs and different expecta
tions of what such a person would be. Litera-
ture reflects the endless diversity of mothers, as shown in their words and actions, and
those of their children. The role of the mother character seems static at first; it does
Student Essays to Consider
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PART 3
SPECIAL SKILLS AND
21: DOCUMENTING AND WRITING AN APASTYLE RESEARCH PAPER
357
SPECIALIZATION AND SURVIVAL
References
Bakker, R.T. (1972). Anatomical and ecological evidence of endothermy in
dinosaurs.
Nature,
(238), 81…85.
Berner, R. A. & VandenBrooks, J.M., (2007). Oxygen and evolution.
Science,
Clauss, M., Schwarm, A., Ortmann, S., Streich, W.J., & Hummel, J. (2007).
A case of non-scaling in mammalian physiology body size, digestive
capacity, food intake, and ingesta passage in mammalian herbivores.
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A, 148
(2), 249…265.
Curry Rogers, K.A., & Wilson, J.A. (Eds.). (2005).
The sauropods: Evolution and
paleobiology.
London: University of California Press.
Hummel, J., Gee, C.T., Südekum, K., Sander, P.M., Nogge, G., & Clauss, M.
(2008). In vitro digestibility of fern and gymnosperm foliage implica-
The References list is a
separate page, with the
title, References, centred
at the top. The running
page.
All entries are double
spaced, and listed (with
no numbering) in alpha-
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PART 5
READINGS FOR WRITING
41: INTRODUCTION TO THE READINGS
539
About Style and Tone
6.
This is an acceptance speech as well as a persuasive argument. What style of per-
suasion does the author use (logical, em
otional, analogous, compare and contrast,
and so on)?
The author addresses members of the audience and states, The idea that there is
one people in possession of the truth, one answer to the worlds ills, or one solu-
tion to humanitys needs, has done untold harm throughout historyŽ (paragraph
25). Who else might he be addressing? Consider who might disagree with this
statement.
How would you describe the tone of this selection? The author challenges the
worlds leaders as well as the worlds citizens to realize the cost of injustice. How
effective do you consider his argument to be, and what role does his tone play?
Writing Assignments
Assignment 1
Assignment 2
Practice and learn online with Connect.
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130
PART 2: PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT
Often the writers point emerges from freewriting about some memory or feel-
or
The conflict or change
Planning and Prewriting: Stage 2
Once you have discovered your story and its meaning, the next stage in prewriting
First Draft and Revision
Dorota based her first draft on her trial outline. Here it is:
My co-op job for Social Services involved taking on a physical challenge for an
Accessibility Awareness campaign. Like a few other people I worked with, I chose a
wheelchair. Others used earplugs or wore eye masks.
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200
PART 2: PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT
not always hint at the wide spectrum of characteristics a mother in a specific piece
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PART 3
SPECIAL SKILLS AND
18: RESEARCH SKILLS
293
help with finding such articles. The following section of this chapter covers research
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358
PART 3: SPECIAL SKILLS AND RESEARCH
Checklist of Learning Outcomes for Chapter 21
How, in APA style, does the presentation of
Why is the extra stage of
necessary to the writing process for a
research paper?
What should be included in an APA
Abstract, other than a summary of your
Practice and learn online with Connect.
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PART 2
PATTERNS OF ESSAY
DEVELOPMENT
13: COMPARISON ORCONTRAST
201
their relationships with their children. Mama may not have much, but she builds a rich
bond with both daughters through her hard work and care, while Sedariss suburban
mother has withdrawn from even trying to care for or spend time with her children.
In these works, a mothers role does not depict what a mother should do, but rather
what mothers, in fact, do. Just as in the world, no two mothers are the same. For some
people, each of these mothers might be ideal, but that all depends on their expecta-
lan77300_ch13_196-214.indd 201
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359
22
Subjects and Verbs
1.
At the end of each day, the nurse writes his report.
This year, Ashley is taking night classes at the University of Manitoba.
Emilio, after two semesters of Business Administration, switched to Broadcast
Journalism.
The baby giggled while her mother massaged her small toes.
Annas concerns about her final marks were eased when she saw her transcript.
Subjects and verbs are the basic building blocks of English sentences. Under-
PRE-TEST
lan77300_ch22_359-363.indd 359
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433
Test your skill in apostrophe use by making corrections in the following sentences.
1.
lan77300_ch35_433-437.indd 433
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294
PART 3: SPECIAL SKILLS AND RESEARCH
can perform directory searches as well. If you are still working on your focus, or wish
Research Tip: Increase Your Keyword Power
Entering keywords tells a search engines database what to look for. Use words from
your subject area or discipline, try synonyms, and place your words in order of impor-
tance. Allow time to find exactly the right keywords.
Increase the power of your search words and phrases by using search engines help
pages; combining words with Boolean operators such as and,Ž and notŽ; using plus
and minus symbols; and trying subsearches. These are skills that maximize the effec-
tiveness of your online research time. Here are some general guidelines to help you
search effectively:

Search engines are generally
case insensitive;
it does not matter if you capitalize
a name. On occasion, though, you may wish to check a search engines search
helpŽ page for information about using capitals.

Check your search engines instructions for information about operatorsŽ or
codesŽ such as
or
that link or alter the meanings of groups of keywords.

Check your search engines instructions for defining word groups to be taken
lan77300_ch18_276-298.indd 294
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Index
antecedents, 404, 406
APA style
lan77300_idx_IN1-IN20.indd 1
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202
PART 2: PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT
Finally, home cooking is always less expensive than takeout. Most ingredients for
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76
PART 1: ESSAY WRITING
Revising Content
Reviewing Your Purpose, Audience, and Thesis (PAT)
First, go back to your notes about your thesis.
I.
Purpose
a.
What was your stated purpose when you wrote your thesis?
b.
Has it changed in any way? If so, how?
c.
If your purpose has not changed, are you satisfied with the way your main points
d.
If your purpose has changed somewhat, how has it changed? How will you change
II.
Audience
a.
Whom did you decide was your audience when you composed your thesis?
b.
Has this changed in any way? If so, who is (are) your audience(s) now?
c.
seem relevant and interesting to them? Are there changes that would enhance your
audience focus? What are they?
d.
If your audience has changed, how will you modify your thesis, supporting points,
e.
Although this is an issue of style as well as content, are there any spots where your
tone is not appropriate for your audience? Make notes of these so you can make the
necessary changes.
Reviewing Your Content: Unity and Support
I.
Unity
a.
Is my thesis stated as clearly as possible? How could I make it clearer?
b.
Is a simple, an extended, or a specialized thesis statement most appropriate? Why,
relative to this essay?
c.
Is there a direct line of reasoning from my thesis to my supporting points? or Are my
supporting points relevant to my thesis question?
Overview
General Note Taking
Read your draft aloud, or have someone read it to you. Note, on your draft,
any sections
a.
that you or your reader found difficult to understand
b.
where ideas seemed out of order
c.
where there was a bump, a place where the text did not flow
d.
where there appeared to be information missing
lan77300_ch05_074-096.indd 76
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06/12/13 10:22 AM
Final PDF to printer
PART 2
PATTERNS OF ESSAY
DEVELOPMENT
8: NARRATION
131
It surprised me that I felt nervous about sitting down in my wheelchair. Im not
sure why I felt scared about it. I guess I realized that most people who use wheelchairs
dont do it by choice„they have to.
When I sat down, I thought that Paula, another co-op student, would push me
around. We had talked about her doing that earlier. But she decided instead to adoptŽ
Writing a Narrative Essay
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PART 4: HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE SKILLS
A
is formed when two words are combined to make one word. An apos-
I
am
Im
it
is
its
I
have
Ive
it
has
its
I
had
Id
is
not
isnt
who
is
whos
could
not
couldnt
do
not
dont
I
would
Id
did
not
didnt
they
are
theyre
ACTIVITY
Tip:
Its
vs.
its
is many
writers worst enemy.
The best way to avoid an
error is to spell out the
contraction
its
, as is pre-
ferred in formal writing.
And remember: there is
no such word as
in the
English language.
To show ownership or possession, use such words as
or (most commonly)
the car that
Santo
the DVD player
owned by
the school
the gentleness
my father
But an apostrophe plus
(if the word does not end in
) is often the quickest and
easiest way to show possession. Thus, we can say
Santos car
the schools DVD player
my fathers gentleness
Apostrophe to Show Ownership or Possession
Apostrophes in Contractions
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PART 2
PATTERNS OF ESSAY
DEVELOPMENT
13: COMPARISON ORCONTRAST
203
6.
Which sentence in paragraph 4 of Whats for Dinner?Ž should be followed by
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PART 3
SPECIAL SKILLS AND
18: RESEARCH SKILLS
Begin with these general guidelines to help you evaluate your research information.

Information that
(a)
is clearly relevant to points and supporting points in your trial outline
(b)
is clearly understandable to you
(c)
you can paraphrase or reasonably incorporate
(d)
comes from reputable, reliable sources

To find information that
(a)
supports the views that you hold
(b)
expands on and strengthens points you make
(c)
lends authority to your viewpoints
Step 7: Evaluate and Select Appropriate Information
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132
PART 2: PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT

Stories can conquer fear, you know. They can make the heart bigger.Ž„Ben Okri

06/12/13 10:29 AM
360
PART 4: HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE SKILLS
Every sentence has a subject and a verb.
or
the sentence speaks about
what the sentence says about the subject is called the
In the
The professor asks
for questions from the class.
Many therapists attended
the conference.
That lecture hall is
new.
The technologist fixed
the computer.
TIP:
Think of the subject
of a sentence as the
actorŽ or the doerŽ of
an action. For example,
in the sentence Ruth
enjoys playing soccer
on the weekend,Ž RuthŽ
is the actor of the action
enjoys.Ž
To find the subject, ask
or
the sentence is about. As shown below, your
Whom
is the first sentence
The professor.
What
is the second sentence
Many therapists.
Whom
is the third sentence
That lecture hall.
What
is the fourth sentence
The technologist.
A Simple Way to Find the Subject
To find the verb, ask what the sentence says
the subject, or what action the
What does the first sentence
the professor? He or she asks.
What does the second sentence
the therapists? They attended.
What does the third sentence
the lecture hall? It is
new. *
What does the fourth sentence
the technologist? He or she fixed
the
computer.
A second way to find the verb is to put
or
in front of the
in front of
in the first sentence above, and the result,
would
is a verb.
A Simple Way to Find the Verb
*Certain other verbs, known as
do not show action. These are verbs of being, seeming, or
lan77300_ch22_359-363.indd 360
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INDEX
IN-2
APA style„
Cont
online database no DOI, 348
online database with DOI, 348
online encyclopedia, 348
organization or group as author, 340, 345
paraphrases, 306, 339
periodicals, 346…47
personal communications, 341…42, 349
quotations, 302…5, 339
quotations within another source, 341
References list, 287, 337…38, 343…44, 357
scholarly journals, 347
lan77300_idx_IN1-IN20.indd 2
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204
PART 2: PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT
In academic, business, or technical writing, comparison and contrast are valuable
Developing a Comparison or Contrast Essay
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PART 2
PATTERNS OF ESSAY
DEVELOPMENT
8: NARRATION
133
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06/12/13 10:29 AM
PART 4
HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE
22: SUBJECTS AND VERBS
361
Finally, most verbs show action, so with the exception of the third sentence about
and
In each of the following sentences, draw one line under the subject and two lines
under the verb.
1.
Daily massage eases my babys tension and fussiness.
2.
A heavy course load causes many students to feel anxious.
3.
Chin graduated with honours from the Business Executive program at Sir Sand-
ford Fleming College.
4.
The physics professor lectures about black holes and the size of the universe.
5.
The police car raced along the freeway at a frightening speed.
6.
Martas website confuses me.
7.
On St. Patricks Day, the student federation sells green cupcakes to raise funds.
8.
My nine-year-old brother learned cursive writing in his grade 3 class.
9.
These days, more men want to become educational assistants.
The inexperienced paramedic shrank from touching the patients raw, burned
ACTIVITY
TIP:
Subjects and verbs
are
never
in prepositional
phrases.
1.
The law student coughed
and sneezed.
Broken glass and empty cans littered
the college parking lot.
after math class and headed
downtown.
The subject of a sentence never appears within a
prepositional phrase.
A preposi-
tional phrase is simply a group of words that begins with a preposition. Following
is a list of common prepositions:
before
by
over
above
behind during
into
through
across
below
except
to
among beneath for
toward
around beside
from
TIP:
The word
preposi-
contains the word
Many preposi-
tions begin a phrase
More About Subjects and Verbs
lan77300_ch22_359-363.indd 361
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INDEX
IN-3
lan77300_idx_IN1-IN20.indd 3
12/18/13 9:30 PM
PART #
PART TITLE
PART #
PART TITLE
PART #
PART TITLE
PART #
PART TITLE
PART #
PART TITLE
PART #
PART TITLE
PART #
PART TITLE
PART #
PART TITLE
PART #
PART TITLE
PART 4
HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE
35: APOSTROPHE
435
1.
goes with the owner or possessor (in the examples given,
). What follows is the thing possessed or owned (in the examples given,
When showing singular possession, place an apostrophe before the
Santos
car not
Santos
car (The car belongs to Santo (singular: one person)
When showing plural possession, place an apostrophe after the
(But if the word
is plural without an
this rule does not apply.)
The patients flowers (The flowers belong to the patients: plural„there is more than
The childrens toys (The toys belong to the children and since the word
children
is plu-
this is an exception to the rule. )
Be careful not to confuse
its
and
its.
The word
its
is a contraction for
it is
or
it has.
Its a beautiful day.
Its been a wonderful convocation.
( The word
shows possession or ownership.
The cat caught its tail.
Put the garbage in its proper place.
Note:
the word
its
does not exist.
Rewrite the
italicized
part of each of the sentences below, using
to show possession.
Remember that the
goes with the owner or possessor.
Example:
The wing of the bluejay was broken.

The bluejays wing was broken.
1.
irritated me, so I changed the TV channel.
The performance of the goalie
is inconsistent.
The thin hand belonging to the old lady
felt as dry as parchment.
In
the window of the art gallery
are two landscape oil paintings of Prince Edward
Island.
While he was performing a stunt, dirt flew into
the face of Ryan Reynolds.
The new denim shirt belonging to Josh
was as scratchy as sandpaper.
The boots belonging to Rachel
are drying outside in the sun.
8.
The paintings by Norval Morrisseau
are rich in Aboriginal culture and symbolism.
Add
to each of the following words to make them the possessors or owners of some-
thing. Then, write sentences using the words. The first one is done for you.
1.
rock star
The rock stars limousine pulled up to the curb.
Javier _________
ACTIVITY 1
ACTIVITY 2
Yes No
counsellors _________
patient _________
13/12/13 1:29 PM
PART 2
PATTERNS OF ESSAY
DEVELOPMENT
13: COMPARISON ORCONTRAST
If, however, your main point is that Kingstons tap water is just as good as bottled
Be sure to keep your audience in mind when planning your essay. If you are writ-
Writers Tips for Comparison and Contrast Essays
1.
Two Sides Only:
Comparison or contrast essays present two items or
ideas that have a common basis for consideration. You
analyze those items or ideas for appropriate points of comparison or contrast. As you will see in Chapter 15,
06/12/13 10:45 AM
134
PART 2: PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT
Writing Assignment 3
Does your essays opening paragraph state
or experience you will focus on?
Checklist of Learning Outcomes for Chapter 8
Practice and learn online with Connect.
lan77300_ch08_120-134.indd 134
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INDEX
IN-4
contrast signals/phrases, 56
contrasts, parallel structure in, 100
contributory cause, 187
conventions of written English, 112
coordination, 107
correlative (two-part) constructions, 100
course,
455
Covering the BasesŽ (student essay), 93…94
CPI.Q (
Canadian Periodical Index
search service), 292, 293
lan77300_idx_IN1-IN20.indd 4
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206
PART 2: PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT
Like and Unlike, and Reader Interest:
Depending on your purpose(s) and audience, your main task in supporting a compar-
lan77300_ch13_196-214.indd 206
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296
PART 3: SPECIAL SKILLS AND RESEARCH
Reliability

If possible, use sources whose authors are recognized in the field. Look for the
authors biography, or ask your instructor or a librarian for help.

Research authors who have published other material in your topic area and
whose books and articles contain bibliographies and reference lists.

Learn about each authors position on your topic. Check biographical material,
the introduction or preface to the work, or other writers views of the author.

Check each sources references to other material and authors. If these are not
named, the information may be one-sided or biased.

Look for well-supported arguments, clear logic, and solid proof.

Always verify important pieces of information in at least three sources. If some
information reappears frequently, it is probably reliable.
Timeliness

Check for recent publication dates of books and periodical articles.

