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UNITED NATIONS
E-GOVERNMENT
SURVEY
2018
GEARING E-GOVERNMENT TO SUPPORT TRANSFORMATION
UNITED NATIONS
New York, 2018
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Aairs
Disclaimers
The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do
Foreword
To full the far-reaching potential of the transformative 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development,
Acknowledgements
The 2018 United Nations E-Government Survey is the product of collective efforts of the United
Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA), Division for Public Institutions and Digital
Government (DPIDG), formerly named as the Division for Public Administration and Development
United Nations interns who assisted in research and data collection and verication, collecting case
studies, and formatting the Survey, included: Abdussalam Naveed, Aikanysh Saparalieva, Aly El-Samy,
Engaging United Nations Volunteers in the Survey
The 2018 edition continued to engage United Nations Online Volunteers (UNVs) in order to cover
most primary languages of the 193 UN Member States. Since the Survey won the UN Volunteer
Award in 2013, the 2018 edition was able to attract 197 volunteers with knowledge of 66 languages
Acronyms
AAL Average Annual Loss
AGESIC Agency for e-Government and Information and Knowledge
RSS Rich Site Summary
SDG Sustainable Development Goals
SIDS Small Island Developing States
SMS Short Message Service
TII Telecommunication Infrastructure Index
UIDAI Unique Identication Authority of India
UN/CEFACT United Nations Centre for Trade Facilitation and E-business
UNDESA United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs
UNECE United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
UNESCAP United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacic
UNICEF United Nations Childrens Fund
UNOOSA United Nations Ofce for Outer Space Affairs
UNOSSC United Nations Ofce for South-South Cooperation
WPSR World Public Sector Report
Foreword
Acronyms
5.3 Progress in online service delivery 96
5.4 Trends in Open Government Data 107
5.5 Trends in mobile service delivery 109
5.6 E-participation: public engagement for innovative public e services delivery 110
References
Chapter 6 Regional development and country groupings performance 127
6.1. Introduction
6.2. Regional rankings
6.3 The situation in the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) 142
6.4 Landlocked Developing Countries (LLDCs) 143
6.5 The situation in Small Island Developing States (SIDS) 144
References
Chapter 7 Improve cities resilience and sustainability through e-government
assessment
7.1. Introduction
7.2. Local Level e-Government 152
7.3 Current Status of Local Online Services: a Pilot Study 154
7.4. Using Local e-Government to Advance SDG implementation 171
References
Chapter 8 Fast-evolving technologies in e-government: Government Platforms,
Articial Intelligence and People 177
8.1. Introduction
8.2. Harnessing fast evolving technologies 178
8.3. Deep Dive into a cluster of new technology revolving around data 183
8.4. Deep dive into a cluster of new technology revolving around AI and Robotics 187
1.1 Compendium of national institutional arrangements for implementing the 2030
Agenda for Sustainable Development 3
1.2 Tax Administration Division, Republic of Korea (2018 UNPSA Winner) 6
1.3 Policy integration for the Sustainable Development Goals 7
1.4 Santiago: Ingredients for a smart sustainable city 10
1.5 Prime Ministry Communication Center (BMER), Turkey 12
1.6 The United Nations Public Service Forum and Awards Ceremony 13
6.1 UN Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) work on selected areas in ICTs 134
6.2 Case Study on Mauritius Vision 2030 Blueprint 134
6.3 Case Study on Agenda Uruguay Digital 2020 136
6.4 Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) 137
6.5 Case Study on the Republic of Koreas e-Government Master Plan 2020 137
6.6 The World Government Summit 138
6.7 UN-ESCWA and eGovernment in the Arab Region 139
6.8 Case Study on Denmarks Digital Strategy 2016-2020 141
Figures
5.16 Government vacancies online, 2016 and 2018 106
5.17 Availability of basic, advanced and very advanced services on national e-government
5.18 Countries with Open Government Data Portal and/or Catalogues in 2014, 2016
and 2018
5.19 Functionalities of Open Government Data Portals, 2018 108
5.20 Trends in open government data, by sector, 2016 and 2018 109
5.21 Trends in Mobile Apps and SMS Services usage by sectors in 2016 and 2018 110
5.22 Mobile Services Delivery by Sector 110
5.23 Trends in xed broadband subscriptions in 2016 and 2018 111
5.24 Trends in active wireless-broadband subscriptions in 2016 and 2018 111
5.25 Trends in mobile phone subscriptions in 2016 and 2018 112
5.26 Number of countries grouped by EPI levels in 2016 and 2018 113
5.27 Distribution of 62 countries with Very-High EPI level by region, 2018 (compared
with the regions percentage in total 193 countries) 116
5.28 Number of countries offering archived information in 2016 and 2018, by sector 118
5.29 Number of countries with online engagement tools on national portals and their
Tables
2.1 A selection of digital divides - from access to useful usage. 34
3.1 Top 10 Member States with the highest commitment to cybersecurity. 50
3.2 E-resilience and Role for ICT in Disaster Risk Management 53
4.1 Top 10 Member States with the highest commitment to cybersecurity. 70
4.2 Global cybersecurity activities 79
5.1 Countries grouped by EGDI levels 86
5.2 Leading countries in e-government development 89
5.3 Countries grouped by Level of Online Service Index (OSI), 2018 96
5.4 Trends in transactional online services 99
5.5 Online services provided to vulnerable groups, regional distribution, 2018 103
5.6 Summary of assessed e-participation features 113
5.7 Top 10 Performers in 2018 114
5.8 Countries grouped by E-participation Index levels 114
5.9 Countries that have advanced more than 30 positions in the 2018 EPI ranking 117
6.1 Top 10 countries for e-government in Africa 135
6.2 Top 10 countries in e-government in the Americas 136
6.3 Top 10 countries for e-government in Asia 138
6.4 Level of e-government development in Gulf Cooperation Council member states 138
6.5 Level of e-government development in European Union member states 140
6.6 Top 10 countries for e-government in Oceania 142
6.7 Top 10 countries for e-government - Least Developed Countries (LDC) 143
6.8 Top 10 countries for e-government - Landlocked Developing Countries 144
6.9 Top 10 countries for e-government - Small Island Developing States 145
7.1 LOSI Criteria and Indicators 156
7.2 Pilot Cities Prole
7.3 Ranking of cities
7.4 Percentage of indicators per criteria that scored by percentage of cities. 162
About the
Survey
Background
2018 United Nations E-Government Survey
(hereinafter referred to as the
Survey
at the time of key rapid technological changes, with Member States in the third year of the
implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The Survey provides new analysis
and evidence to further utilize the potential of e-government to support the 2030 Agenda. This
particular edition examines how governments can use e-government and information technologies
Survey
Survey
As a composite indicator, the EGDI is used to measure the readiness and capacity of national
institutions to use ICTs to deliver public services. This measure is useful for government ofcials,
The preparatory process of the 2018
Survey
has included a number of activities. The rst was to
outsource an external evaluation of the eGovernment Survey for the period 2003-2016
evaluation took a look at the history of the e-Government Survey and answered a number of
questions aimed at evaluating the overall program. It then summarized a number of observations,
What was changed in the 2018 edition compared to 2016
The questionnaire to assess the government portals, Online Service Questionnaire (OSQ), was
No One Behind, with a particular focus on Goal 16, namely accountability, effectiveness, inclusiveness,
In regard to the OSQ, further automated tools were used to assess accessibility and presentation
of websites in smart phones and on other small-screen devices.
For the rst time, the list of the OSQ areas assessed in this edition of the UN E-Government
References:
1 See, for reference,
2 Edward M. Roche (2017).
Evaluation of the UN E-Government Survey for the period 2003-2016
. [online] Available at:
Executive Summary
2018 UN E-Government Survey,
with the overall theme gearing e-government to support
The Survey highlights the many and complex opportunities for deploying e-government to
E-government for leaving no one behind
Survey
According to the
Survey
, since 2012, there has been a steady increase in the number of country
websites with information about specic programmes beneting women and children, persons
with disabilities, older persons, indigenous people, and people living in poverty. Increasingly,
United Nations Member States are addressing the needs of marginalized groups through more
Survey
presents an overview of natural disasters, the consequent loss of life and economic
devastation, and the ways in which countries and regions are affected differently. Natural disasters
continue to constrain the efforts of Member States in achieving the sustainable development
goals. Particularly worrisome is the exposure and vulnerability of landlocked least developed
do not have adequate coping mechanisms, especially when faced with multiple hazards. The
losses incurred from damaged infrastructure, such as schools and homes, and health facilities,
Global accords such as the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, which
Building the resilience of e-government
Cybersecurity is a key factor in the transformation to resilient e-government. Security measures
Global and regional trends in e-government
E-government has been growing rapidly over the past 17 years since the rst attempt of the
United Nations to benchmark the state of e-government in 2001. The
2018 Survey
a persistent positive global trend towards higher levels of e-government development. In
this edition, 40 countries scored
Very-High
as compared to only 10 countries in 2003, and 29 countries in 2016. Since 2014, all 193
Member States have been delivering some form of online presence. The average world EGDI
has been increasing from 0.47 in 2014 to 0.55 in 2018 due to the continuous improvement
of its subcomponents indices. This suggests that globally, there has been steady progress in
improving e-government and public services provision online. But despite some development
gains and major investments made in several countries, the e-government and digital divides
persist. Fourteen countries in the Low-EGDI group are African and belong to the least developed
Denmark, followed by Australia and the Republic of Korea, lead the world in providing
in Africa as the pace of technological innovation intensies. Finally, in order to build a well-
functioning e-government, countries need to strengthen investments in developing human
capital and telecommunication infrastructure.
According to the
Survey
, the complexity of e-government in promoting accountable,
effective, inclusive, transparent and trustworthy public services that deliver people-centric
outcomes is growing. Currently, there are trends in deploying e-services, especially in health,
education, the environment, and decent employment, while the reach to the most vulnerable
is expanding. The major drivers of the EGDI, as well as trends in open government data, public
Transforming cities to increase resilience and sustainability
Survey
provides an overview of assessment models and presents the ndings of a pilot study,
carried out in 40 municipalities around the world. The challenges and opportunities of applying
e-governance to local government units are presented through specic cases. E-government
improves public services, citizen engagement, and transparency and accountability of authorities
Fast-evolving technologies aecting e-government and possible
Today, fast-evolving technologies have a potential to transform the traditional way of doing
things across all functions and domains of government as well as the ways in which ICTs
offer governments an unprecedented opportunity to achieve sustainable development and
improve the well-being of their citizens. The challenge lay in the fact that the speed with which
technology is evolving surpasses the speed with which governments can respond to and use
ICTs to their advantage.