On websites, look for the most recent updating. This information often appears
on the homepage or or an aboutŽ page.
13/12/13 8:00 AM
PART 1: ESSAY WRITING
Use an incident or brief story.
Stories are naturally interesting. They appeal to a
readers curiosity. In your introduction, an anecdote will grab the readers attention
right away. The story should be brief and should be related to your main idea. The
lan77300_ch04_052-073.indd 66
06/12/13 8:52 AM
PART 4: HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE SKILLS
Do not use an apostrophe with possessive pronouns. They already show ownership.
and
Incorrect
Correct
The sun warped his vinyl albums. The sun warped his vinyl albums.
The Alex Colville painting is theirs. The Alex Colville painting is theirs.
The decision is yours.
The decision is yours.
The plaid suitcase is ours.
The plaid suitcase is ours.
I saw
The Wizard of
Oz during its initial run. I saw
The Wizard of Oz
during its initial run.
When you want to make a word plural, just add an
at the end of the word. Do
is
not
Look at this sentence:
lan77300_ch35_433-437.indd 436
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PART 4: HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE SKILLS
At the end of the day,
Dale types his class notes
on a laptop
On the fourth floor of the residence at Sheridan College,
students studied
diligently.
A ray of bright sunlight
the Registrars Office of Camosun College in Victoria,
British Columbia
Chang celebrated
with his friends until well
after midnight
At night,
my grandmother knits
Many verb forms consist of more than one word. Here, for example, are some of
the many forms of the verb
work:
work
worked
should work
works
were working
will be working
does work
have worked
can work
is working
had worked
could be working
are working
had been working
must have worked
Words like
not, just, never, only,
and
always
are not part of the verb, although they
may appear within the verb.
The new manual confused only
one of the IT staff.
Raine has just
finished her fire-protection engineering program.
The orientation session at Simon Fraser University will not
run for two days this
year.
No verb preceded by
is ever the main verb of a sentence.
On Tuesday afternoons, the professors teaching assistant has decided
to work
from home.
My roommate Consuela wants
a police officer in Calgary, Alberta.
No -
word by itself is ever the verb of a sentence. (It may be part of the verb, but
it must have a helping verb in front of it.)
The interns
working
the night shift this weekend. (not a sentence because the
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135
LEARNING OUTCOMES
After reading this chapter and working through its
offers a dominant impression in the thesis
presents carefully chosen nouns, verbs, and a
lan77300_ch09_135-147.indd 135
06/12/13 10:29 AM
INDEX
IN-5
tips for, 53
dramatic openings, 63
Dunayer, Joan, Heres to Your HealthŽ, 511…13
E
Ebooks, 324
EBSCOhost, 293
editing.
See also
proofreading; revision
consistency, 101…2
conventions of written English, 112
defined, 98
parallel structure, 98…101
review activities, 113…16
sentence variation, 106…8
specific words, use of, 103…6
wordiness, 105…6
effect
vs.
affect,
188, 459
effects.
See
cause and effect essays
ellipsis, 303…4
email, citing.
See
APA style; MLA style
em-dash, 451
emotional appeals (pathos), 244, 256…57
emotional-appeal openings, 63…64, 67
emphasis transitions/phrases, 56
emphatic order, 44…45
empty definitions, 221
ERIC (Educational Resources Information Centre), 293
Errors Log, 112
essay development
argumentation essays, 118, 119, 252…60
bases for evaluation, 81
cause and effect essays, 118, 185…92
classification/division essays, 118
comparison/contrast essays, 118, 197…99, 203…10
definition essays, 118
descriptive essays, 139…43
diagramming, 157
division and classification essays, 233…38
editing, 98…111
evaluation of, 54…55
examples essays, 118, 153…58
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PART 2
PATTERNS OF ESSAY
DEVELOPMENT
13: COMPARISON ORCONTRAST
207
Approach building your support this way:
1.
See Saris
and Anyas work in this chapter.
Work out points of comparison or contrast
that apply to both sides. These are
your criteria, or your points of judgment.

Say that you have chosen to compare massage therapy with acupuncture as treat-
ments for muscle pain. On what bases can you compare these treatments? Cost?
Duration of sessions?

Come up with four or five appropriate points for comparisons of your own.
3.
Set up your points of comparison or contrast in two columns and continue to
work on supporting details.
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4: DRAFTING AND PREPARING TO REVISE: CREATING COHERENCE, INTRODUCTIONS, AND CONCLUSIONS
PART 1
ESSAY WRITING
readers can open the dictionary for themselves. If you quote or paraphrase a
definition, be sure to cite it correctly. Refer to Part 3 for information on citation.
In
What Is Liberal Education?
Leo Strauss asserts that Liberal education is the
ladder by which we try to ascend from mass democracy as originally meantŽ
(11). While liberal education may indeed have been used for such a purpose, it
has an intrinsic value and should be accessible to all. In a free, democratic soci-
1.
If you
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PART 4
HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE
22: SUBJECTS AND VERBS
363
Draw a single line under subjects and a double line under verbs. Crossing out prepo-
1.
ACTIVITY
Practice and learn online with Connect.
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PART 3
SPECIAL SKILLS AND
18: RESEARCH SKILLS
297
Tips for Evaluating Research Findings
When you are trying to decide how valuable some source of information is, consider
the following questions:

Focus:
How focused is this material on my subject area and topic? Is the informa-
tion I need a small part of the material or its main content?

Depth of Information:
How deeply does this material treat my area of interest?
Does it offer a good quantity of information that is new to me?

Currency of Information:
How recently was this material published? For this
course and for my topic, how important is recent information?

Quality of Information:
Is this material at a level of expertise that my instructor
expects for this assignment? Is the author a reputable source or a specialist in this field?
13/12/13 8:00 AM
INDEX
IN-6
fragments
about, 382…83
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208
PART 2: PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT
student and were taught to rely on facts and specifics, so I wanted to see how well I
could back up my ideas about how easily people fall into the trap of eating fastfood.Ž
To generate ideas for her paper, Sari started with a mix of questioning and listing.
Trial Thesis:
Fast food is never a good choice because...
its not nutritious
its overpriced and tasteless compared to cooking for yourself
it never ends up being a balanced meal or snack
it doesnt really taste that good after the first few bites
its full of chemicals and preservatives
its expensive for what it is
Why isnt it nutritious?
the fat-to-protein ratio is way out of whack
burgers, fries, pizzas, even Asian meals in food courts just sit a lot of the time„the
nutrients die under the heat lamps
most of it is over-processed„nobody cooks it in most chains„it comes in bags on
trucks and its reheated
How overpriced is it?
a quarter-chicken dinner is around $9
but a chicken breast with the bone in would only cost about $2
add potatoes or some starch and either of those would only cost about 50 cents or
less per person„how much does a bun cost?
At this point, Sari saw what she was doing. She was coming up with ideas, but
So she decided to put labels on the types of food she was going to contrast: fast food
and home cooking. She then began to prewrite in a different way; she made two columns,
using keywords based on possible supporting points she had listed under her trial thesis:
Fast Food
Home Cooking
1. Price
1. Price
2. Nutrition
2. Nutrition
3. Taste
3. Taste
4. Amount of processing
4. Amount of processing
5. Time and difficulty of preparation
5. Time and difficulty of preparation
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PART 1: ESSAY WRITING
The concluding paragraph is your chance to remind the reader of your thesis and
As you look over your first drafts final paragraph, consider, once again, your
Conclusions should never wander, and they should never introduce new ideas
ing a new one. Conclusions should be proportional to your essays length and
argument. For a short essay, a two-sentence concluding paragraph is probably too
brief, but a lengthy ten-sentence concluding paragraph would likely lose readers
attention.
Whichever concluding approach you choose, remind readers of where they
Concluding Paragraph
18/12/13 11:53 AM
PART #
PART TITLE
PART #
PART TITLE
PART #
PART TITLE
PART #
PART TITLE
PART #
PART TITLE
PART #
PART TITLE
PART #
PART TITLE
PART #
PART TITLE
PART #
PART TITLE
PART 4
HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE
35: APOSTROPHE
437
Plurals that end in
show possession simply by adding the apostrophe rather than
the Thompsons porch
the players victory
her parents motor home
the Barenaked Ladies last album
the soldiers hats
Add an apostrophe where needed.
1.
POST-TEST





-s
Practice and learn online with Connect.
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INDEX
IN-7
list of, 366…68
italics, 440…41
its,
455
its,
455
J
joining words, 396
journalistic essays, 6
Just a Little Drop of Water: How a Community-Based The-
ater in Bolivia Addresses the Problem of Water Privati-
zationŽ (Tulbert), 520…25
K
key word searches, 287, 293, 294
Kiddy ThinksŽ (Gopnik), 527…30
knew,
455
know,
456
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PART 2
PATTERNS OF ESSAY
DEVELOPMENT
13: COMPARISON ORCONTRAST
209
Working from this rough supporting-point list, Sari made point-form notes of
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PART 3
SPECIAL SKILLS AND
17: WRITING A SUMMARY
Summarizing is
not note taking.
Note
taking simply lists key points from a text,
lecture, or presentation.
Summarizing is
a recognized writing
format.
Summarizing is a multi-step
process that exposes the main ideas in a
piece of text, then reduces the word count
and reassembles those main ideas into an
original piece of work.
A subtitle, a caption, or any words in large print often provide quick insight
into the meaning of an article. A Good Old-Fashioned Wholesaler,Ž an article
from the
Kitchener/Waterloo Record
(November 2002) does not seem relevant to
How to Summarize
How to Summarize an Article or Short Print Item
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298
PART 3: SPECIAL SKILLS AND RESEARCH
Describe why research may accurately be
called a process.
What are the general goals for academic-
level research?
What, specifically, are the two main tasks
involved in creating an academic research
paper? Explain the key words for each goal in
your own words.
What steps do you need to follow to con-
duct effective research?
Why is it essential to prepare a time plan for
research assignments?
Under what circumstances would you do
some research
before
narrowing a topic for
a research essay?
How would you go about limiting a
research topic?
What are the main sources of information
available to you for research assignments?
What are the three criteria for evaluating
the quality of a source?
Explain the three functions of secondary
sources in a research paper.
Checklist of Learning Outcomes for Chapter 18
Practice and learn online with Connect.
Step 8: Absorb Your Research Findings and Take Notes
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INDEX
IN-8
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1: AN INTRODUCTION TO WRITING
PART 1
ESSAY WRITING
Clarifying your purpose will always help you to choose what to write, how to
for postsecondary students is the essay.
Why Write Essays?
Writing a correctly structured, well-supported essay teaches you how to learn and how
to think more effectively„to solve problems. You will be assigned essays that ask you
to explore and learn more about your subjects. You must read deeply and conduct
research to stimulate your thinking and to find material relevant to your topic.
Learning in college and university does not mean collecting and memorizing
You have been assigned the topic of funding for religion-based schools in your town
or city. Now, consider your approach to this topic.
1.
What is your immediate response to the topic? Why?
What are two other possible viewpoints on funding religion-based schools? Why is
each one reasonable for some people?
What is your viewpoint on this topic, now that you have considered it? Why?
What is the ultimate communication skill? It might be writing well enough to achieve
1.
How do you want writing to help you in your future?
How would you define effective writing? Give examples of writing that works.
However you define effective writing, writing the academic essay for a specific pur-
ACTIVITY 2
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266
PART 3: SPECIAL SKILLS AND RESEARCH
a business student looking up articles about independent retail on EBSCOhost.
However, the articles subtitle, Personal Contacts Help Supplier Sell to Small, Inde-
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PART 2: PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT
Home cooking is less expensive than takeout. Ingredients for an ordinary din-
Writing a Comparison or Contrast Essay
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INDEX
IN-9
sentence-level transitions, 236
supporting paragraphs, 7…8
topic sentence transitions, 60
transitional words/phrases, 55…56
two-paragraph opening, 183
parallel clauses in series, 100
parallel structure
adjectives in series, 110
and repetition, 59…60
use of, 98…101
verbs in series, 110
paraphrasing
APA style, 310…12
integration of source material, 309…12, 339
with in-text citation, 269
MLA style, 310…12, 317
and plagiarism, 268, 288…90
and quotations, 304…5
in research papers, 305…7
in summaries, 267…69
summary, 264, 265
parentheses, 452…53
parenthetical documentation.
See
in-text citations
participles, 379…80
passed,
456
passive verbs, 100, 104…5, 364, 380
passive voice, 100, 104…5, 267
past,
456
past participles, 104, 109, 364…65
past perfect tense, 377
past progressive tense, 378
past tense, 101, 364…65
PAT (Purpose, Audience, Thesis), 6, 9
appeals, in argument, 244…46
introductory paragraphs, 62…64
patois, 369
456
perfect tenses, 377
periodical indexes, 292…93
periodicals
citing.
see
APA style; MLA style
as research tools, 292
periods
in abbreviations, 431
and run-ons, correction of, 395…96
personal (limited) examples, 154
personal essays, 6
persuasion, 6…7
argumentation
persuasion, 242…44
described, 118, 119
persuasion essays.
See
argumentation essays
persuasive-explanatory approach, 169
phrase, defined, 107
piece,
456
The New, Old JamaicaŽ (Habib), 270
no,
456
The Nobel LectureŽ (Annan), 533…37
Noise PollutionŽ (student essay), 95…96
note taking, 298
and citation of source material, 285…87
key words, cross-referencing, 287
use of in first draft, 308
nouns
in series, 99
word choice, and description, 141…42
No Way HomeŽ (Boutsalis), 486…88
numbers, 430…31, 448
O
object pronouns, 409, 410
objective descriptive essays, 140, 141
Oliveira, Melanie, The Swimming PoolŽ, 136…37, 144…45
online search services, 282…83, 293
online sources
citing.
see
APA style; MLA style
evaluation of, 191, 294, 295…97
opening words/phrases, 267
organization
and coherence, 54…55, 92
lan77300_idx_IN1-IN20.indd 9
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299
19
Writing and
LEARNING OUTCOMES
After reading this chapter and working through its
activities, you will
identify the steps for creating effective research
revise your trial outline and write an appropriate
thesis statement
prepare and use quotations, paraphrases, and
summaries appropriately and correctly
Your first task is to discover your own ideas about your research topic, and then
Blending your own ideas with your research findings requires you to

have a firm sense of the quality of your own points and support so you do not
substitute ideas from other sources that seem preferable or impressive

be familiar with the content of your research sources, selecting relevant material
of appropriate length

combine your words with paraphrases of, quotations from, and summaries of
the work of others so the material from research sources is integrated smothly
and correctly into your text
lan77300_ch19_299-314.indd 299
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364
23
Regular and Irregular
Every verb has four principal parts:
and
These parts can be used to build all the verb tenses (the times shown by
a verb).
Most verbs in English are regular. The past and past participles of a regular verb
or -
to the present. The
is the form of the
or
(or some form of
with passive
is formed by adding -
to the present tense.
Regular Verbs
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PART 1: ESSAY WRITING
Unless you are writing a private journal entry, you are writing for someone else: an
Who Are You Writing For?
ACTIVITY
Audience and Message
1.
Who is Tonys audience?
How would an instructor react to Tonys message?
What specific aspects of the message would cause
Tonys instructor to react thus?
Purpose and Message
1.
What is Tonys purpose here?
How likely is he to achieve his goal? Why, specifically?
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PART 2
PATTERNS OF ESSAY
DEVELOPMENT
13: COMPARISON ORCONTRAST
211

Two forms of communication (e.g., phone calls and texts)

Two ways of spending (e.g., cash and credit cards)
Prewriting
1.
As you select your topic, keep in mind that you wont merely be
describing
the
two things youre writing about; you will be
emphasizing
the ways they are differ-
ent or alike.
Scrabble
Volleyball
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PART 3
SPECIAL SKILLS AND
17: WRITING A SUMMARY
267
Writers Tips for Summaries
Techniques to Eliminate Wordiness
As you work on the second (or third) draft of your summary, use the following techniques to make your
final draft more concise:
1. Avoid or Eliminate Modifying Words:
Modifiers here means words and phrases that appear to
add to or change the meaning of nouns; for example, a
very
clear day. Phrases such as
(
some kind of, some type of),
add nothing to summaries. For example, he added
emphasis to the words,Ž should simply read he added emphasis to the words.Ž Remove some or all
of the following words from your summaries:
actually, very, basically, particularly, in particular, (e)
specially.
How to Paraphrase
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PART 4
HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE
23: REGULAR AND IRREGULAR VERBS
Here are the principal parts of some regular verbs:
TIP:
to a regular
verb in the third person
does not make it plural
in English; it makes it
singular.
e.g., Paula sit
in the chair.
A Note About Verb Tenses and Other Languages