Intelligence including cognitive analytics, robotics, bots, high-performance and quantum
computing. It explains how forces driving such technologies are the result of long-term and
painstaking research and development, their use by businesses and citizens as well as the
policies, services and regulations, but many of these instruments are slow in being brought to the
At the United Nations Summit held in New York in September 2015,
world leaders adopted an ambitious road map to guide the sustainable
development of all countries over the next 15 years. This new Agenda
entitled Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Preconditions for e-government
to accelerate the building of
sustainability and resilience 2
1.2.1. Political commitment and public
trust in e-government 2
1.2.2. National policy alignment 3
1.2.3. About resilience and SDGs 4
1.2.4. Public Trust 5
1.2.5. Policy integration and coherence
in e-government approaches 7
1.3 E-government strategies for
sustainability and resilience 14
1.3.1 Ensuring access for all to
inclusive public services 14
1.3.2. E-government as a sustainable
development platform 16
1.3.3. ICT-enabled public institutions 17
1.3.4. User-centricity and co-creation
of public services 118
1.4 Challenges, risks and vulnerabilities 20
1.4.1. The need for adequate strategies
and response systems 20
1.4.2. Technological misuse, distortion
and risks 21
1.4.3. The complex roles of technology
1.5 Conclusions 22
Photo credit: pixabay.com
1.2 Preconditions for e-government to accelerate the building of
sustainability and resilience
1.2.1. Political commitment and public trust in e-government
ambitious national responses to the overall implementation of this Agenda. The Agenda notes
It is recommended that governments exploit the potential of ICTs through coherent public sector-
wide policies closely aligned with the broader national policies aimed at delivering the SDGs. Being
Box 1.1. Compendium of national institutional arrangements for implementing
In order to implement the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the SDGs, many
countries have been adapting their policy and institutional frameworks and are actively mobilizing
all parts of government, parliaments, supreme audit institutions, as well as non-state actors.
reects institutional approaches taken by countries facing different contexts and circumstances.
The compendium aims at facilitating exchanges on institutional practices and lessons learned
among governments and other stakeholders, thereby helping them to support the realization
of the SDGs. The compendium, prepared by the Division for Public Institutions and Digital
Government of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, initially covered
22 UN Member States, which chose to present reviews of progress on the SDGs at the 2016
HLPF, and then was expanded to cover additional 43 countries that presented Voluntary National
Source:
The Survey will explore ways to move in that direction. The theme will be examined against the
backdrop of an analysis of the trends in e-government development worldwide.
1.2.3. About resilience and SDGs
The HLPF in 2018 will focus on the theme of Transformation towards sustainable and resilient
Building public trust for effective e-government outcomes is another fundamental step towards
achieving the SDGs. This will depend primarily on implementation of sound public policy that reects
peoples priorities on institutional performance and on the equal access to quality public services. For
Box 1.2. Tax Administration Division, Republic of Korea (2018 UNPSA Winner)
Since the global economic crisis in 2008, the increase in social welfare spending has constrained
the nances of national and local governments. The seriousness of the local scal crisis caused by
various irregularities of public ofcials and the poor nancial management of the heads of local
governments demonstrated the need for the integrity and transparency of local nance. In this
process, the local scal system based on control and management has shifted to the direction of
securing transparency through active participation of residents and scal innovation. In the Republic
Ghttps://www.nts.
technologies through appropriate ICT management strategies, which enhance policy integration and
1.2.5. Policy integration and coherence in e-government approaches
The 2030 Agenda emphasizes the importance of the integrated nature of the SDGs. Acknowledging
Box 1.3. Policy integration for the Sustainable Development Goals
World Public Sector
un.org/en/Research/
World-Public-Sector-
Alliances across government allows for coordination of policies and strategies and their
implementation. Such joint efforts can leverage the maximum potential, avoid redundant or
overlapping investments, exploit synergies, and introduce a culture of sharing. Of utmost importance
is avoiding fragmentation and achieving effective cooperation within a collaborative governance
structure that involves all relevant players. However, coordination among relevant stakeholders, such
and do not take into consideration those of other entities. This fragmentation severely hampers the
Sustainable development cannot be achieved by governments efforts alone. Partnerships are a
fundamental pillar of SDG 17. Since the Agendas adoption, arrangements have been developed
to ensure information sharing and accountability, and the launch of new partnerships at the global,
regional and national levels, including public-private partnerships and multi-stakeholder partnerships.