Past

Past Participle

Present Participle
shouted shouted
prepare prepared prepared
preparing
surprise surprised surprised
tease
teased
teased
teasing
frighten frightened frightened
frightening
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INDEX
IN-10
questioning technique, 18…20
review activities, 32…33
stages of, 16
techniques, 16…23
tips for, 15
primary research sources, 281
principal,
456
principle,
456
Privileges and Public PlacesŽ (student essay), 247…48, 258…60
process analysis, 139, 189
process essays
audience, 168…69
cause and effect as support, 185
described, 118
descriptive process writing, 162…63, 169, 170, 171
first draft, 174…76
point of view, 170…71
prescriptive process writing, 162, 169, 170
prewriting, 173…74
purpose, 168…69
revision, 174…76
stages, 172…73
student essays, 163…66
thesis statement, 167…68
thesis support, 171…72
tips, 170
transitions, 170, 172
writing assignments, 176…78
process writing.
See also
process essays
described, 162…63
lan77300_idx_IN1-IN20.indd 10
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136
PART 2: PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT
Student Essays to Consider
lan77300_ch09_135-147.indd 136
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366
PART 4: HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE SKILLS

3.
TIP:
common errors with
irregular verbs is in the
following example:
Incorrect:
I have
the apple.
Correct:
I have
the apple.
Irregular verbs have irregular forms in the past tense and past participle. For exam-
is
its past participle is
Almost everyone has some degree of trouble with irregular verbs. When you are
to the base form of the verb.) You can also check a dictionary,
Past
Past Participle
arose
awake
awoke
awoken
be (am, are, is)
was (were)
become
become
begin
bite
bitten
blow
blown
break
broke
broken
brought
brought
catch
come
come
cost
cost
cost
draw
drew
drawn
drive
drove
driven
A List of Irregular Verbs
Irregular Verbs
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268
PART 3: SPECIAL SKILLS AND RESEARCH
When summarizing, first paraphrase the original source to express its main
Paraphrasing
the ideas of another writer. Never replace a few words
Paraphrasing Tip:
As
you paraphrase an
original work, compare
your paraphrased sen-
tences with the original.
Highlight words (except
articles like and
the,
and
conjunctions such as
and, or,
and
) that are
the same as, or similar
to, words in the original.
words in the next draft of
your summary.
Paraphrasing Tip:
In
your summarys first draft,
break down long sen-
tences into shorter ones.
Make point-form notes
(in your own words) of
the originals main points
Using Cue Words and Phrases: Restating Your Original Correctly
lan77300_ch17_263-275.indd 268
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212
PART 2: PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT
Decide if you will design your essay with the
one-side-at-a-time
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36
Quotation Marks
The two main uses of quotation marks are
1.
13/12/13 2:46 PM
INDEX
IN-11
as introductory approach, 66
MLA-style documentation, 302…6, 317, 318
notes, and note taking, 285…86
and paraphrasing, 304…5
and plagiarism, 288…90
in research papers, 302…5
in summaries, 266
as supplemental material, 304
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PART 2
PATTERNS OF ESSAY
DEVELOPMENT
9: DESCRIPTION
137
speeding and slid into the mall lot in twelve flat. Their truck needed an oil change, but
they made it. Someone else caught a ten-minute ride up from the family trailer on the
southeast side and was already waiting in the lobby. Inside, it is opening time now,
and they all join the noon-time line-up of chattering, jumpy, bag-clutching kids and
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PART 4
HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE
23: REGULAR AND IRREGULAR VERBS
367
Past
Past Participle
ate
eaten
fell
feed
fed
fed
feel
felt
felt
fought
fought
found
found
flown
freeze
froze
frozen
13/12/13 2:32 PM
PART 2
PATTERNS OF ESSAY
DEVELOPMENT
13: COMPARISON ORCONTRAST
213

Do my supporting points represent the ways in which I will compare or contrast
my two subjects?

Does each of my supporting paragraphs have a clear topic sentence?

Have I consistently used either the
one-side-at-a-time
or the
point-by-point
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78
PART 1: ESSAY WRITING
In the last chapter, you read the first draft of Jed Gawrys essay about sports and soci-
Please note: In this chapter, all of Jeds drafts appear showing sentence and spell-
ing errors that were shown as corrected in earlier chapters.
Here is his first-draft introduction:
What fans really enjoy about pro sports isnt teamwork or suspense. Its com-
support of destruction and harm to human life.
Here is his revised introduction again:
What do fans hope to see at an NHL or NFL game? Attending a game is an intense
experience, and what creates that
discrimnation in favour of stars. Those words describe whats wrong with North
After reading these, and the revising checklist above for introductions and con-
clusions, answer the following:
1.
In his first draft, what is Jeds thesis statement?
2.
How does he state his thesis in his next draft?
3.
has the second draft changed in this respect?
4.
What would you do to further revise his introduction, based on the checklist and your
own thoughts? (Read the body of the essay on the following page to help you decide.)
Here is Jeds first-draft conclusion:
c.
Have I developed my introduction sufficiently so that readers are prepared for my
thesis near the end of the paragraph?
d.
Which form of conclusion did I choose? Why, relative to my thesis and argument?
e.
Have I written enough of a conclusion to satisfy readers that my argument has
proved my point?
f.
Did I introduce any new ideas, contradict my point, or give any examples in my
conclusion?
g.
What type of title have I chosen? Why, relative to my essay?
Revising: A Student Model
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06/12/13 10:22 AM
Final PDF to printer
36: QUOTATION MARKS
439
PART 4
HANDBOOK OF
SENTENCE SKILLS
Dr. Joe MacInnis wrote, Man has been diving for centuries, but only recently has
he been able to dive deep and to live under the sea for prolonged periods.Ž
Quotation marks
always come in pairs.
Capitalize the first
lan77300_ch36_438-442.indd 439
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INDEX
IN-12
third person approach, 302
topic focus, 281…82
trial outline, 283…84, 300…302
works cited, 312…13
research surveys, 278…79
research-derived examples, 155
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138
PART 2: PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT
Elementary schools, on the other hand, probably still smell the way they always
did. The chattering hallways are full of the warm familiar smell of kids hair and breath,
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368
PART 4: HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE SKILLS
Past
Past Participle
sat
stood
stood
steal
stole
stolen
swear
swore
sworn
took
teach
tear
tore
torn
tell
told
told
woke
woken
wear
wore
worn
won
won
write
wrote
written
Cross out the incorrect verb form in each of the following sentences. Then write the
correct form of the verb in the space provided.

Example:
After it had flew
into the picture window, the dazed bird
huddled on the ground.
1.
As graduation neared, Michelle worried about the practicality of the
program shed chose.
2.
Before we could find seats, the theatre darkened and the opening
credits begun to roll.
3.
If the essay had began with a clear thesis statement, the rest of the
paper might have made sense.
4.
The inexperienced tutorial leader drunk the too-hot coffee and could
not speak to the class for a few moments while he recovered.
5.
After Lawrence Hill had speak about his novel
The Book of Negroes,
the audience asked many questions.
6.
flown
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214
PART 2: PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT
Have you chosen two subjects or two sides
of one subject that can logically be com-
pared or contrasted?
Does your thesis statement state both
subjects (or both sides of your subject),
Checklist of Learning Outcomes for Chapter 13
one-side-at-a-time
Have you used a valid basis for compar-
ing or contrasting and presented an equal
amount of supporting material for both
sides or both subjects?
Does the conclusion sum up the points
made during the comparison or contrast
and reinforce your thesis point?
Practice and learn online with Connect.
lan77300_ch13_196-214.indd 214
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INDEX
IN-13
A Students Guide to Income TaxŽ, 163…65, 173…76
Accessing a ChallengeŽ (Cho), 121…22
Canada: Education DestinationŽ, 180…81, 189…91,
Chocolate, the Delicious DrugŽ, 150…52, 157, 158…59
Choking the Lungs of the WorldŽ, 181…83
Covering the BasesŽ, 93…94
Dealing with DisappointmentŽ, 85…86
Degrees of SuccessŽ, 88…90
Everyday Common ScentsŽ, 137…38
Formula for HappinessŽ, 94…95
The Forceful Art of WordsŽ, 81…83
How Search Engines WorkŽ, 165…66
Ladder to the GodsŽ, 216…17, 223…24, 225
The Life and Death of the MallŽ, 248…50
Mall PeopleŽ, 231, 237, 238
Movie Night in the BushŽ, 149…50
National TreasuresŽ, 229…31
Noise PollutionŽ, 95…96
Privileges and Public PlacesŽ, 247…48, 258…60
lan77300_idx_IN1-IN20.indd 13
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PART 2
PATTERNS OF ESSAY
DEVELOPMENT
9: DESCRIPTION
139
About Coherence
8.
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PART 4
HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE
23: REGULAR AND IRREGULAR VERBS
Cross out the incorrect verb form in each sentence. Then, write the correct form in
the space provided.
1.
The health inspectors walk into the kitchen as the cook was picking
up a hamburger off the floor.
2.
The thieves would have stole my sound system, but I had had it
engraved with a special identification number.
3.
Canadian actor Keanu Reeves struggled with dyslexia for years and
finally overcome the learning disorder.
4.
Because you recognize basic shapes in what you look at, you used
these shapes, called
geons,
to identify most objects.
5.
Peter Robinson is a Canadian mystery writer whose novels have been
popular and recognize all over the world.
6.
The neglected ivy was parched and has drank all the water it was given
two days ago.
7.
Statistics show that incidences childhood diseases, such as diptheria,
POST-TEST 1
Practice and learn online with Connect.
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INDEX
IN-14
revision checklists, 76…78
support of, 38…44
thesis development questions, 24…27
thesis-planning sentences, 28
title creation, 70, 78
topic narrowing, 15
trial outline, 283…84
thesis statements
analogy introductions, 65
argumentation essays, 252…53
cause and effect essays, 185
comparison/contrast essays, 204
dead-endŽ statements, 30
defined, 23…24
definition essays, 220
description essays, 140
development of one idea, 31
division and classification essays, 233…34
dramatic openings, 63, 65…67
evaluation of, 29…31
examples essays, 153
extended thesis, 27
idea-focused openings, 64…65
introductory paragraph, 7, 9
narrative essays, 125
and point, 5…6
process essays, 167…68
review activities, 32…34
simple thesis, 27
support of, 38…44
topic importance, 65
trial thesis statement, 26…27
types of, 27
thesis support
cause and effect essays, 189
descriptive essays, 143
examples essays, 156
narrative essays, 128…29
process essays, 171…72
theyre,
457
third person approach
argumentation essays, 244
definition essays, 222
descriptive essays, 143
division and classification essays, 236
observational narrative, 128
process essays, 170
research papers, 302
and singular verbs, 365
third person pronouns, 102
threw,
457
through,
457
time management
outlines, and drafts, 53
prewriting, 15
summary
of articles, 265…67, 269…74
checklist, 275
cue words and phrases, 268…69
described, 264…65
essays, 264…65
first draft, 266, 271…73
how to summarize, 265
listing of main ideas, 271…73
reading, writing, and study skills, 265
in research papers, 307
revision, 266, 273…74
of short print items, 265…67
time management, 265
tips, 267
support
appropriateness of, 41…43
argumentation essays, 256…57
comparison/contrast essays, 203, 206…7
definition essays, 222…23
development and structuring of, 38…44
effectiveness of, 41…43
examples, use of, 189
organization of, 44…45
review activities, 47…50
revising for, 85…88
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300
PART 3: SPECIAL SKILLS AND RESEARCH

credit your sources each time you use them as quotations, paraphrases, or summaries,
using the appropriate MLA or APA style for in-text and end-of-paper citation
Assemble your paper one step at a time, following the steps in the box below, and
you will acquire a solid working strategy for all research assignments.
Five Steps for Preparing a Research Paper
1.
Revise your trial outline.
2.
Write your first draft.
3.
Revise your first draft to insert, integrate, and cite your reference materials. Now you
have your second draft ready.
4.
As you revise and edit your second draft, document your research and prepare a
Works Cited (MLA) or References (APA) list.
5.
Write your final draft.
Now that you have read and made notes on sources relating to your topic and sup-
Step 1: Revise Your Trial Outline
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4: DRAFTING AND PREPARING TO REVISE: CREATING COHERENCE, INTRODUCTIONS, AND CONCLUSIONS
PART 1
ESSAY WRITING
of closure and reinforces the notion that you have proved your point. Here is a con-
clusion that Jed Gawrys might have used:
What do fans hope to see at an NHL or NFL game? They hope to see brutal com-
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440
PART 4: HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE SKILLS
An indirect quotation is a rewording, a paraphrase of someone elses comments
often signals an indirect
Direct Quotation
Indirect Quotation
The nurse said, some babies cannot
tolerate cows milk.Ž
(The nurses exact spoken words are
Vickys note to Dan read, Ill be
home by 7:30.Ž
(The exact words that Vicky wrote in
The nurse said that some babies
cannot tolerate cows milk.
(We learn the nurses words indirectly,
Vicky left a note for Dan that said
she would be home by 7:30.
(We learn Vickys words indirectly, so
Rewrite the following sentences, changing words as necessary to convert the sentences
into direct quotations. The first one has been done for you as an example.
1.
Ted asked Maria, Do you want to see my new Lexus hybrid?Ž
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215
14
LEARNING OUTCOMES
After reading this chapter and working through its
writing assignments, you will be ready to write a
definition essay that
states in its introduction and thesis how the subject is
uses an appropriate degree of formality or objectivity
while developing the definition
offers several supporting points to both clarify and
limit the definition of the subject
concludes with a summary of the subjects definition
and its significance
You often define particular words informally to explain. You might say, Bob is really
He borrowed my accounting book
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PART 1: ESSAY WRITING

Titles are always a
few words or a brief
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INDEX
IN-15
V
verb forms, 99, 110, 362
verb tenses, 364…69, 376…77
APA style in-text citations, 338…39
consistency in, 101, 377
English verb tenses, 377…78
future perfect tense, 377
future progressive tense, 378
and other languages, 365
past perfect tense, 377
past progressive tense, 378
past tense, 101, 104, 364…65
perfect tenses, 377
present perfect tense, 377
present progressive tense, 378
present tense, 101, 364…65
progressive tenses, 378
in series, 99, 110
simple tenses, 377
verbals, 379…80
verbs
active verbs, 100, 104…5, 380
agreement.
see
subject-verb agreement
common errors, 366
described, 359…60
gerunds, 99, 380
helping verbs, 364, 378
infinitive verbs, 99, 109, 379
irregular verbs, 366…68
linking verbs, 360, 378
modal auxiliaries, 379
non-standard forms, 369
participles, 379…80
passive verbs, 100, 104…5, 364, 380
past participles, 104, 109, 364…65
present participles, 109, 364…65
regular verbs, 364…65
in series, 99, 110
signal words, 312
simple way to find, 360…61
singular verbs, 365, 374
specific words, use of, 103
subject/verb agreement, 112
verbals, 379…80
word choice, and description, 141…42
Vertongen, Derek, Castles in SpainŽ, 500…503
vocabulary, strengthening, 59
voice
in academic writing, 5
first person approach, 10, 128, 188
pronoun choice, 10, 143
second person approach, 170
third person approach, 10, 143, 188…89, 222, 236, 244,
302, 365
research process, 278, 280
summarizing, 265
time order, 44…45, 155
time signals/phrases, 56
time transitions, 126
time-sequence logical errors, 186
titles, 70, 78, 440…41
capitalization of, 425, 427
tone
and audience, 4
formal
informal, 221
and voice, 10
topic outline, 313
topic selection
and freewriting, 17…18
importance of to reader, 65
narrowing, 15, 27
prewriting strategies, 14…23
review activities, 33…34
specificity, 15
thesis development questions, 24…25
topic sentences, 7, 8
development of, 38, 39
too
two,
457
transitional sentences, 55…56, 60…61, 72
transitional words, 399
transitions
addition signals/phrases, 56
cause and effect essays, 188
and coherence, 54, 55…57
coherence between paragraphs, 60…61
and coherence in organization of support, 44…45
conclusion signals/phrases, 56
for difference, 205
in division and classification essays, 236
joining words, 396
in narrative essays, 126
in process essays, 170, 172
repeated words, 58
review activities, 71…73
for similarity, 205
transitional structures, 58…60
trial outlines, 283…84
trial thesis statement, 26…27
Tulbert, Eve, Just a Little Drop of Water: How a Commu-
nity-Based Theater in Bolivia Addresses the Problem of
Water PrivatizationŽ, 520…25
turnitin.com, 289
Two MothersŽ (student essay), 199…201
two/to/too,
457
U
Unchopping a TreeŽ (Merwin), 516…18
unconscious plagiarism, 288…89
unity, revising for, 76, 81…85
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PART 3
SPECIAL SKILLS AND
19: WRITING AND DOCUMENTING A RESEARCH PAPER
301
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INDEX
IN-16
write,
456
writers block, 17
writing
and audience, 3, 4…6
and purpose, 2…3
writing process
and coherence, 54…55
conventions of written English, 112
critical thinking, and reading skills,
described, 13…14
drafting, 14
effective writing, steps for, 11
and PAT (Purpose, Audience, Thesis), 6, 9
patterns of essay development, 117…19
prewriting, 14…23
revision, 14
stages of, 14
thesis creation, 14, 23…31
Y
your,
458
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36: QUOTATION MARKS
441
PART 4
HANDBOOK OF
SENTENCE SKILLS
In printed works, italic type is slanted type that looks
(See Chapters20
Use quotation marks or italics as n
eeded (underline words that should be in italics).
1.
Quotation marks are also used as follows:
1.
Other Uses of Quotation Marks
the story The Progress of LoveŽ
in the book
My Best Stories
the article Beginner Guitar Lesson ArchiveŽ on the website
About.com
the song Someone Who CaresŽ
in the album
Three Days Grace: Life Starts Now
the episode HolidazeŽ
in the television show
Greys Anatomy
the song Jai HoŽ
in the movie
Slumdog Millionaire
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302
PART 3: SPECIAL SKILLS AND RESEARCH
As noted in the previous chapter, research papers, even the shorter examples
The boxed outline above also includes the page numbers or website names for
Research essays are nearly always written in the third person. The emphasis in
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Test your knowledge of subject…verb agreement by selecting the correct verb in
1.
in the classroom.
Either Tatjana or her friends (is, are) starting the study group for Russian-speaking
students.
My computer-programming professor, as well as my counsellor, (has, have) advised
me to switch programs.
The social committee of the student federation (is, are) planning a fundraiser.
In the fashion-design lab, a pair of left-handed pattern shears (is, are) in the second
drawer.
24
PRE-TEST
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442
PART 4: HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE SKILLS
Insert quotation marks where needed in the sentences that follow.
1.
REVIEW TEST 2
Practice and learn online with Connect.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Other Transitional Structures for Sentence- and Paragraph-Level Coherence 58
PAT and Your Introduction
Part 2 Patterns of Essay Development
Introduction to Essay Development
Narration
Illustration by Examples
Process
Cause or Effect
Comparison or Contrast
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PART 3
SPECIAL SKILLS AND
19: WRITING AND DOCUMENTING A RESEARCH PAPER
Here is an example of a direct quotation in MLA style:
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PART #
PART TITLE
PART 4
HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE
24: SUBJECTVERB AGREEMENT
A verb must agree with its subject in number. A
(one person or
(more than one person or thing) takes a
needs to be changed.
has been displayed in the MZTV
Museum and Archive for years.
Underline the subject and lightly cross ou
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PART 2: PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT
In this chapter, you will be asked to write an essay in which you define and illus-
through the questions.
Student Essays to Consider
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140
PART 2: PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT
Descriptive essays need an organizing principle, a focus for the writers choice of
Developing a Descriptive Essay
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443
Test your knowledge by inserting commas where needed.
1.
The old adage,
When in doubt, leave
it outŽ is still a good tip
for writers who overuse
the comma. By following
these six rules, you will be
more confident and cor-
rect in your punctuation.
You will use a comma
only when you have a rea-
son to do so,
not simply to
make your writing look
attractive.
37
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PART 2
PATTERNS OF ESSAY
DEVELOPMENT
14: DEFINITION
217
comic sectionŽ (11). If Strauss were correct, why would anyone bother with a liberal
arts education at all? People would prefer to go home and read the comics.
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372
PART 4: HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE SKILLS
A verb agrees with its subject even when the verb comes
the subject. Words
and, in questions,
and
Here are some examples of sentences in which the verb appears before the subject:
There are spelling mistakes in the report the Business Administration students
submitted.
At a great distance from the oil spills was a shapeless mass of black substance in
the lake.
Here is the confirmation email from registration at the university.
Who were the first European sailors to reach the Canadian coast?
If you are unsure about the subject, ask
or
of the verb. With the first
are in the report?Ž The answer,
is the
Write the correct form of each verb in the space provided.
1.
There _____ dozens of frenzied shoppers waiting for the store to open. (is, are)
Here _____ the notes from yesterdays computer graphics lecture. (is, are)
When _____ the life-drawing students take their break? (do, does)
A compound subject is two subjects separated by the joining word
Subjects
generally take a plural verb.
A patchwork quilt and a sleeping bag cover my bed in the winter.
Journalism and Event and Media Planning are a couple of the programs in the
School of Media Studies.
When subjects are joined by
or
the
Neither the negotiator nor the union leaders want the strike to continue.
Verb Before Subject
Compound Subjects
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304
PART 3: SPECIAL SKILLS AND RESEARCH
One of the oldest examples of the exploitation of emptiness is the scholars mar-
gin . . . reserved for note-taking. It also makes facing pages look more connectedŽ
(White, 2002, p. 129); here, White traces . . .
Note that in APA style, ellipses are not used at the beginnings or endings of quo-
after the in-text citation. If, in either style, your quotation includes an
rial, use four dots in a row.
MLA style:
One of the oldest examples of the exploitation of emptiness is the schol-
ars margin . . . . It also makes facing pages look more connected . . . .Ž (White 129).
APA style:
One of the oldest examples of the exploitation of emptiness is the
scholars margin . . . . It also makes facing pages look more connectedŽ (White,
2002, p. 129).
3.
use single quotation marks
for the quoted material within your quotation.
MLA style:
Good readability makes the page look comfortable to read. Poor
readability makes pages look dull or busy. Richard Lewis, an expert on annual
reports, says, Make exciting design. Dullness and mediocrity are curses of the
annual reportŽ (White 9).
APA style:
Good readability makes the page look comfortable to read. Poor
readability makes pages look dull or busy. Richard Lewis, an expert on annual
reports, says, Make exciting design. Dullness and mediocrity are curses of the
annual reportŽ (White, 2002, p. 9).
Note that this rule applies in the same way to both MLA and APA styles. Also
ends the internal quotation and the double quotation marks end the main quotation.
When Should You Use a Quotation?
These ground rules will help you decide when to quote rather than paraphrase:

Use quotations sparingly, only when they truly extend, explain, or lend authority
to your own points.

Use quotations when the exact words of your source material are crucial to
understanding the context of your assignment.

Use quotations when the source and/or the author is such a recognized authority
in your topic that quoting lends credibility to your argument or support.

Use quotations when your source material contains specialized, technical, or
extremely effective wording or phrasing that would be unsuitable to paraphrase.
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PART #
PART TITLE
PART 4
HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE
24: SUBJECTVERB AGREEMENT
373
Until the rise of monasteries in Early Modern Europe, not only the general public
but also monks themselves were poorly educated.
The nearer subject,
is plural, so the verb is plural.
Write the correct form of the verb in the space provided.
1.
Heathcliff and Catherine _____ the focal
characters. (is, are)
Spidery cracks and a layer of dust _____ the ivory keys on the old piano. (cover,
covers)
Not only the assistant manager but also the support staff _____ that the company
is folding. (know, knows)
Online cartoon sites, such as Sidereel.com, _____ many viewers. (attract, attracts)
Neither the History students nor the English students in that course _____ to work
on that project. (want, wants)
Either Joe Schuster, a Canadian, or Paul Cassidy _____ the main artist on all the
early Superman comic strips. (was, were)
ACTIVITY
ACTIVITY
The following words, known as
always take singular verbs:
one words)(
body words)(
thing words)
anyone
anybody
anything
everyone
everybody
everything
Tip:
Words ending in
…one, …body,
and
always take singular
verbs.
Indefinite Pronouns
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PART 2: PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT
around campus, eyes glazed, staring off into space. When they do manage to wander
into a classroom, they sit down mechanically and contemplate the ceiling. Zombie
students rarely eat, dance, talk, laugh, or toss Frisbees in quadrangles and on lawns.
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PART 4: HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE SKILLS
Use commas to separate items in a series.
Commas are used mainly
1.
To separate items in a series
Six Main Uses of the Comma
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PART 3
SPECIAL SKILLS AND
19: WRITING AND DOCUMENTING A RESEARCH PAPER
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PART 2
PATTERNS OF ESSAY
DEVELOPMENT
14: DEFINITION
219
About Coherence
7.
Identify the transitional words and phrases used to open body paragraphs in
Ladder to the Gods.Ž Give reasons why each is used to advance support for the
essays thesis.
8.
How many paragraphs in Student ZombiesŽ open with transitional connectors?
Rewrite the opening sentences for the paragraphs with appropriate transitional
material.
9.
Which sentence in paragraph 2 of Student ZombiesŽ begins with a change-of-
direction transitional word?
About Introductions and Conclusions
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4: DRAFTING AND PREPARING TO REVISE: CREATING COHERENCE, INTRODUCTIONS, AND CONCLUSIONS
PART 1
ESSAY WRITING
Write an appropriate title for the introductory paragraphs that follow.
1.
___________________________________________________________
Are you sitting in a messy room right now? Are piles of papers or heaps of clothes
tilting at weird angles and leaning on towers of magazines, boxes, and bags all
around you? You are not alone, and you should not feel ashamed. Messes are just
the natural overflow of our personalities. Messes say that we are too busy, too inter-
esting, to spend time cleaning, organizing, and turning into obsessive organizers.
Review Activities
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37: COMMA
445
PART 4
HANDBOOK OF
SENTENCE SKILLS
Use a comma on both sides of words or phrases that interrupt the flow of thought in
The vinyl car seat, sticky from the heat, clung to my skin.
Martys new mountain bike, which his wife got him as a birthday gift, occupies all
of his spare time.
The hallway, dingy and dark, was illuminated by a bare bulb hanging from a wire.
Usually you can hearŽ words that interrupt the flow of thought in a sentence
ACTIVITY
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1: AN INTRODUCTION TO WRITING
PART 1
ESSAY WRITING
Finally, give yourself the best chance for a good grade by giving your audience
First-year essay assignments are previews of your future academic and profes-
TIP:
Audience is further
of this chapter; its impor-
tance makes it a special
focus of each of the
patterns of essay devel-
opment in Part 2.
What Is Your Point?
The essay is a goal-driven writing format. It is a try,Ž an attempt to make your read-
trate, or clarify your point for them in the body of the essay.
EXAMPLE
Subject:

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306
PART 3: SPECIAL SKILLS AND RESEARCH

Do insert in-text citations for any paraphrased material.

Do, if you use a paraphrase/quotation mix, use quotation marks around any
quoted words or phrases taken directly from the passage you are paraphrasing.

Do not change the meaning of a passage that you paraphrase.

Do not add to the meaning or ideas found in your source material.
The following examples show how to paraphrase correctly and avoid plagiarism.
by Alberto Manguel.
Original Source
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PART 1: ESSAY WRITING
2. INTRODUCTIONS AND CONCLUSIONS
In the box below are common kinds of introductions and conclusions. After reading
each case.
Thesis

vice in the right places.
First Supporting
Paragraph
First of all, as a potential operator of a home daycare centre, you must make sure your house will
conform to provincial and municipal regulations....
Second Support-
ing Paragraph
After making certain that ________________________________________ you must
obtain __________________________________________________
Third Supporting
Paragraph
Finally, once you have the necessary ____________________________________ you
can begin to __________________________________
Introductions
Conclusions
1. General to narrow
1. Summary and final thought
2. Background information
2. Question(s)
3. Starting with an opposite
3. Prediction or recommendation
4. Stating importance of topic

5. Incident or story

6. Question(s)
7. Quotation
Review Activity: Transitional Sentences
Below is a brief sentence outline for an essay. The second and third topic sentences serve
graph and announces the point to be developed in the current paragraph. In the spaces
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PART 4: HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE SKILLS
Here, the words
who goes to aerobics class with me
supply essential information„
information needed for us to identify the woman being spoken of. If the words were
removed from the sentence, we would no longer know exactly who was in the acci-
dent: The woman was in a serious accident.Ž Here is another example:
A book by Canadian writer Will Ferguson,
is one of the oddest novels Ive ever read.
Here, the words
could be left out, and
13/12/13 1:30 PM
PART 2: PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT
The thesis statement for a definition essay identifies the subject (term being defined)
This is an example of a definition thesis statement that places its subject (or term)

Anger is an intense emotion.
This is an example of a definition thesis statement that states what the subject is
and what it is not:

A good friend is honest and caring, never harsh or smothering.
This is an example of a definition thesis statement that explains the origin of the

Being consistently virtuous requires strength of character; in fact,
virtus,
the
Latin root of the word virtue, means strength.
Definition essay thesis statements may also suggest the writers point of view by
Developing a Definition Essay
The main purpose of a definition essay is to explain your understanding of a term or con-
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374
PART 4: HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE SKILLS
Units of time, mass, money, length, and distance take singular verbs.
POST-TEST 1
POST-TEST 2
Units of Time, Mass, Money, Length, and Distance
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PART 1: ESSAY WRITING
Once someone reads your thesis, he or she is in a state of tension, waiting to see
tion and momentum to it.

In the student thesis example above, what do you, as a reader of this students
essay, want to know?
Of course, you already know how to make a point. You do it every day in conver-
In an essay, though, the quality of your point and your support for it are crucial.
First, your point is not a spontaneous thought or opinion, as it might be in a chat.
Instead, you must think about your topic. You discover a viewpoint, as the student did
in the example above. Now your readers will want to know why your viewpoint is a
port for your thesis to reward your readers for the time and concentration they have put
into this conversationŽ with you so that when you make your point they are satisfied.
Three Keys for Starting Work on an Effective Essay: Work Out Your
As you start any essay-writing assignment:

Learn as much as possible about your
Audience.

TIP:
Narrowing a topic
and creating an effective
thesis are covered in
depth in Chapter 3. Also,
for each of the patterns
of essay development in
Part 2, there is a special
section on writing a
thesis.
You read essays in newspapers and on websites and blogs, perhaps without realizing
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4: DRAFTING AND PREPARING TO REVISE: CREATING COHERENCE, INTRODUCTIONS, AND CONCLUSIONS
One March night, at 2 a.m., Stefan lies curled up, shivering and coughing in a sleeping bag
outside the Air Canada Centre. No, he is not homeless, and he is not alone. He is lying on the
cement with at least a few thousand other people in their late teens and early twenties. For the
first seven or eight hours, he passes the time singing and sharing stories and food. But by two
oclock, his throat hurts and he has lost interest in the piece of paper that was his shortcut to
stardom. At four oclock in the morning, he packs up his bags, gives someone his number, and
decides he is not going to be the next Canadian Idol
Becoming a professional singer has no
shortcuts; it means more voice lessons, more auditions, and more experience.
Shows like
Canadian Idol
encourage people to dream of instant stardom. The reality of learning
to be an entertainer is not a matter of a magic moment of discovery; it involves patience, work, and
tough skin. No one applauds when you miss notes or lose at an audition; no one cares. People who are
stars at their local karaoke place should think twice before they decide they are ready to be an idol.Ž
What would life be like if we could read each others minds? Would communications be instan-
taneous and perfectly clear? These questions will never be answered unless mental telepathy
becomes a fact of life. Until then, we will have to make do with less-perfect means of communica-
Practice and learn online with Connect.
PART 1
ESSAY WRITING
What is most essential in writing a first
draft? Why?
What are the three levels at which an essay
must be coherent?
Which techniques are used to achieve coher-
ence at the paragraph and sentence level?
Why do readers need sentence-level
coherence?
Where, at a paragr
aph-to-paragraph level, are
transitional words and phrases essential? Why?
Checklist of Learning Outcomes for Chapter
What are three approaches to writing
introductions?
What are two approaches to concluding an
essay?
What questions would you ask as you revise
an introduction? A conclusion?
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307
When Should You Paraphrase?
„synthesizing your research with
and your ability to use these intelligently.
When Should You Summarize?
No matter what subject or course you write a research essay for, summarized
Good paraphrases
Shorten lengthy passages
Eliminate or explain unnecessary technical language
Make the ideas in the source material clear in the context of your paper
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37: COMMA
447
PART 4
HANDBOOK OF
SENTENCE SKILLS
ACTIVITY
January 30, 2014, is the day I make the last payment on my car.
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14: DEFINITION
221
It is essential to consider tone: the style of wording and sentence writing you use,
Writers Tips for Definition Essays
1.
Formal definitions:
Often the same as dictionary definitions. Formal definitions give the main accepted meaning of a word
(its denotative meaning), and involve two processes; classifying the word and differentiating it from other
words or ideas with similar meanings in its class. A basic example would be
chicken;
it belongs to the class/
category
bird,
but it is a
domestic bird
(unlike an eagle) and
(unlike a crow).
2.
Types of definitions:
I nclude basic categories such as
a.
Limited definitions
PART 2
PATTERNS OF ESSAY
DEVELOPMENT
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PART #
PART TITLE
PART 4
HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE
24: SUBJECTVERB AGREEMENT
375
The odour of those perfumed ads interfere with peoples enjoyment of magazines
and causes allergic reactions.
One of the alternatives are less appealing than the others.
A man or woman in his or her forties often begin to think about making a contri-
bution to the world and not just about him - or herself.
Each of the familys donations to the food drive were over fifty dollars.
Practice and learn online with Connect.
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PART 2
PATTERNS OF ESSAY
DEVELOPMENT
9: DESCRIPTION
141
The main purpose of your descriptive essay is to share your experience with readers, to
Writers Tips for Descriptive Essays
Strong, sense-oriented, and precise words are the core of effective descriptions. Your
nouns and verbs,
the strong bonesŽ of your writing, must shape your objects and their movements for readers, so they see
what you do. Your modifiers of nouns and verbs,
adjectives and adverbs,
must enhance, flesh out, and
strengthen those bones. And finally, figures of speech,
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1: AN INTRODUCTION TO WRITING
PART 1
ESSAY WRITING
The academic essays you will write are mainly of the persuasive/argumentative
Julian Lopez is a Media Studies student and the author of the following essay. He first
an essay as it develops from the first paragraph.
The title
attracts readers
attention and suggests
the essays topic.
The topic sentence
the first body paragraph
presents the first support-
group entertainment.Ž
Socializing Computers
1. Introductory Paragraph
A curious scientist peers through the windows of student residences or apartments
in Bowmanville, Moose Jaw, or Abbotsford to find out what young people are doing in
their leisure time. What does she see? Chances are, a group, eighteen to twenty-five,
amusing themselves in front of a computer screen. Their parents generation enjoys
solitary relationships with their computers, but the iGeneration,Ž who grew up with
computers, interacts in groups with their technology. Todays youth has an ingenious
new use for the computer, as the hub for group entertainment, social interaction, and
group multitasking.
2. First Supporting Paragraph
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PART 4: HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE SKILLS
I buy discount childrens clothing from Bouncy Baby Wear, Box 900, Vancouver,
British Columbia V6H 4Z1.
No comma is used before a postal code.
The insurance agent sold me a $50,000 term life insurance policy.
POST-TEST 1
POST-TEST 2
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PART 2: PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT
4.
As noted previously, words frequently have a range of meaning. For example, engineers define
stress
differently from psychologists, and a musician defines
harmony
differently than an artist referring to
colours. This diversity of meanings makes the three types of definitions above especially useful for
writers in focusing a definition, and also makes the definition pattern of development one of the most
useful of all.
Definition essays aim to clarify, as precisely as possible, a writers ideas about the
When you write an extended definition, you may use a number of techniques, such
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308
PART 3: SPECIAL SKILLS AND RESEARCH
Begin by reviewing your research notes. With your revised outline as a guide, you
Step 2: Write Your First Draft
Step 3: Revise Your First Draft to Integrate
and Cite Your Reference Materials
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PART 1: ESSAY WRITING
Topic sentence
second body paragraph,
presenting the second
supporting point of the
thesis: social interaction.Ž
3. Second Supporting Paragraph
Another reason the computer is a welcome guest is its ability, once it is happily
online, to challenge and interact with others. It is made for a generation that enjoys
Concluding paragraph
here, a prediction.
Concluding paragraph
presents a summary of
the thesis supporting
points.
Introductory Paragraph
Open your introductory paragraph with a sentence or two, an attention getter, that
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449
PART 4
HANDBOOK OF
SENTENCE SKILLS
Oscar took a time-exposure photo of the busy highway so the cars tail lights
appeared in the developed print as winding red ribbons.
The graduating students sweltering in their hot black gowns fanned their faces
with commencement programs.
After their deaths people were saddened by the loss of James Gandolfini and Jeanne
Cooper in 2013.
POST-TEST 4
Practice and learn online with Connect.
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PART 2: PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT
Nouns and Verbs
Nouns and verbs do the hard work in your writing; put the effort into choosing accurate, specific nouns
and verbs that these words deserve. Use a dictionary or thesaurus, if necessary **:
schnauzer
jewel
dictionary
Non-specific Verbs
Specific Verbs
dash, bolt
stare
say
claim, assert
2.
Modifiers: Adjectives and Adverbs
Well-chosen adjectives and adverbs enhance the effects of your nouns and verbs by appealing to read-
Specific Modifiers
miserable, tormented
fresh, immaculate
well
admirably, commendably
explosively, thunderously