Such partnerships exist across many of the SDGs. For example, the overall review of the General
Box 1.4. Santiago: ingredients for a smart sustainable city
The smart city pilot development programme Santiago of Tomorrow, initiated in 2013, seeks
to improve quality of life for its inhabitants by increasing access to energy and emphasizing its
sustainable use, and creating environmentally friendly smart homes. Some 85 per cent of Santiagos
population of 5.12 million, which represents 40 per cent of Chiles population overall, lives in
urban areas. In 2017, Santiago was named one of the top smart cities in Latin America, a ranking
that includes a focus on resources and opportunities for older people and people with disabilities,
. In Santiago, there are business and innovation strategies
for diversifying the economy away from primary industries by attracting massive ICT infrastructure
investment. Another initiative is the Start-Up Chile programme of 2010, which aimed to establish
Chile as the denitive innovation and entrepreneurial hub of Latin America. There is also a
strong focus on energy, and Chile ranked in the global top 10 for the most sustainable buildings
with investments in green infrastructure, including renewable energy. In terms of mobility, the citys
http://www.
public sector - and strategizing on ways to engage the private sector and ensure that it augments
implementation of the SDGs. The public sector, as the main driver of public services, must be able to
deliver high-quality, user-friendly services. That, in turn, requires capacities, skills, nancial support,
human resources, structures, policies and strategies, as well as legal and regulatory frameworks.
At the strategic level, careful policy design is needed, supported by evidence and analysis reliable
enough to enable sound political judgments about which public services to offer and how to do so.
In short, the services provided should align with need and produce the intended social, economic
and environmental outcomes.
of life and material destruction. At the same time, ICT use requires adequate infrastructure for
1.2.7. Eective institutions in transforming and innovating government
In its resolution on Promoting Public Sector Leadership,
the UN Economic and Social Council
(ECOSOC) stressed that governments have the central role in SDG implementation, and notes that
Source: https://www.
cimer.gov.tr/
Box 1.5. President Communication Center (CIMER), Turkey
The President Communication Center (CIMER), previously called the Prime Ministry Communication
Center (BIMER), is an important project that was launched in 2006 as an electronic public
at large, and to launch initiatives to build the awareness and commitment of civil servants at all
levels to the vision of the 2030 Agenda. It also invites governments to build the capacities and skills
of civil servants in areas such as integrated and coherent policymaking, planning, implementation,
foresight, consultation, evidence-based reviews of progress and the collection and use of statistics
and data. The resolution further encourages governments to redouble efforts to ensure respect
Box 1.6. The United Nations Public Service Forum and Awards Ceremony
The UNPSA is a prestigious international recognition of excellence in public service. It promotes
and rewards innovation and excellence in public services for realizing the SDGs and the principle
Many innovative approaches around the world make public services more effective, efcient and
often transformative. These cases were recognized during the annual United Nations Public Service
Awards (UN PSA) programme (please see Box 1.6.).
Signicant population changes, such as increases in both the number and proportion of elderly, birth
city.
Therefore, it is not surprising that in many countries, ICT-enabled technologies are increasingly
being used to design and deliver innovative public services. This trend is likely to increase signicantly
in the future with lessons already being drawn. The processes of public service design, delivery and
use depend largely on the preconditions, related to the policy, strategy and capacities of the public
sector, and collaboration among actors. The overarching aim is to provide good quality public services
across the main sustainable development pillars of social, economic and environmental need, and,
1.3 E-government strategies for sustainability and resilience
1.3.1 Ensuring access for all to inclusive public services
There are many examples where ICTs are being used with tremendous effect in delivering public
services to lower-income, developing countries and emerging economies. Such examples spotlight
the ways in which ICTs can make huge differences in public service delivery. In developing countries,
in particular, non-digital service delivery channels, such as traditional post ofces, telephone call
centres, over-the-counter face-to-face services in citizen centres, as well as television and radio,
remain important. However, those can be signicantly improved by adding a digital channel, for
In early 2018, a Danish ICT company, in collaboration with the Ministry of Communications in
Ghana, launched an affordable and sustainable connecting the unconnected project in four
rural communities in western Ghana, prior to it being rolled out across the country. A base station
gifec.gov.gh/
Box 1.8. USA:
Text4Baby
Text4Baby provides information to expectant and new mothers about how to take care of
themselves and their baby while pregnant and during the babys rst year of its life. The women
most at risk often come from a disadvantaged background and thus have limited access to
https://www.
text4baby.org/
The use of mobile devices assists in nding and exploiting suitable water resources by showing the
reality of a situation on the ground. The data collected is used to make decisions aimed at establishing
the sustainability and quality of water services. The so-called Water Point Mapping (WPM) in Rwanda
1.3.2. E-government as a sustainable development platform
Viewing e-government as a platform for resilience and sustainable development arises directly
out of the open governance approach. In that context, a platform means an open environment
and data ecosystem, with clear standards and guidelines, tools and resources. The aim is to invite
with public health authorities about their treatment.