Personal subjective descriptions need descriptive adjectives and phrases to bring your subject
to life. Choose words that appeal to the senses, to peoples common experiences; for example,
neatly folded layers of soft, pale-yellow wool.Ž

Accurate, objective descriptions need precise words that capture and identify aspects of your subject
so that readers will see them as clearly as possible. Choose nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs based
on their accuracy rather than on the reaction they will provoke from readers; for example, The deep-
magenta compound, when heated to 125 degrees C, boiled explosively and burst the containing glass
beaker.Ž
3.
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Revising Your Essay:
LEARNING OUTCOMES
After reading this chapter and working through its
activities, you will
know the importance of three of the four bases as
tools for revising as well as writing essays
be prepared to revise your essays content and
structure for unity, support, and coherence
develop techniques for, and skill in, evaluating and
revising by working with the bases for effective
The last three chapters have focused on the first three steps for effective essay
nizing and connecting this evidence. These are the essential foundations of the
content and structure of good essays. You have begun to prepare for revising your
first draft, as you learned to create coherence, and effective introductions and
conclusions.
Now you will learn to revise, part of the fourth step to an effective essay. You will
your instructor will use to grade your essays.
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1: AN INTRODUCTION TO WRITING
PART 1
ESSAY WRITING
Socializing ComputersŽ is a typical first-year essay. It is not perfect; no essay is. In
assignment, then thought he had more to say. * Trying to expand on his theme led to
As you think about Julians essay, and about the essay assignments ahead of you,
ACTIVITY 1: PURPOSE
1.
What do you think is the general purpose of Julians essay?
Are there secondary purposes as well as a general purpose? What are they?
Does his thesis suggest a more specific purpose? What is it?
You want your readers to accept your essays ideas and become involved in
part of the PAT formula. An aca-
demic essays structure requires you to place your thesis in the opening paragraph.
In doing so, you are making things easier for your readers. You are lessening the
risk of annoying them by making them search or wait for your point. The academic
essays form follows its function„to engage readers quickly. Next, you owe any
tence structure. Any time readers have to struggle to understand what you write,
they quickly lose interest, no matter how good your ideas are. Finally, you can do
more than you think to work out your audiences interest in and knowledge of your
subject. The following activity will introduce you to this concept and you will learn
more about it in Chapter 2.
ACTIVITY 2: AUDIENCE
1.
Who are the audience(s) for Julian Lopezs essay?
What do you think is their interest level in Julians topic? Why?
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PART 2
PATTERNS OF ESSAY
DEVELOPMENT
14: DEFINITION
then offer a list of such words as
and
so that students will connect one or more
There are very few exact, unchanging meanings for words. Recall that the lit-
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PART 3
SPECIAL SKILLS AND
19: WRITING AND DOCUMENTING A RESEARCH PAPER
309
Integrate your paraphrases, quotations, and summaries smoothly into the flow of
your sentences and place your citations correctly. Follow the instructions in this
and the following chapters, depending on your citation style, very carefully. Citing
your sources properly shows your readers that you recognize their need to see cer-
tain signals that indicate you are borrowin
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450
Other Punctuation
38
Colon (:)
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PART 1: ESSAY WRITING
Does Julian try to catch his readers interest? How and where?
How much do you think Julians audience knows about his topic? Why? Does he
ACTIVITY 4: VOICE AND TONE
1.
What is Julians thesis?
How does his thesis engage his possible audience(s)?
Your writing voice, as shown in your pronoun choice, helps to show readers your
can be a noisy pronoun. Your
can
of your thinking, not you.
1.
How would you describe his voice? Why? What do you remember about his note?
How would you describe Julians voice in his essay? Why? What do you remember
about his essay?
Now that you know Julians purpose, audience, and voice, choose two phrases or
sentences from his essay that reflect a good choice of tone.
How is each of your selections appropriate to his purpose and audience?
Julian does not write as
instead, he is an invisible presence. He uses the trans-
Choose clear,
straightforward writing
every time. Otherwise
you miscalculate your
audiences needs and
miss your purpose in
writing an essay: to make
your ideas as accessible
as possible.
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376
25
Additional Information
About Verbs
The purpose of this special section is to provide additional information about verbs.
Verb Tense
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PART 2: PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT
controlling us because were too lazy to care about anything. And Strauss says they
just arrive on top.Ž This doesnt make sense. I wonder about their so-called liberal
arts education. These apparently are the only people worthy of this education. Im
not sure where this is going. And when I look around me, and I remember people
I interviewed when I was in journalism, they didnt seem that lazy or uninformed
whenever there was an election. Most of them were really opinionated and inter-
ested in various issues„who is Strauss to say who
s ignorant? For that matter, why
vs modern
With her prewriting, diagramming, and a rough outline in hand, Kelly decided
to work on a first draft.
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38: OTHER PUNCTUATION MARKS
451
PART 4
HANDBOOK OF
SENTENCE SKILLS
ACTIVITY
An em-dash signals a pause longer than a comma but not as long as a period. A dash
(An em-dash is not the same as a hyphen. See the hyphen section below.) Use
Place colons where needed in the sentences below.
1.
card or a cheque made out to the university.
The road was closed because of an emergency an enormous tree had fallen and
blocked both lanes.
ACTIVITY
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PART 3: SPECIAL SKILLS AND RESEARCH
Integrating a Quotation with Your Own Introduction
MLA style:
E.A. Thompson, in
The Huns,
argues that Rome did not fall because of
the force of one powerful leader: There is not much evidence to show that Attila
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1: AN INTRODUCTION TO WRITING
PART 1
ESSAY WRITING
1.
Now, choose four of those situations, and as a group decide and make notes
case, a sense of humour is beneficial.
Finally, come up with a
reason a sense of humour is valuable in
Write that reason in a sentence or two. Your group now has a trial thesis.
Next, assume you will write an essay based on your groups thesis for each of these
audiences:

Your friends

Your instructor

Your manager or boss at your summer or part-time job
Would you use the same four situations you chose above as supporting examples
to back up your thesis for each of these audiences? If not, work out some situations
that would be good supporting examples for each group of readers.
Which situations did you choose for each audience, and why? Did you have to
come up with new situations for any audience, and why?
In general, which audience would be most interested in the essay you wrote for
them? Why? Which audience would be least interested? Why?
Choose an overall purpose for writing an essay to each of these audiences. Will you
write to inform, to persuade, or to entertain? Why?
ACTIVITY 5
Final Thoughts
As you finish this chapter, you may think, Well, thats a lot of information, but what
Following is a preview of four general steps that make up an effective plan for
practical strategies for discovering what to write.
Four Steps for Effective Essay Writing
1.
Discover your point and advance a clear thesis
statement.
Support your thesis with specific evidence.
3.
Organize and connect your specific evidence.
Revise, edit, and proofread your essay.
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452
PART 4: HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE SKILLS
Place em-dashes where needed in the following sentences.
1.
The victims leg broken in three places lay twisted at an odd angle on the pavement.
1.
The light-footed burglar silently slipped open the sliding-glass door.
Feist was interviewed on George Stroumboulopouloss early-evening show; she
talked about her father, the abstract-expressionist painter.
Sunday dinners are always a treat because my mother-in-law is a top-notch cook.
Use a hyphen to divide a word at the end of a line of writing or typing. When you
Hyphen (-)
ACTIVITY
Parentheses ( )
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PART 1: ESSAY WRITING
Why is knowing your audience so essential
to good writing?
How will clarifying your purpose help you
Why is essay writing such an important
skill?
What is tone? How do you create tone in
writing? How does your tone relate to your
audience?
How do you state your point in an essay?
What does a thesis do? How does your
thesis relate to your audience?
Define voice in writing. Which voice is
preferable for essay writing and why?
Describe the structure of an essay. What are
its main parts?
Be sure that you have understood and reached the learning outcomes for this chapter.
Answer the following questions:
Checklist of Learning Outcomes for Chapter 1
Practice and Learn online with Connect.
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5: REVISING YOUR ESSAY: USING THE BASES FOR EFFECTIVE WRITING
PART 1
ESSAY WRITING
Revising is as essential as prewriting, outlining, and drafting. Your first draft is your
attempt to put your ideas into sentences in the shape of an essay. When you revise,
you are evaluating and rewriting as you work on the entire content and structure of
your essay. Professional writers say writing
revising. In other words, the work of
revising, restating, and restructuring is what creates a good piece of writing.
Typically, students confuse revising with editing or proofreading; they look
Revis-

Building on existing strengths in your draft

Evaluating your draft according to accepted standards for essay writing

Rewriting your draft based on your evaluation
Have you shied away from revising simply because there seemed to be no estab-
This book offers you an established, effective pattern for revising. In fact, the
process you have followed in writing your essay, from refining your thesis statement
through rigorous outlining and evaluating of your support, has prepared you for
revising. The goals you worked with throughout the writing process are those you will
Go through these checklists each time you revise an essay. Eventually the steps will
become automatic.
1.
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PART 3
SPECIAL SKILLS AND
19: WRITING AND DOCUMENTING A RESEARCH PAPER
311
Integrating a Quotation by Embedding the Source
MLA style:
Filmmaking began in America as the work of what we like to call
rugged individualists,Ž asserts Kolker, despite the fact that Edison was a company
that created many things besides filmŽ (110).
APA style:
Filmmaking began in America as the work of what we like to call rug-
ged individualists,Ž asserts Kolker (2006), despite the fact that Edison was a com-
pany that created many things besides filmŽ (p. 110).
Integrating a Paraphrase by Embedding the Source
MLA style:
American movie-makers were, initially at least, hardy independent
operators, asserts Kolker„even Edison, for whom movies were only one of hun-
dreds of enterprises (110).
APA style:
American movie-makers were, initially at least, hardy independent
operators, asserts Kolker (2006)„even Edison, for whom movies were only one
of hundreds of enterprises (p. 110).
Identify Your Source Following Your Quotation or Paraphrase
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PART #
PART TITLE
PART 4
HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE
25: ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT VERBS
377
ways of expressing time in English.
Tip:
In your writing,
choose one verb tense
and be consistent. If
youre writing in the pres-
ent tense, for example,
stick to the present
throughout (unless, of
course, you need to shift
tenses for logic).
Tenses
Examples
Simple Tenses
Present
work.
Tony
works.
Past
worked
on her report.
Future
You
will work
on a new project next week.
Perfect Tenses
Present perfect
We
have hired
two salespeople.
Patricia
to form a union for contract
workers.
The present perfect most commonly refers to an action that took place in the past, at a time
specified. With certain verbs that suggest a prolonged activity, the present perfect
can indicate an action that starts in the past and continues until the present.
We
have applied
for hospitality jobs in
Whistler.
Roxa
Royal Bank in Moncton.
Past perfect
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38: OTHER PUNCTUATION MARKS
453
PART 4
HANDBOOK OF
SENTENCE SKILLS
REVIEW TEST
( )
-
( )
;
-
;
:
Practice and learn online with Connect.
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PART 4: HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE SKILLS
Tenses
Examples
Progressive (or Continuous) Tenses
Present progressive
am working
on my speech for the upcoming
conference.
You
are working
too hard.
The printer
not working
properly.
Past progressive
was working
at home today.
The chefs
were working
on their new recipes.
Future progressive
My son
will be working
in our store this
summer.
Progressive or continuous tenses, as the word
continuous
suggests, refer to ongoing actions in
the present, past, or future.
Present perfect progressive
Milos
has been working
late this week.
(Milos began
working
late earlier this week, and
continues to do so.
Past perfect progressive
Until yesterday, I
working
nights.
worked
nights for some time in the past, and
continued to do so
until yesterday. The action,
while continuous, was
Tip:
verbs as linkingŽ verbs.
Heres a sentence with a
linking verb:
Molly is happy.
In this sentence, the verb
links the word
happy
to
the subject
Molly.
Used as Helping Verb
I
was angry
to be laid off work.
I
was growing
angry to have been laid off work.
Jill
There are three common verbs that can either stand alone or combine with (and
helpŽ) other verbs. Here are the verbs and their forms:
Here are examples of the verbs:
be (am, are, is, was, were, being, been)
do (does, did)
have (has, having, had)

Helping Verbs
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312
PART 3: SPECIAL SKILLS AND RESEARCH
other languages. These musicals provide the charts with nearly all pop-music
hits, points out Titon in
Worlds of Music
(150).
APA style:
Cine musicŽ and film musicŽ are synonyms for Indian popular music.
Popular cinema in much of India means movie musicals in Hindi or Tamil, among
other languages. These musicals provide the charts with nearly all pop-music
hits, points out Titon (2001) in
Worlds of Music
(p.150).
Step 4 Preview: Document Your Research
and Prepare a Works CitedŽ or
ReferencesŽ List
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The Writing Process:
LEARNING OUTCOMES
After reading this chapter and working through its
deepen your understanding of the writing process
be ready to use prewriting strategies to generate
review the steps for creating an effective essay
narrow a subject into a topic appropriate for an essay
use forms of questioning to develop a thesis
statement
write more effective thesis statements
The stages you will go through in structured writing situations, such as those you find
Thinking and Writing„Starting the Process
Writing is not creating a perfectly formed essay on your first try„no one does that.
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PART 2
PATTERNS OF ESSAY
DEVELOPMENT
9: DESCRIPTION
143
Descriptive essays present vivid and accurate word pictures of their subjects. There-
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PART #
PART TITLE
PART 4
HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE
25: ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT VERBS
379
There are ten other helping verbs (traditionally known as
or
) that are always used in combination with other verbs. Here are the nine modals
and sentence examples of each:
Note from the examples that these verbs have only one form. They do not, for
when used with
or any one person or thing.
On a separate piece of paper, write ten
sentences using the ten helping verbs (modals)
listed above.
ACTIVITY
Verbals are forms of verbs. Verbals, like most verb forms, express action, but unlike
I
can see
the rainbow.
could
I
could
not
a high-paying job.
may
Verbals
An infinitive is
plus the base form of the verb.
I have
to practise
many times before making a speech.
Lina hopes
for a newspaper.
I asked my team
their travel reports.
A participle is a verb form used as an adjective (a descriptive word). The present par-
The past participle ends in
ed
or has an irregular ending, such
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313
mentation style of the
Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association,

6th edition) follows.
diagram you have seen elsewhere in this
book; it is a formalized, hierarchical display of the arrangement of your points and
Step 5 Preview: Write Your Final Draft
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PART 4: HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE SKILLS
the news that she was fired, the
crying
woman wiped her eyes.
The
man stared at his
When the subject of a sentence
of a verb, the verb is in the
When the subject of a sentence
of a verb, the verb is in the
The passive form of a verb consists of a form of the verb
plus the
Look at the active and passive forms of the verbs below:
In general, active verbs are more effective than passive ones. Active verbs give
The performance reports
were reviewed
yesterday.
(The performer of the action is unknown.)
Alan
was hurt
by your thoughtless remark.
(The receiver of the action, Alan, is being emphasized.)
Active and Passive Verbs
Active Voice
Passive Voice
Iva
proofread
the PowerPoint slides. The PowerPoint slides
were proofread
by Iva.
(The subject,
Iva,
is the doer of the
action.)
(The subject,
PowerPoint slides,
does not act.
Instead, it receives the action of proofreading.)
Marco
delivered
the paycheques.
The paycheques
were delivered
by Marco.
(The subject,
Marco,
is the doer of the
action.)
(The subject, the
paycheques,
does not act.
Instead, it receives the action of delivering.)
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144
PART 2: PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT
Melanie Oliveira, author of The Swimming Pool,Ž was given writing assignment 1,
Here is part of Melanies freewriting:
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454
Commonly Confused
Words
The commonly confused words known as
have the same sounds but dif-
Many of us rely on
spellcheck as a proofread-
ing tool. However, dont
trust your handy spell-
checker to correct your
homonyms. Spellcheck
only checks for words
that exist; it doesnt check
for meaning and cannot
Homonyms
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PART #
PART TITLE
PART 4
HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE
25: ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT VERBS
381
Change the following sentences from the passive to the active voice. Note that you
may have to add a subject in some cases.
ACTIVITY
Examples:
Practice and learn online with Connect.
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314
PART 3: SPECIAL SKILLS AND RESEARCH
What are the steps involved in writing an
effective research paper?
What is your first task when you revise your
trial outline? What are the two general
purposes of research papers?
When should you use quotations? When
should you paraphrase material? What is
one essential feature of a good summary?
What are citation styles, and what does
correct documentation tell readers?
Why is a second, or a third, revision
essential for research papers?
Checklist of Learning Outcomes for Chapter 19
Practice and learn online with Connect.
You have the fundamentals for conducting research and assembling a paper; now
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PART 2
PATTERNS OF ESSAY
DEVELOPMENT
9: DESCRIPTION
145
Kids find their regular groups„there are the little ones bouncing around at the shal-
low end with the guard, and their voices sound like bird-calls. Lots of kids start out
sitting on the edges, seeing whos there and checking each other out. Then one guy
When she revised and edited her first draft, Melanie worked on finding interesting
and colourful verbs. In the finished version of her essay find three examples of verbs
that create vivid impressions on you as a reader. She also used a few figures of speech;
find one of these and explain how it forms a picture in your mind, and how this pic-
ture relates to the overall meaning of the essay.
As she revised her draft, Melanie eliminated inconsistent pronoun voices, to
above, where she has used first person voice.
Writing Assignment 1
Write an essay about a particular place that you can observe carefully or that you
Prewriting
1.
Point of View:
Your main focus is on describing a particular location and cre-
ating a word pictureŽ in which you are the photographerŽ rather than a par-
ticipant, so using the third person approach will keep readers attention on your
subject.
Dominant Impression:
Write a short single sentence in which you name the place
or object you want to describe and the dominant impression you have about that
Writing a Descriptive Essay
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PART 1: ESSAY WRITING
While everyones writing process is a bit different, the following sequence shows
to make your work easier. There are specific strategies to assist you with each stage.
The Stages of the Writing Process
1. The Discovery Stage: Prewriting
Generate raw material, finding out what you have to say, using the creative, spontaneous parts of your
mind as you explore your thoughts. Working on the ideas you generate during prewriting helps you find a
focus, a point to which your ideas relate.
2. The Analyzing and Ordering Stage: Creating a Thesis and an Outline
Test the focus you have discovered and the point you would like to make as you develop it into a trial thesis.
Now analyze your purpose„what you want your essay to mean to your audience„and finalize your the-
sis. As you do so, you clarify your supporting points, as well. With your thesis prepared, you are ready to
use the ordering parts of your mind. Give the ideas from your prewriting a structure by creating an outline
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39: COMMONLY CONFUSED WORDS
455
PART 4
HANDBOOK OF
SENTENCE SKILLS
brake
stop
break
come apart, pause, fail to observe
course
part of a meal, a school subject, direction
coarse
rough
hear
perceive with the ear
here
in this place
hole
an empty spot
whole
entire
its
belonging to it
its
the shortened form for
it is
or
it has
knew
past form of know
new
not old
Sarah had to
brake
quickly to avoid hitting the Old Dutch chip truck.
During a
break
in the kitchen
Marie chatted with the other culinary-arts students.
Avril, a poor driver, always _____ at the last minute and usually
_____ the speed limit as well.
In my communications
course,
one of the students used
coarse
language in a pre-
sentation and shocked all of us.
Over the _____ of time, jagged, _____ rocks will be polished to
smoothness by the pounding waves.
I can
the performers so well from
here
that I dont want to change my seat.
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146
PART 2: PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT
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PART 4: HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE SKILLS
to understand
a negative
passed
went by, succeeded in, handed to
past
a time before the present; by, as in I drove past the houseŽ
peace
calm
piece
a part
plain
simple
plane
aircraft
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2: THE WRITING PROCESS: PREWRITING AND CREATING A THESIS
PART 1
ESSAY WRITING
When you use any prewriting strategy, you generate raw material and notes to lead
Stage 1: Prewriting„Exploring Your Ideas
Three common-sense tips for successful prewriting:
Neglecting any of these can
1.
Leave enough time to do a good job. You need a minimum of three days to work
through the four stages of the writing process.
2.
If you are unclear about any part of your assignment, speak to or email your instruc-
tor. Writing instructors appreciate your concern and are willing to help.
3.
If you are concerned about language or sentence-structure problems, and you delay
starting writing assignments because of this concern, ask your instructor about lan-
guage or writing-skills assistance available from your college or university. As you
begin working on these issues, you will find it less intimidating to express yourself.
Start Here: Narrow and Specify Your Topic
To generate ideas, you need a topic, a single idea you can explore in your essay. Even
Even if you narrow it to food banks in Canada,Ž you would still have enough
TIP:
College and univer-
sity essays do not deal
large subjects; they look
deeply into a single spe-
cific topic.
ACTIVITY
Here are typical lists reflecting stages you might go through in moving from a general
subject to a specific topic. Number the stages in each list from 1 to 4, with 1 indicating
the most general stage or subject, and 4 marking the specific topic.
LIST A

LIST B
Class sizes
Bicycles
Education
Dangers of bike riding

Lectures and tutorials
Transportation
Small-group learning
Personal vehicles
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PART 2
PATTERNS OF ESSAY
DEVELOPMENT
9: DESCRIPTION
147
Writing Assignment 2
Write an essay about a family portrait. (The picture may be of an individual or a group.)
1.
Your first supporting paragraph might describe the subjects faces, the second,
their clothing and jewellery, and the third, the story behind the picture.
Your first supporting paragraph might describe the people in the photograph
(and how they look); the second, the relationships among the people (and what
they are doing in the photo); and the third, the story behind the picture (time,
place, occasion, other circumstances).
Make an outline for your essay, based on the organization you have chosen.
Have I created a clear, dominant impression
of my subject in the thesis?
Have I made effective word choices, includ-
Does the essay sustain one point of view
Does the final paragraph contain ideas that
reinforce the dominant impression in the
readers mind?
Checklist of Learning Outcomes for Chapter 9
Practice and learn online with Connect.
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39: COMMONLY CONFUSED WORDS
457
PART 4
HANDBOOK OF
SENTENCE SKILLS
I applied to two colleges, Douglas and Camosun. (The first
means towardŽ; the
second
two
refers to the number of colleges
The health food store is
far away; I hear that its expensive,
too.
(The first
means overly;Ž the second
means also.Ž)
The _____ of them have been dating for a year, but lately they seem
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PART 1: ESSAY WRITING
Prewriting: Four Techniques
LIST C

LIST D

Dealing with customers
Science

Freewriting is jotting down, in rough sentences or phrases, everything you can think
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26
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PART 4: HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE SKILLS
Other Frequently Confused Words
an orange an umbrella an indication an ape an effort
Generally, you should use
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315
20
Documenting and
LEARNING OUTCOMES
After reading this chapter and working through its
use MLA documentation correctly and consistently
prepare a formal outline for your research paper
assemble, write, and revise your drafts to create an
effective research paper
Document Your Research and Prepare a Works Cited Page
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2: THE WRITING PROCESS: PREWRITING AND CREATING A THESIS
PART 1
ESSAY WRITING

Because the writing process is different for everyone, and may go backward and
forward, you may also, after doing some reading about your topic, go directly
to writing a rough draft of your essay: this is
directed freewriting,
about which
you will read more below.
General Freewriting to Generate Ideas
Jed Gawrys, a General Arts and Sciences student, was assigned the general topic of
TIP:
Feeling blocked? If,
after trying any prewrit-
ing strategy, you feel you
do not know enough
about your topic, or
would just like to try a
different way to stimulate
your thinking, do some
reading. Try searching
with keywords related to
your topic, making notes
of any relevant ideas.
Every time you make a
note, write down the URL
of the site where you
found your information. If
you have time, check the
print resources in your
schools library, and note
articles you find and the
authors names. To add
research information to
your essay, read Chapter
18 on quoting, para-
phrasing, and citing your
sources, and follow its
instructions. Doing a little
research is an excellent
preparation for future
academic and career
writing.
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39: COMMONLY CONFUSED WORDS
PART 4
HANDBOOK OF
SENTENCE SKILLS
I have learned not to take my sisters
advice
on straightening out my life.
A counsellor can
you about the courses youll need next year.
Ayesha seems so troubled about losing her job that I _____ her to
seek the _____ of a professional counsellor.
The cost of tuition will
affect
Marks decision to attend university.
If we can
effect
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PART 1: ESSAY WRITING
Writing a discovery draft is simply another, more structured type of freewrit-
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PART 4
HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE
26: FRAGMENTS
Dependent-Word Fragments
after
if, even if
when, whenever
although, though
in order that
where, wherever
since
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148
Illustration by
10
LEARNING OUTCOMES
After reading this chapter and working through its writing
assignments, you will be ready to write an essay that
uses distinct, relevant examples to support your thesis
uses appropriate forms and types of examples to
support your thesis
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PART 4: HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE SKILLS
I cant
a new skill unless someone with lots of patience
me.
Because she is quick to _____ new things, Mandy has offered to
_____ me how to prepare some Lebanese dishes.
In this strong wind, the house may
some of its
roof shingles.
The _____ plug on the irons cord was causing it to _____ heat.
Avivah seems
REVIEW TEST 1
not fastened; not tight-fitting
misplace; fail to win; no longer have
quiet
(kw´t) peaceful
quite
(kwt) entirely, really, rather
learn
to gain knowledge
teach
to give knowledge
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2: THE WRITING PROCESS: PREWRITING AND CREATING A THESIS
PART 1
ESSAY WRITING
Next, ask yourself these preliminary questions:
What is my purpose? Who is my
audience?

What is my topic?
For the moment, just put down rough answers to the
purpose
and
audience
questions; you may adjust these as you work on your ques-
tioning. Then, write your answers for the rest of your question-and-answer series.
If one question stops you, just go on to another.
Here are some questions that Tina, a student writer, might ask while developing
Questioning: A Student Model
Answers
What
is my topic and viewpoint? I do not like seeing movies in theatres.
What
is my purpose?
To explain why I dislike going to movie theatres„to
justify myself?
Who
is my audience?
People my age? Other movie fans who like or dislike
going to the theatre?
Why
dont I like to go to the theatre? Just too many problems involved.
When
is going to the movies a
problem?
Could be anytime„when movie is popular the theatre
is too crowded, when traffic is bad the trip is a drag.
Where
are problems with movie-going
On the highway, in the parking lot, at the concession
stand, in the theatre itself.
Who
creates the problems?
I do, by wanting to eat too much.

The patrons do, by creating disturbances.

The theatre owners do, by not having enough park-
ing space and showing too many commercials.
How
can I deal with the problem? I can stay home, download movies, or watch them
on DVD or cable TV.
Questioning as Second-Stage Prewriting
If you have done some general freewriting but are still not sure about a focused
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384
PART 4: HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE SKILLS
Here are two other examples of dependent-word fragments:
Tonina felt she had made some progress. Until she read her instructors critique.
The students finally submitted the exam books. That they had been agonizing over for
two hours.
is a fragment; it does not make sense stand-
Tip:
Dependent-word
fragments are often the
student writers. Be extra
careful when starting
sentences with such
words as
after, when,
while,
since
Tip:
Read sentences
out loud to find the
fragments. Are you left
hanging? Do you sense
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39: COMMONLY CONFUSED WORDS
461
PART 4
HANDBOOK OF
SENTENCE SKILLS
I spent the (hole, whole) day browsing (threw, through) the chapters in my busi-
ness textbook, but I didnt really study them.
Practice and learn online with Connect.
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PART 4
HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE
26: FRAGMENTS
ACTIVITY 2
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PART 1: ESSAY WRITING
TIP: Questioning and
Audience-Focus
If your
points explain too much
or too little for the audi-
ence you have in mind,
or if information in your
answers does not match
your audiences needs,
this is the ideal time to
change your audience-
focus or to work further
on your prewriting if your
ACTIVITY
Practise questioning by writing down a series of questions about good or bad experi-
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386
PART 4: HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE SKILLS
When an
word appears at or near the start of a word group, a fragment may
and
are
Fragments
Fragments
Fragments with
and
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2: THE WRITING PROCESS: PREWRITING AND CREATING A THESIS
PART 1
ESSAY WRITING
TIP:
If you work on the
computer, you can move
items around easily and
copy, cut, and paste
phrases into different
positions. You can keep
your document clean and
tidy as you work, making
the ordering process less
confusing. Number your
points in order of impor-
tance, or try bolding the
main points and group-
ing related ideas beneath
them in plain text. Save
any ideas about which
you are uncertain at the
bottom of the screen or
in a separate document.
ACTIVITY
Audience-Focus and List Making:
List a series of realistic goals, major or minor, that
you would like to accomplish within the next year. Your goals can involve personal,
academic, and career matters.

Now, imagine you are listing your goals for your best friend to read„revise your
list to reflect any changes.

Next, revise your list to suit your instructor as your reading audience.