In India, a non-governmental organization has
supplanted the role of government in rooting out corruption with its anti-corruption initiative, I Paid
1.3.3. ICT-enabled public institutions
The increasing use of ICTs by institutions has also dramatically impacts public services and their
However, institutions in many developing countries still have not been able to deliver basic services
like education, health, water and sanitation, as well as infrastructure and other utilities, to their
entire population. ICT use can contribute substantially to closing those gaps, given its extremely low
cost, its power of reach, and the rapidity with which it is able to be rolled out. Thus, the aim in all
countries must be to ensure access for all, including to basic services. The more developed economies
have generally achieved universal access to ICTs, so there, the focus tends to be on more advanced
and personalized ICT-enabled services as the next step. However, there are many examples of clever
1.3.4. User-centricity and co-creation of public services
Although context largely denes service design and delivery, ICTs enhance the process by focusing
increasingly on user-centricity, with well-dened needs at its core. In a growing number of cases, that
principle is complemented by the notion of user-driven and user-personalized services, where the
Box 1.9. Portugal: The modernization of public services
The modernization of public services in Portugal since the late 1990s has been driven by a policy
focused both on efciency and cost reduction, on the one hand, and high-quality services and
their multi-channel delivery on the other. These policies and strategies emphasize three principles:
rolling out citizen-centric services, administrative simplication, and the rationalization of the
administrations interoperability, costs and resource use. So-called citizen shops are one of the
http://www.
gee.gov.pt/
An example of user-centric and co-created service innovations in education is the development of
Other trends in the area of user-centricity include the bundling of related services around the life
Box 1.10. MOOCs: Massive Open Online Courses -- a global phenomenon
http://www.
1.4 Challenges, risks and vulnerabilities
Despite the successes and opportunities arising from the public sectors use of ICTs in furthering the
1.4.1. e need for adequate strategies and response systems
Good planning, mitigation systems and policies, therefore, are vital in anticipating and coping with
the burgeoning stresses and threats arising from todays increasingly fractured world.
Basic data, about both the population and the physical features of areas prone to disasters is essential
to implementing successful strategies and response systems. ICTs, in particular mobile phones,
can provide instant data from virtually any location. It is crucial to be able to collect, analyse and
visualize data during and after a disaster, such as through real time spatial applications. The ability
Governments, citizens, and businesses are increasingly using mobile technology in natural disaster
At the same time, specic threats have arisen from the way technology, especially ICTs, is developing
It is also true that technology can no longer be considered simply as a straightforward tool,
development. Although the advance of technology has created enormous new opportunities across
The transformational and facilitating power of ICTs is creating a paradigm shift in the public sector,
References
1 United Nation (2015).
Transforming our World: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable
Development. [online] Available at: https://
2 The World Bank (2016). World Development Report 2016:
[online]. Available at: http://www.worldbank.org/
3 World Economic Forum (2018). The Global Risks Report 2018. Available at: https://www.weforum.org/reports/the-global-risks-
report-2018
4 United Nations (2018).
[online] Available at: https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/hlpf/2018 -
5 UNDESA (2016).
[online] Availabe at: https://publicadministration.un.org/publications/content/PDFs/Compendium%20Public%20Governance%20
6 UNDESA (2015).
Innovative Public Service Delivery Learning from Best Practices.
[online] Available at: http://workspace.unpan.
29 Harwich, E. (2017). AI could transform the way governments deliver public services. Published in The Guardian (8 February
CHAPTER 2 E-GOVERNMENT FOR LEAVING NO ONE BEHIND
E-government for leaving
2.1. Introduction
Addressing the needs of the poorest and vulnerable groups is one of
2.1 Introduction 27
2.2 E-service delivery 30
2.2.1. Digital identities 32
2.2.2. E-participation 33
2.3 Digital divides 34
2.3.1. Infrastructure divides 35
2.3.2. A perceived lack of benets 36
2.3.3. A gender divide 37
2.3.4. Web accessibility 38
2.3.5. Digital rst 38
2.4 Digital literacy 38
2.5 Emerging divides: migrants,
2.5.1. Migrants 40
2.5.2. Country restrictions on
information access 41
2.6 Conclusion 42
Photo credit: pixabay.com
Source:
Mobile devices are proving to be helpful in bridging the access divide. Fixed- and mobile-broadband
prices are falling, making ICTs more accessible and affordable. In 2017, mobile-cellular telephone
subscriptions were estimated at 103.5 per 100 inhabitants, of which 56.4 had an active mobile-
2005200620072008200920102011201220132014201520162017*
World
CHAPTER 2 E-GOVERNMENT FOR LEAVING NO ONE BEHIND
Moreover, 83 countries indicated that they are
providing some form of mobile service through short message service (SMS), mobile apps or the
Despite this progress, most of the worlds population remains ofine. This increases the risk that
Source:
Figure 2.2. Mobile subscriptions in developed and developing countries
ChannelRelative cost unit
Telephone
Source:
UK Government Digital Efciency Report
Figure 2.3. Channel vs relative cost unit
10%
30%
50%
70%
90%
110%
130%
subscriptions: Developed
subscriptions: Developed
However, the adoption by governments of emerging technologies such as articial intelligence (AI),
blockchain, cloud computing, big data and analytics, may inadvertently create new divides. This
heightens the need for governments to create appropriate policies and regulations to stimulate
2.2 E-service delivery
There has been notable progress recently in e-services aimed at disadvantaged and vulnerable groups.
According to the Survey, the number of country websites with information about specic programmes
and initiatives to benet women, children, youth, persons with disabilities, older persons, indigenous
peoples, people living in poverty, or other vulnerable groups and communities, has been increasing
steadily since 2012. According to the United Nations Member State Questionnaire, 80 countries
out of 100 indicated that they provide specic measures to ensure egovernment use by the most
vulnerable segments of their population in 2018, up from less than 30 per cent in 2012. To track
progress, 64 of those respondents said they collect usage statistics in this area.