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462
Choose your words carefully when you write. Always take the time to think about your
Effective Word
40
We often use
expressions when we talk because they are so vivid and colourful.
Someone
jacked
Kens new Nikes from his locker.
Randys choice of restaurant was terrible; it was an
epic fail.
Kwame is a fair reporter; he seems
The party was horrible„we had to
by 11:00 p.m.
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5: REVISING YOUR ESSAY: USING THE BASES FOR EFFECTIVE WRITING
PART 1
ESSAY WRITING
Here is his revised conclusion again:
What do fans hope to see at an NHL or NFL game? They hope to see brutal com-
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PART 1: ESSAY WRITING
or
, or
is an excellent strategy for generating
the phone
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PART 4
HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE
26: FRAGMENTS
387
Underline the
fragment in each of the examples that follow. Then make it a sen-
ACTIVITY 2
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PART 1: ESSAY WRITING
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388
PART 4: HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE SKILLS
Bob is taking a night course in accounting and finance. Also another one in mar-
ACTIVITY 2
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5: REVISING YOUR ESSAY: USING THE BASES FOR EFFECTIVE WRITING
PART 1
ESSAY WRITING
Where would you add transitional sentences to openings and closings of
paragraphs?
Choose one paragraph and add sentence-level transitions as appropriate.
Where does Jed make a note to himself about his word choice and tone? Who is
Jed continued with his revising. First he followed up on his notes, and in doing
Now, you will practise evaluating the work of other student writers, using three
and
You have encountered these bases
before, and have worked through revising with Jed.
Review: Four Bases for Writing and Evaluating Essays
Four Steps
Four Bases Defined
Discover your point, and advance
a clear thesis statement.
a single main idea pursued and
Base 1: Unity
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PART 2
PATTERNS OF ESSAY
DEVELOPMENT
10: ILLUSTRATION BY EXAMPLES
149
These specific statements add credibility and strength to the general attitude
Facts, anecdotes, statistics, and descriptions that
Note the specific examples that follow the conversational statement below:
Statement
Specific Examples
The first day of classes was
frustrating.
Student Essays to Consider
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40: EFFECTIVE WORD CHOICE
463
PART 4
HANDBOOK OF
SENTENCE SKILLS
Slang expressions have a number of drawbacks. They go out of date quickly; in fact,
by the time you read this page, the slang terms above may have gone out of use. Moreover,
even among your classmates, it may be hard to agree on what exactly terms mean. Slang
terms are tiresome, even if not used excessively in writing, and they do not communicate
A
is an expression that has been worn out through constant use. Some typical
clichés include the following:
Clichés are common in speech but make your writing seem tired and stale. Also,
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PART 1: ESSAY WRITING
ideal, Renaissance Italians look back to the ancient worlds of Greece and Rome, to
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PART 4
HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE
26: FRAGMENTS
389
Students have a lot of superstitious practices during exam weeks. Such as a wear-
ing the same shirt or sweater for three days running, so as not to change their luck.
They also carry lucky objects, like old wishbones.
Hundreds of moths were fluttering around the stadium lights. Like large flecks of
snow in a blizzard. The thirty-degree weather, though, made this form of prec
ipita-
tion unlikely.
Luc buys and sells paper collectors items. For instance, vintage comic books, trad-
Missing-Subject Fragments
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150
PART 2: PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT
past a lumber store at the village limits, people can and do miss it all the time as they zip
along Highway 121. At first glance, Keith Statas theatre looks like a two-storey wood-
panelled house. Only its small marquee, partly hidden by leafy branches, suggests that
this is not just an oversized cottage or country home. Kinmounts population is less
than four hundred people, not enough to support a movie house of any kind. But those
who climb Mr. Statas winding driveway are in for unexpected treats.
Once visitors open the large glass double doors, they leave the bush behind to
discover more surprises„a nest of well-equipped and fantastically decorated facili-
ties. Since 1979, the owner has expanded from one basement 35 mm projection
room to five air-conditioned theatres presenting a menu of current movies. The
screening rooms range in size from eighty seats up to nearly three hundred, all with
multi- channel sound systems, digital projection systems, and several feature raked-
floor stadium seating. As soon as visitors enter any one of the theatres, they are sur-
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PART 4: HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE SKILLS
1.
When I realized Id lost my textbook, I knew
I was up the creek without a paddle.
My suggestion is just a shot in the dark, but its better than nothing.
Nadine got more than she bargained for when she offered to help Larry with
hisessay.
Jacques is pushing his luck by driving a car with bald tires.
On a hot, sticky, midsummer day, iced tea or any frosty drink really hits the spot.
Lysa, a confident public speaker, was at a loss for words when she was introduced
to the Queen of England.
Even when we are up to our eyeballs in work, our boss wonders if we have enough
to do.
Write a short paragraph, describing the kind of day you had. Try to put as many
clichés as possible into your writing. For example, I got up at the crack of dawn,
ready to take on the world. I grabbed a bite to eat....Ž By making yourself aware of
clichés in this way, you lessen the chance that they will appear in your writing.
ACTIVITY 2
Eliminating unnecessary wordiness in your writing results in clear and efficient
writing. Avoid the temptation to impress your reader; instead, please your reader
Dont say this . . .
When you mean this . . .
A large number of
Many
I personally think
I think
Due to the fact that
Because
In actual fact
In fact
Underline the wordy phrases in each of
the following sentences. Then revise these
sentences to make them as concise as possible without losing their meaning.
Example:
In my personal opinion, I feel that my essay contains many important
ideas and topics that the reader will find very interesting and original.
My essay contains important, interesting, and original ideas for the
reader.
1.
Wordiness
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390
PART 4: HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE SKILLS
Each word group in the following student paragraph is numbered. In the spaces pro-
vided, write
A Review: How to Check for Sentence Fragments
1.
Read your paper aloud from the
sentence to the
13/12/13 9:16 AM
5: REVISING YOUR ESSAY: USING THE BASES FOR EFFECTIVE WRITING
PART 1
ESSAY WRITING
From the centuries of influence of George of Trebizonds
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PART 2
PATTERNS OF ESSAY
DEVELOPMENT
10: ILLUSTRATION BY EXAMPLES
151
of chocolate stimulates endorphins, or feel-goodŽ hormones that reduce stress and
blood pressure; next, dark chocolate increases the brains serotonin production, work-
ing against depression; and finally, chocolates caffeine and sugar work against fatigue
generally associated with stress and unhappiness (Balch 148). Even more recent stud-
ies show, though, that chocolate can help patients hearts as well as their minds.
Imagine having suffered a couple of serious heart attacks. Patients lose hope of
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40: EFFECTIVE WORD CHOICE
465
PART 4
HANDBOOK OF
SENTENCE SKILLS
I personally think that in this day and age new innovations in technology are the
way of the future.
At the present time, most consumers prefer to buy cars that are black in colour and
sleek in appearance.
Certain words are italicized in the following sentences. In the space provided, identify
the words as slang
cliché
or wordy
Then replace the words with more
effective word choices.
1.
Practice and learn online with Connect.
13/12/13 9:32 AM
PART 4
HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE
26: FRAGMENTS
391
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
Now re-write, correcting the fragments you have found. Attach the fragments to
to turn each fragment into a sentence.
Underline the two fragments in each example below. Then, make whatever changes
are needed to turn the fragments into sentences.
Example:

Sharon was going to charge her new suit (b) B
ut then decided to pay cash
instead. She remembered her New Years resolution (t) To
cut down on her
use of credit cards.
1.
heard Reggies footsteps behind me. I pumped my legs faster.
Slang is a form of jargon, meaning specialized language created by a group of peo-
ple. Such as a group of students living in residence at Simon Fraser university. Who
created a webpage called
Residence Vocabulary and Slang.
The law-enforcement students have to exchange their arrest reports. With their
classmates eager to criticize other students work. All students have a list of items
necessary in an arrest report. Including incident, time and date, people involved,
location, and injuries resulting.
Independence being part of a greater need for self-fulfillment. Shanice kept look-
ing for an apartment she could afford. She felt she needed to strike out on her own.
And find out who she really was.
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152
PART 2: PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT
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PART 1
ESSAY WRITING
Supporting Point 3:
Both of the following essays are unified. Which one communicates more clearly and
Essay 1
Dealing with Disappointment
One way to look at life is as a series of disappointments. Life can certainly
appear that way because disappointment crops up in the life of everyone more
often, it seems, than satisfaction. How disappointments are handled can have a
great bearing on how life is viewed. People can react negatively by sulking or by
ACTIVITY
Base 2: Support
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392
PART 4: HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE SKILLS
Practice and learn online with Connect.
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PART 1: ESSAY WRITING
blaming others, or they can react positively by trying to understand the reasons
Sulking is one way to deal with disappointment. This Why does everything
always happen to me?Ž attitude is common because it is an easy attitude to adopt,
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PATTERNS OF ESSAY
DEVELOPMENT
10: ILLUSTRATION BY EXAMPLES
153
Developing an Essay That Illustrates by Examples
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PART 1
ESSAY WRITING
TIP:
There is only one
guideline for prewriting:
go with what works for
you. When one technique
is not working, simply
stop and try another.
Occasionally, use several
techniques at once: you
may cluster and sort
through a list at the same
time. Any technique that
Once you have focused your topic and explored some related ideas, you are ready
A thesis statement is, in its simplest form, your topic and your viewpoint on
Stage 2: Creating a Thesis
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41
Introduction to the
Working with the readings in Part 5 will help you develop vital critical-thinking and
Critical-thinking and reading skills are es
sential transferable skills you will use
throughout college and university, and your career. By repeatedly following the steps
below, you will learn to focus, scan a text, and how to recognize its core or thesis.
You are developing solid supporting material for your own essays, and now, as you
Critical Thinking and Reading
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PART 2: PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT
An essay that uses examples seeks to convince readers by supporting its thesis with

What examples does the writer of Chocolate, the Delicious DrugŽ use to sup-
port and illustrate his thesis?

Based on his choices, who would his audiences be? Why would these examples
reach these audiences?
Examples are highly audience sensitive. When you write an essay that illus-
trates by examples, you must (1) evaluate how much your audience already knows
ate for your audience. For example, for a group already opposed to children
using social media, you may only need fairly common examples. However, if
your audience is undecided about the dangers of social media, you might need
more specific, more persuasive examples. If your audience is composed of social
workers or behavioural scientists, you need objective facts and statistics that only
research can supply.
Writers Tips for Essays That Illustrate by Examples
Forms and Types of Examples
Examples may be derived from your own thinking, observations, or experience. They may be anecdotes,
explanations, or descriptions of places or objects. You may use such examples for character analyses,
explanations of procedures or viewpoints, or any number of essay types. There is no one type of perfect
example.Ž The effectiveness of examples depends on the writers purpose and audience, and the type of
essay or report. Each has pros and cons.
Forms of Examples
1.
Limited (or Personal) Examples:
Drawn from personal experience, these can be effective in personal,
creative, and some narrative writing, where the readers bond with the writer is essential.
Pros:
Such examples are new to readers and have some force, if well written, because they feel authentic.
Cons:
These are limitedŽ because of their narrow, subjective nature. Not all audiences can relate to writers
personal experiences. Importantly, personal examples are not effective or acceptable in academic, busi-
ness, technical, or professional writing.
Typical Examples:
May be a fact or statistic supporting the writers point in a general way. These may be
effective as first-level support, but writers need to explain and focus such examples so they relate closely to
supporting points.
Pros:
Facts and statistics, correctly cited and from reliable sources, are easily accepted by readers and are
solid, necessary components of college and university essays and reports.
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Military service should be required in Canada.
What is your first response to the statement above? It is probably
You react to a
An effective thesis is a point that needs to be argued,
that Canada should have compulsory military service.
Without the viewpoint or controlling concept (your attitude, limiting thought, or
This essay is about military service (in Canada).
What is your response to this statement? Is it So what?Ž There is no force here,
then, do you create a thesis statement that is challenging and worthwhile to readers?
Topic Viewpoint
TIP:
In terms of
argument, the thesis
statement is a conclusion
you come to after
considering your topic,
but it is your introduction
to your argument for
your readers.
I: Thesis Development Questions
You can ask yourself certain types of questions based on your prewriting that will
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5: REVISING YOUR ESSAY: USING THE BASES FOR EFFECTIVE WRITING
PART 1
ESSAY WRITING
the car she will buy when her salary increase comes through. However, the boss
names one of Halinas coworkers to the position. The fact that all the other depart-
ment employees tell Halina that she is the one who really deserved the promotion
doesnt help her deal with the crushing disappointment. Deeply depressed, Halina
decides that all her goals are doomed to defeat. She loses her enthusiasm for her
job and can barely force herself to show up every day. Halina tells herself that she
is a failure and that doing a good job just isnt worth the work.
Another negative reaction to disappointment, and one that often follows
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PART 5
READINGS FOR WRITING
41: INTRODUCTION TO THE READINGS
467
work on reading critically, you will become skillful at critical thinking: identifying
and evaluating the supporting material that professional writers use to develop their
thesis statements.
Critical-reading skills will also help you to thoroughly explore any texts structure
increase your own range of writing techniques.
Four Steps to Effective Critical Reading
Skillful reading is an important part of becoming a skillful writer. Following is a series
Reading critically means thinking critically. Your reading goals are often similar
thing, or to deepen your understanding of some subject or situation? For college,
university, and career purposes, your goals generally are to learn about a topic
or concept and then to expand that awareness into a deeper knowledge of the
When you scan, spend a few minutes rapidly surveying a selection, looking for
important points and skipping secondary material. Follow this sequence when

Read the overview that precedes the selection, or any preface you find.

Then, study the title of the selection for a few moments. A good title is the short-
est possible summary of a selection; it often tells you in a few words„or even a
single word„what a selection is about.

Next, form a basic question (or questions) out of the title. For instance, for the
selection titled Freedom Bound,Ž you might ask, What exactly does Free-
dom Bound mean?Ž Who was bound for freedom?Ž What is the result of the
journey they made?Ž Forming questions from a title is often a key to locating a
writers thesis, your next concern in scanning.
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PATTERNS OF ESSAY
DEVELOPMENT
10: ILLUSTRATION BY EXAMPLES
155
Cons:
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ESSAY WRITING
I think I want to tell people why its a good thing for young people to join the
Canadian Forces. No, Id say its more than that. Young people should serve in
the Canadian Forces. Thats really what I think; most of us have no direction and
no idea of whats going on outside of our group of friends.
So what, then, is my viewpoint?
Young people should be required to serve in the Canadian Forces.
Who is my audience, aside from my instructor?
Other people my age, obviously„but also adults who think were lazy and not
interested in anything but ourselves„and also people who know anyone serv-
ing overseas.
Why will my topic challenge my audience(s)?
I think it will because its so different„Canadians dont think about going into
Topic and Audience-Focus:
As you can see above, your topic and audience are
interconnected. Start with broad topic number one below. Now choose one of the
audiences and develop and refine your topic into a working thesis for that audi-
ence. Repeat for audience number two, then follow the same pattern for topic
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PART 1: ESSAY WRITING
Create an outline by printing a copy from Connect. Fill in the outline with the the-
The following essays are based on the topic Diplomas, Degrees, and Success. Both are
clearly and effec-
Essay 1
Degrees of Success
Alina Dacosta started classes at the University of Victoria intending to become
a secondary-school math teacher. A few Spanish courses she took as options rein-
forced the love of the Spanish language and culture she developed during a year
studying in Ecuador. She changed her concentr
ation to Spanish and followed what
she really cared about. But many of todays students go the other direction; they
feel pressed to change programs away from their interests in order to chase high-
2
Base 3: Coherence
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PART 1: ESSAY WRITING
2.
Topic:
time management
Audiences:
your instructor, coworkers at your summer or part-time job
Working Thesis:
II: Thesis Try-Outs and Directional Questions: Refining Your Trial Thesis
Another way to discover your viewpoint for a working thesis is to work through a
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PART 5: READINGS FOR WRITING
Read the selection without slowing down or turning back; just aim to understand

Read the first and last couple of paragraphs in the selection. Very often a writers
thesis,
it is directly stated, will appear in one of these places and will relate to the title.

Finally, look quickly at the rest of the selection for other clues to important
points. Are there any subheadings that you can relate to the title in some way?
Go back and reread passages that were not clear the first time through. Look up words

What is the thesis?

What key points support the thesis?