Figure 2.4. Number of country websites with information about specic programs/
20142018
Great emphasis is being placed on m-government services in delivering remote education, health
and other social services, which impact positively on peoples everyday lives. This is particularly
true for those in rural areas who have been previously at a disadvantage compared to their urban
counterparts. Notably, m-government provides the same opportunity in interacting with public
authorities and possibly limiting corruption in the process.
CHAPTER 2 E-GOVERNMENT FOR LEAVING NO ONE BEHIND
Emerging technologies are also enabling governments to improve e-service delivery and to adapt to
shifting needs. Drones, for example, are being used to deliver services to remote areas at a lower
cost and faster pace. In Africa, that potential is being applied across a wide range of areas, from
agriculture to health care.
Articial intelligence (AI) is also improving the efciency of service delivery to marginalized groups. In
2017, the country created a strategy for AI and appointed the worlds rst Minister of State for AI.
Figure 2.5. Number of countries with specic online government services available to
Despite the Governments commitment to maternal and child health, Mexico has continued to
lag in maternal mortality, under-ve mortality and childhood stunting. To improve its reach to its
citizens to inuence their health decisions, the Government created the Prospera Programme,
the second largest conditional cash transfer programme in the world, which provides cash to
approximately 7 million families with a per capita monthly income below the minimum welfare
line (USD $55 for rural areas and USD$ 85 for urban areas).
The Government partnered with the United Nations Childrens Fund (UNICEF) Mexico to launch
Prospera Digital, a pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT), based on behavioural science principles
https://www.
gob.mx/prospera
Box 2.1. Mexico: Automated SMS communication nudges users towards healthy habits
020406080100120140160
Women
144
134
125
128
128
120
Box 2.2. Rwanda: Drones to improve health care
In 2016, the Rwandan government signed a partnership with Zipline, an American drone company,
to cut delivery time of medical products to remote areas.
Whenever a hospital needs blood, they
simply send a WhatsApp message or place an order online, after which they receive a conrmation
that delivery is coming. When the drone is within a minute of its destination, an SMS message
is sent informing the doctor that the drone will soon dispatch the package through a parachute.
Previously, it took about four hours to deliver life-saving services such as blood to rural hospitals.
Today an estimated 1.1 billion people worldwidemostly people living in poverty, migrants, refugees,
those in rural communities and other disadvantaged groupshave no legal identity.
Sustainable
Source:
https://www.
moh.gov.rw
CHAPTER 2 E-GOVERNMENT FOR LEAVING NO ONE BEHIND
those who remain ofine. As more people gain digital identities and are able to take advantage of
2.2.2. E-participation
Source:
pmo.gov.bd/digital-
The rural poor in Bangladesh are still facing many barriers when trying to access the formal
nancial system. Financial inclusion programmes focused on branch-based banking have
failed because rural villagers deal mostly in cash, and the transaction expenses are prohibitively
Box 2.3. Bangladesh: Digital nancial inclusion initiatives
DivideDescription
Table 2.1. A selection of digital divides from access to useful usage
2.3 Digital divides
CHAPTER 2 E-GOVERNMENT FOR LEAVING NO ONE BEHIND
2.3.1. Infrastructure divides
To reap the full benets of e-government moving forward, high-speed broadband access and greater
bandwidth are necessary components. Although both xed- and mobile-broadband subscriptions
have increased signicantly around the world, the proportion of people who do not have access
Lack of access remains a particular problem in low-
2.3.2. A perceived lack of benets
Figure 2.6. English language dominance
Source:
10
20
30
40
50
60
25.5%
56%
51.5%
CHAPTER 2 E-GOVERNMENT FOR LEAVING NO ONE BEHIND
Successful examples of local content are often linked to economic incentives. In the South Indian
2.3.3. A gender divide
Source:
egov4women.
Research shows that globally there are fewer women than men online.
That gender divide
raises concerns regarding e-inclusion generally and the opportunity to take advantage of
e-government specically. In response, several global organizations, such as the International
Box 2.4. Asia-Pacic: E-government for women toolkit
2.3.4. Web accessibility
Persons with such disabilities as sight impairment are often excluded from access because most
websites are not adequately designed to handle technologies such as screen readers.
People who
rely on screen readers to read the content of websites, also rely on websites to be properly designed
Such barriers hamper use of e-government services, among others. In Europe, for example, 49 per
2.3.5. Digital rst
The digital divides become more apparent as an increasing number of government services are
provided online. By promoting a digital rst approach, governments may inadvertently create
services with technology-enabled ofine services is increasingly important as countries move towards
adopting a more digital government with the aim of promoting efciency and inclusiveness. To
leverage digital use, some countries are making services digital by default designed primarily for
use online but when some services are not available ofine, the potential implications are signicant.
Denmark has taken a digital rst approach where electronic interaction is now legally mandatory.
CHAPTER 2 E-GOVERNMENT FOR LEAVING NO ONE BEHIND
2.4 Digital literacy
It is widely recognized that digital skills can help improve social inclusion. Thus, these skills should
be taught to schoolchildren and enhanced among civil servants, the private and public sectors.
Figure 2.7. Educational access
Source:
2018 UN E-Government Survey
Source:
https://www.
In 2014, the Portuguese Agency for Administrative Modernization launched the Citizen Spot
initiative, a helpdesk with specialized attendants delivering services related to both public
facilitates online use, teaches digital literacy, and aims to reduce the digital divide. The Agency
aimed to launch 1000 Citizen Spots by 2016, and provide coverage to all 278 municipalities in
In 2017, there were 533 Citizen Spots, offering approximately 200 public services.
They are
Implementation has been slower than
Box 2.5. Portugal: Citizen Spots combat the digital divide
20406080100120140160
Information about programs for
youth to gain relevant skills
Online training that provides
Box 2.6. Europe: Developing digital skills
The fourth industrial revolution (Industry 4.0) is expected to have a signicant impact on
ec.europa.eu/
The need to raise skill levels across different population groups is increasingly evident around the
world, in response to the so-called fourth industrial revolution. A United Nations study warned that
Technological advancements create new capabilities for communication and are used as tools to
gain and share information and to learn the skills needed to participate in a globalized economy.
2.5.1. Migrants
Migration has moved up the global policy agenda in recent years. In 2015, for example, an estimated
From an
e-government perspective, the growth in migration necessitates a shift in providing services to a
more diverse group of people (
website is offered in several languages to provide information to migrants.
Such tailored services,
however, do not extend to most government websites.
This illustrates that there are institutional gaps in bridging the range of digital divides, especially with
emerging divides. Typically, one ministry only serves a segment of the population, such as migrants.
CHAPTER 2 E-GOVERNMENT FOR LEAVING NO ONE BEHIND
2.5.2. Country restrictions on information access
The use of global cloud services is creating a new digital divide among local authorities; they are
facing challenges in accessing and controlling data within their jurisdictions. Sovereign clouds, or
data localization regulations, where information is required to be stored in a certain geographic area
are becoming a global trend. This could make information inaccessible to those who are outside the
jurisdictions, which could limit access to government information and services for overseas migrants.
While acknowledging the importance of cybersecurity, countries need to recognize the consequences
of disguising it as national security, which can limit widespread uptake of ICTs by undermining trust and
leading to geographic information divides. Given the challenges ahead, there remains a need for the
Box 2.7. Finland: blockchain for identity management and nancial inclusion
/vastaanottoraha
2.6 Conclusion
CHAPTER 2 E-GOVERNMENT FOR LEAVING NO ONE BEHIND
References
1 United Nations, (2018). Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 22 December 2017. [online] Available at: http://www.
un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/RES/72/242 [Accessed 26 Jun. 2018].
2 United Nations, (2016). High-level Political Forum on Sustainable Development 2016 - Ensuring that no one is left behind. [on
Available at: https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/hlpf/2016 [Accessed 26 Jun. 2018].
3 United Nations, (2015). Addis Ababa Action Agenda of the Third International Conference on Financing for Development. [online
Available at: https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/frameworks/addisababaactionagenda [Accessed 26 Jun. 2018].

23 Andina, (2015). Perus electronic ID card recognized as best in Latin America. [online] Available at: http://www.andina.com.
Ingles/noticia-peru%E2%80%99s-electronic-id-card-recognized-as-best-in-latin-america-562683.aspx [Accessed 26 Jun. 2018].
24 State of Aadhaar, (2017). State of Aadhaar Report 2016-2017. [online]. Available at: http://stateofaadhaar.in/wp-content/upl
State-of-Aadhaar-Full-Report-2016-17-IDinsight.pdf [Accessed 26 Jun. 2018].
25 GSMA, (2016). Regulatory and policy trends impacting Digital Identity and the role of mobile: Considerations for emerging ma
CHAPTER 2 E-GOVERNMENT FOR LEAVING NO ONE BEHIND
58 Mkhize, H. (2017). Launch of the Northern Cape Lwazi ICT Digital Training for Socio-Economic Development. [online] Available
at: https://www.dtps.gov.za/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=702:launch-of-the-northern-cape-lwazi-ict-digital-
training-for-socio-economic-development&catid=10&Itemid=137 [Accessed 26 Jun. 2018].
CHAPTER 3 E-RESILIENCE THROUGH E-GOVERNMENT: GLOBAL AND REGIONAL PERSPECTIVES
E-resilience through
e-government: global and
regional perspectives
3.1 Introduction: Impact of Natural Disasters
and Role of Policy and ICT in Disaster Risk
Management
Natural disasters constrain government efforts in achieving the 2030
Agenda for Sustainable Development. The results of natural disasters are
cataclysmicfrom human loss and suffering to devastating economic
repercussions, all of which erodes development gains. Not only are natural
disasters hurting past and present development initiatives, but they are
also forestalling new opportunities for growth and prosperity, causing
harm to future generations.