What seem to be other important ideas in the selection?
Every time you read critically and engage with text in this way, you will
the material means and then moves to a deeper level of understanding.
Reading Skills: The Format of Each Selection
Each selection begins with a short overview that gives helpful background information
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156
PART 2: PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT
An essay that supports its thesis with examples focuses on the quality, specific nature,
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394
PART 4: HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE SKILLS
A
we
there
now
you
they
this
the
he, she, itthat
Remember to be on the alert for run-ons whenever you use one of these words in
your writing.
What Are Run-Ons?
Tip:
ways to catch a run-on is
by reading your work out
loud. As you read, look for
the subject and the verb,
and try to hear where the
natural break comes in
the sentence.
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5: REVISING YOUR ESSAY: USING THE BASES FOR EFFECTIVE WRITING
PART 1
ESSAY WRITING
notes this media reinforcement: Too often I find that stories about choosing a
college diploma or a degree point to what people have in the last few decades
considered safe-income programs, such as those on a business or science and
technology base and implicitly devalue, without reflection, other degrees as ones
that may provoke passion but do not promise career successŽ (Ramsey). The bias
reflected in Dr. Ramseys statement could continue to affect student choices;
it could also further affect the composition of postsecondary institution course
offerings, leaving some faculties and courses to wither and others to expand,
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PART 5
READINGS FOR WRITING
41: INTRODUCTION TO THE READINGS
469
Identifying key supporting points, those you would include in a summary
Making inferences (What judgments could you make, based on the ideas in the
selection?)
Answering the questions will enable you and your instructor to quickly check
deal with issues of content and also focus on matters of struc-
range from narratives to expository and persuasive essays
Lawrence Hill
I t is not easy to find original documents about the history of blacks in Canada.
century. A few enterprising students might unearth newspaper advertisements for
Even during Black History Month at your college or university, you may not see any information about
Yesterday and Today
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PART 1
ESSAY WRITING
The box below reviews the stages in developing a thesis:
General/Broad
Topic
Limited/Narrowed
Topic
Working Thesis (Limited
Topic
Viewpoint on It)
Families
Single parents
Single parents face continual
challenges.
Money
Employment insurance Collecting E.I. can be humiliating.
Food
Cooking
Learning to cook is not as much
fun as FoodTV makes it look.
Recycling
Recycling boxes in school
hallways
Students generally ignore the
recycling boxes in the halls.
Types of Thesis Statements
So far, a thesis statement has been defined as a narrowed topic plus a viewpoint on it.
The Simple Thesis
ACTIVITY
For each thesis statement below
a.
Identify the topic and the viewpoint.
b.
TIP:
Be ready to discover
new thoughts. The
writing process is rarely
straightforward; if you
are most interested in
a question unrelated to
your prewriting, just use
it as the springboard for
some additional prewrit-
ing. Your final essay will
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PATTERNS OF ESSAY
DEVELOPMENT
10: ILLUSTRATION BY EXAMPLES
157
in the brain. I checked some online resources and was surprised by how many new
discoveries there were about chocolate.Ž
He knew he had his topic„chocolate as a drug„and, as it turned out, a topic for
a longer essay for another subject. (See the Note that follows the essay.) After some
preliminary research (and after putting down the third chocolate bar), Ethan thought
he would open with the discoveries about chocolates addictive qualities and follow up
with the way it seems to lift peoples spirits. But he found more positive information
about chocolates health benefits than about its addictive possibilities.
Supporting
Supporting Example 2:
Current ScientiÞc Finding
Supporting Example 3:
Explanation
Supporting Example 1:
Supporting Example 1:
Supporting Example 1:
Supporting Example 2:
(Contradiction)
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PART 1: ESSAY WRITING
pressure. Before the dip in the economy, they had a little more opportunity to
have a year or two where they worked odd jobs, worked part time or took intern-
ships that led to other jobs,Ž notes an Alberta college counselor (Rostvecki 6).
There is, at least in Canadas economy, evidence of an upswing in most areas.
Data indicate that the choice of college or university program cant be so eas-
ily distilled into simple binaries such as study what you loveŽ or study what will
pay.Ž As Canadas economy becomes more global, changing its employment pat-
terns, those same binaries could become less and less useful as decision- making
factors. Taking this fact into account, the calculations of students too closely
focused on well-paid positions upon graduation may not necessarily add up to
assured financial success.
Essay 2
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PART 5: READINGS FOR WRITING
But even some of the keenest students might miss a little-known document offer-
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PART 3: SPECIAL SKILLS AND RESEARCH
Once you have checked each in-text citation for accuracy, you are ready to create your
Works Cited page. In this chapter are instructions for creating an accurate MLA Works
Cited page. Again, follow the instructions exactly; correctness is essential to good research.
MLA citation appears in two locations in your research paper: as an in-text citation
In the 7th edition of the
and the
MLA Handbook for Writers of
several changes have been made to MLA formatting and citation rules:

Titles of published works, such as boo
ks, magazines, journals, newspapers, mov-
ies, and CDs, are now italicized rather than underlined.

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PART 1
ESSAY WRITING
graces that make someone a good employee and compatible coworker. Compa-
nies value soft skills because research suggests and experience shows that they
can be just as important an indicator of job performance as hard skills.Ž Moreover
soft skills are inherent in the individual, not learned; they are positivity, flexibil-
ity, and the ability to work under pressure. Most often these skills, not core skills,
are the deciding factors when employers sift through heaps of resumés from well
qualified candidates.
Then, too, many students believe that core skills can only be acquired in an
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PART 5
READINGS FOR WRITING
41: INTRODUCTION TO THE READINGS
The Philipsburg Proclamation came four years later and was designed
to attract not just those capable of bearing arms,Ž but any black person, male
or female, who was prepared to serve the British in supporting roles as cooks,
laundresses, nurses, and general labourers. Issued in 1779 by Sir Henry Clinton,
commander-in-chief of the British forces, it promised: To every Negro who shall
desert the Rebel Standard, full security to follow within these lines, any occupation
which he shall think proper.Ž
It is no small irony that Lord Dunmore, who issued the first proclamation, was a
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PART 1: ESSAY WRITING
c.
Change these simple thesis statements to extended statements.
1.
The new building on our campus could be more functional if some changes
were made.
2.
Celebrities make poor role models because of the way they dress, talk, and
behave.
3.
Working as a security guard can be a stressful experience.
4.
Canadas health-care system is still superior to the U.S. system in terms of
equity and efficiency.
5.
Reality shows have changed television programming for the worse.
To make sure that you are clear about your ideas and your purpose, as you finalize
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PART 1: ESSAY WRITING
In this case, essay 2 is more effective because the material is clearly organized and
and
to assert the organizing
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PART 3
SPECIAL SKILLS AND
20: DOCUMENTING AND WRITING AN MLASTYLE RESEARCH PAPER
317
Here is the Works Cited entry to which this citation refers:
Elam, Kimberley.
Grid Systems.
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PART 5: READINGS FOR WRITING
For a time, it looked as though they would not. When the terms of the provi-
To a certain degree, they owed this opportunity to the stubborn loyalty of Sir Guy
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158
PART 2: PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT
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PART 1
ESSAY WRITING
Anyone who buys an old house and is planning to fix it up should be prepared to
put in a lot of time, hard work, money, and...
Older cars may use too much gas and...
As you revise your thesis, go through the following checklist to help you avoid com-
1. Does Your Thesis Challenge Readers with a Clear Viewpoint?
The subject of this essay will be soccer fans.
Some Vancouver high schools could close as soon as this fall.
Video gaming is the concern of this essay.
Do these sentences challenge you to think about their topics? If not, they are not
Hooliganism, riots, and racism are extreme aspects of soccer fans outrageous
loyalty.
Possible closures of some Vancouver high schools will result in less-prepared
students.
Players develop useful skills from time spent on video gaming.
Revise the following announcement-style statements so that they are simple or
extended thesis statements.
1.
Personal electronics that are popular with students is the subject of this essay.
This essays concern is near-death experiences reported by accident victims.
3.
A discussion of planning errors in the downtown area forms the core of this
paper.
The topic to be considered is loneliness.
This essay will concern itself with career-planning strategies.
2. Is Your Thesis Statement Too Broad or General for an Essay?
Disease has shaped human history.
Insects are fascinating creatures.
Since the beginning of time, men and women have been very different.
First, could you argue and accurately support any of these statements in a three-
ACTIVITY
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PART 2
PATTERNS OF ESSAY
DEVELOPMENT
14: DEFINITION
Here is her first draft:
In
What Is Liberal Education?
Leo Strauss says that Liberal education is the ladder
by which we try to ascend from mass democracy to democracy as originally meant.Ž
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PART 1
ESSAY WRITING
Review Activities
1.
Using the Revising Content and Structure section of the revision checklist, revise
one of the three supporting paragraphs in Degrees of SuccessŽ by providing a clear
Review Activity: Revising Essays for Coherence
Review Activity: Revising Essays for Unity
The following essay contains sentences that either do not relate to the thesis of the
Covering the Bases
For the past three years, Samantha has played ball with the boys.
In fact, she
plays first base with the York University mens baseball team.
The team plays a
long schedule and they are serious about the game.
In those respects, they are no
different from other university baseball teams.
In one respect, the York Lions are
different from every other team in their league in Canada„they are the first to have
a female player.
As a fourth-year psychology student, Samantha has had chances to
observe male behaviour at first hand.
Some players are tough to convince; others are
still occasionally patronizing; fortunately, most just see her as a great first base player.
At Samanthas debut game, a couple of George Brown Huskies players were not
too ready for a mixed-gender team.
During the warm-up, no one commented or paid
any special attention to Samantha, but the game itself was another thing.
A fielder
sniped, You mean youre on the starting line, with three guys still on the bench?Ž
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PART 5
READINGS FOR WRITING
41: INTRODUCTION TO THE READINGS
473
Following is a small sample of passengers listed on July 31, 1783, on the ship
heading for Port Roseway (Shelburne), Nova Scotia (GBCŽ stands for
John Green, 35, stout fellow. Formerly the property of Ralph Faulker of
and allowed to sail.
In the end, while frustrated American army officers looked on, 1,336 men, 914
Quebec, England, or Germany, but most travelled to Nova Scotia, establishing com-
Sydney, and Halifax and its nearby areas.
Although many Nova Scotians can still trace their heritage to the Black Loyalists,
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DEVELOPMENT
10: ILLUSTRATION BY EXAMPLES
159
brains that drive drug addiction and binge eatingŽ (Heroin, Opium, ChocolateŽ).
There really are chocoholics,Ž chocolate stimulates activity in the neostratium
section of the brain, creating a natural, opium-like chemical,Ž enkephalin, (
Science
Daily
Writing an Essay That Illustrates by Examples
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PART 3: SPECIAL SKILLS AND RESEARCH
Thompson, Gorbatsevich, and Evans argue against increased provincial interfer-
ence in municipal school boards (224).
The authors contend that adding to an already top-heavy bureaucracy could
only be counter-productiveŽ (Thompson, Gorbatsevich, and Evans 224).
For books with more than three authors, you will generally include the first
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Division and Classification
Argumentation and Persuasion
Part 3 Special Skills and Research
Writing a Summary
Research Skills
Writing and Documenting a Research Paper
Documenting and Writing an MLA-Style Research Paper
Documenting and Writing an APA-Style Research Paper
Part 4 Handbook of Sentence Skills
Grammar
Subjects and Verbs
Regular and Irregular Verbs
Subject…Verb Agreement
Additional Information About Verbs
Fragments
Run-Ons
Pronoun Agreement and Reference
Pronoun Types
Adjectives and Adverbs
Misplaced Modifiers
Mechanics
12/18/13 8:49 PM
PART 1: ESSAY WRITING
ACTIVITY
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PART 2: PATTERNS OF ESSAY DEVELOPMENT

How many definitions appear in the finished essay versus the first draft?

What does she add to paragraph 3 in her finished essay? How does this informa-
tion relate to the paragraphs that precede and follow it?
Writing Assignment 1
Choose a term in current popular use, such as
or
or choose a term
Writing a Definition Essay
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PART 1: ESSAY WRITING
For example, one Ravens
player on base during the first inning said to her, Careful, Hon. When you have your
foot on the bag, someone might step on it. I know its not hockey, but its a tough
game.Ž
Samantha takes most ribbing in good spirit; she laughs it off.
management is just basic psychology.
Review Activity: Revising Essays For Support
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474
PART 5: READINGS FOR WRITING
Understandably, more than one thousand Black Loyalists elected to migrate
Americas, literally navigating past slave vessels as they sailed east across the Atlan-
The
is a national treasure and deserves to be considered as such.
The (Legislative) End of the Trade in Slaves
P assed 200 years ago, the Slave Trade Act was officially titled, An Act for the Abolition of the Slave Trade.Ž
The act ended the slave trade in the British Empire, which had begun about 250 years earlier, during the
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PART 3
SPECIAL SKILLS AND
20: DOCUMENTING AND WRITING AN MLASTYLE RESEARCH PAPER
MLA In-text Citation for Non-print Sources
1.
Place the name of the author of the article in parentheses, along with a page num-
One reason we do not see blue oceans more often in print is that the unrelent-
ing pressure of the academic reward structure places a higher value on mere
publication than superlative publicationŽ (Straub iv).
Here is the Works Cited entry for the article noted above:
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2: THE WRITING PROCESS: PREWRITING AND CREATING A THESIS
PART 1
ESSAY WRITING
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PART 2
PATTERNS OF ESSAY
DEVELOPMENT
14: DEFINITION
227
Writing Assignment
In this essay, you will write with a
and for a
You work in a doctors office and have been asked to write a brochure that will
for your readers, using examples wherever
Alternatively, you might decide to take a playful point of view and write a bro-
Writing Assignment 3
Read the selection No Way Home: The Uncertain Future of Robert Thomas Payne,
Homeless ZinesterŽ by Vakis Boutsalis (Chapter 41). Consider, as you read about
Does your thesis and/or introductory para-
graph locate your subject within its class
and state how it is unique?
Does each supporting point clearly expand
on and illustrate your subject, and is the
Checklist of Learning Outcomes for Chapter 14
type of support chosen appropriate to your
subject?
Does the final paragraph summarize all
meanings presented and suggest the sig-
nificance of your particular definition?
Practice and learn online with Connect.
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5: REVISING YOUR ESSAY: USING THE BASES FOR EFFECTIVE WRITING
PART 1
ESSAY WRITING
sadness.
When I sing, I pour my emotions into the music and dont have to feel shy.
For this reason, I enjoy singing certain kinds of music the most since they demand
real depth of feeling.
Review Activity: Revising Voice and Point of View
Revise the essay above so that it is written in third person point of view. Tip: start by
for
and
then see what other variations on this substitution
you can come up with.
Review Activity: Revising Essays for Coherence
The essay that follows could be revised to improve its coherence. Answer the ques-
Noise Pollution
Natural sounds„waves, wind, bird songs„are so soothing that companies sell
CDs of them to anxious people seeking a relaxing atmosphere in their homes or cars.
One reason why environmental soundsŽ are big business is the fact that ordinary
citizens„especially city dwellers„are bombarded by noise pollution.
On the way to
work, on the job, and on the way home, the typical urban resident must cope with a
continuing barrage of unpleasant sounds.
The noise level in an office can be unbearable.
From nine to five, phones and
fax machines ring, modems sound, computer keyboards chatter, intercoms buzz, and
copy machines thump back and forth.
Every time the receptionists cant find people,
they resort to a nerve-shattering public address system.
And because the manag-
ers worry about the employees morale, they graciously provide the endless droning
of canned music.
This effectively eliminates any possibility of a moment of blessed
silence.
Travelling home from work provides no relief from the noisiness of the office.
The ordinary sounds of blaring taxi horns and rumbling buses are occasionally
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PART 5
READINGS FOR WRITING
41: INTRODUCTION TO THE READINGS
475
Reading Comprehension Questions
1.
The word
indentured
in slaves or indentured servantsŽ (paragraph 7) means
a.
unrestricted
b.
bound by contract
c.
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PART 1: ESSAY WRITING
Below are examples of how the four prewriting techniques discussed in this chapter
1.
Identify each technique by writing F (for freewriting), Q (for questioning), L (for
list making), or C (for clustering) in the answer space.
Some of these examples demonstrate a second stage of prewriting. Which exam-
ples do so, and why?
Review Activity: Prewriting
Never enough time
Miss parties with people in my program
Had to study (only two free hours a night)
Gave up activities with friends
No time to rewrite essays
Cant stay at school one minute after I finish
Friends dont call me to go out any more
Sunday no longer relaxing day„have to study
Missing sleep I need
Marks arent as good as they could be
Cant just watch TV weeknights
Really need the money
Tired when I sit down to study at nine oclock
What
are some of the problems
of combining work and college?
Schoolwork suffers because I dont have enough time to study,
rewrite essays, or do enough research. Ive had to give up
things I enjoy, like sleep and ball hockey. I dont have any time
for RTV parties because I have to go to work as soon as my last
class is over.
How
have these problems
changed my life?
My marks are not as good as they were when I wasnt working.
Some of my friends have stopped calling me. My relationship
with a girl I liked fell apart because I couldnt spend time with
her. I miss TV.
What
Review Activities
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320
PART 3: SPECIAL SKILLS AND RESEARCH
8.
Meyer Spacks, Patricia.
Boredom: The Literary History of a State of Mind.
1st ed.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996. 11. Print.
Notice that the second line of the entry is indented by five spaces.
Two or More Entries by the Same Author
Nuland, Sherwin B.
The Mysteries Within: A Surgeon Reflects on Medical Myths.
New
York: Simon & Schuster, 2000. Print.
… … …

The Soul of Medicine.
New York: Kaplan, 2009. Print.
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PART 1: ESSAY WRITING
punctuated by the ear-piercing screech of car brakes.
Taking a shortcut through the
park will bring the weary worker face to face with chanting religious cults, freelance
musicians, screaming children, and barking dogs.
None of these sounds can com-
pare with the large radios many park visitors carry.
Practice and learn online with Connect.
How can you achieve unity in your essays?
How can you make supporting evidence
effective?
Checklist of Learning Outcomes for Chapter 5
What three items might you put on a check-
list for achieving coherence in your essays?
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476
PART 5: READINGS FOR WRITING
About Content
1.
Explain in your own words what the
was, and what its importance
was to American Blacks during the American Revolution.
How does the
Book of Negroes
function as a research tool? Why is it of special
importance?
What was Lord Dunmores motivation in
issuing his proclamation, according to
Hill? How does the Philipsburg Proclamation differ from the Dunmore Proclama-
tion in what it offers?
About Structure
4.
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You divide and classify every day. You
when you break down a single item
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