worldwide has more than quadrupled
to approximately 400 a year. Although 2006 to 2016 saw a gradual decline
3.1 Introduction: Impact of Natural
Disasters and Role of Policy and
ICT in Disaster Risk Management 47
3.2 E-resilience and its linkages to
ICT and E-government 53
3.3 Emerging uses of articial
intelligence, social media, space
3.4 Mainstreaming e-resilience within
e-government framework 60
3.5 Conclusions and Policy
Photo credit: pixabay.com
Source:
Source:
Authors calculation based on data compiled from Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED) and
Emergency Events Database (EM-DAT)
Figure 3.2. Total number of deaths from natural disasters (2000 - 2017), by major regions
Number of reported natural disasters (weighted average)
Africa
Europe
Oceania
Asia
Earthquake
Extreme temperature
Flood
Storm
Volcanic activity
Drought
Africa
Europe
Oceania
Asia
Number of deaths from natural disasters (weighted average)
Earthquake
Extreme temperature
Flood
Storm
Volcanic activity
Drought
CHAPTER 3 E-RESILIENCE THROUGH E-GOVERNMENT: GLOBAL AND REGIONAL PERSPECTIVES
From an economic perspective, Asia and the Pacic
once more emerges as one of the most affected
regions, second to the Americas where the year 2017 was the costliest for weather disasters in the
United States (Figure 3.4). An ESCAP report notes that natural disasters
in 2016 alone caused 4,987
deaths, affecting 35 million people with an estimated damage of USD 77 billion in Asia and the
Figure 3.3. Number of reported natural disasters (2000-2017), Top 20 economies
Source:
Source:
Figure 3.4. Total damages from natural disasters (USD billion) (2000 - 2017) by major
Africa
Europe
Oceania
Asia
100150
Earthquake
Extreme temperature
Flood
Storm
Volcanic activity
Drought
0100
200300400
Number of reported natural disasters (weighted average)
Earthquake
Extreme temperature
Flood
Storm
Volcanic activity
Drought
India
Indonesia
Table 3.1. Top 10 Member States with the highest commitment to cybersecurity
CountryExposure
Vanuatu63.66Very HighLow2,861
Tonga55.27Very HighLow3,749
Philippines52.46Very HighLow2,951
Japan45.91Very HighVery High38,901
Brimeo Darussalam41.1Very HighHigh26,939
Bangladesh31.7Very HighVery Low1,359
Solomon Islands29.98Very HighVery Low2,005
Fiji27.71Very HighLow5,233
Cambodia27.65Very HighVery Low1,270
Timor-Leste25.73Very HighLow1,405
Source:
ESCAP (2017) Asia-Pacic Disaster Report 2017. GDP Per Capita is obtained from the World Development Indicators. Accessed
in March 2018.
Pacic countries, especially the small island developing States (SIDS), are particularly susceptible to
CHAPTER 3 E-RESILIENCE THROUGH E-GOVERNMENT: GLOBAL AND REGIONAL PERSPECTIVES
Source:
Source:
Government of
On 20 February 2016, tropical cyclone Winston (category 5) struck Fiji affecting 540,400 people,
billion, or approximately onefth of the countrys GDP.
The immediate damage in communication and electricity infrastructure triggered the loss of
cellular, xed-line, radio and television services. The cyclone disabled power and communication
Box 3.1. Disaster Response and Recovery: Impact of Cyclone Winston on Fiji in 2016
One recent case in Fiji illustrates the intensity and extent of damages (Box 3.1.).
Papua New Guinea
Fiji
Vanuatu
Solomon Islands
Tonga
Palau
Micronesia, FS
Marshall Islands
Storm surge
Wind
Tsunami
Floods
Volcano
Earthquake
Box 3.2. Disaster Communications Management, Prevention and Response in Madagascar
Madagascar,
http://www.
mid.gov.mg/
Source:
Government
In addition to post-disaster studies and technical solutions, policy plays a pivotal role in disaster risk
CHAPTER 3 E-RESILIENCE THROUGH E-GOVERNMENT: GLOBAL AND REGIONAL PERSPECTIVES
PreventionReductionPreparedness ResponseRecovery
Key TasksImproving risk
Source:
Table 3.2. E-resilience and Role of ICT in Disaster Risk Management
3.2 E-resilience and its linkages to ICT and E-government
Figure 3.6. E-resilience guiding principles
Source:
Figure 3.7. Disaster Management Cycle
Source:
Given the increasing recognition of the key role ICTs across the different phases of disaster risk
reduction and management, Member States have been requesting more support in building and
strengthening their eresilience, including in designing and implementing ICT applications and services
and embedding them in egovernment initiatives as part of their overall disaster risk management
systems and strategies. Addressed holistically, e-resilience has the potential to reduce disaster risks and
improve disaster management, and it can be instrumental in reducing economic loss and preventing
human casualties. Some e-resilience illustrations come from Bhutan and Japan (Box 3.3).
Right people making eective decisions
Pre-disaster
Post-disaster
Right people making eective decisions
Generating actionable information
Risk
Customizing
information
& reaching out
to people at risk.
Using ealtime
information
Having data &
information sharing

Risks
(Hazards,vulnerability,
Capacity Gaps, Exposure)
Early Warning
Preparedness
Risk Reduction
(Mitigation)
Risk Prevention
Ex-Post
Recovery
CHAPTER 3 E-RESILIENCE THROUGH E-GOVERNMENT: GLOBAL AND REGIONAL PERSPECTIVES
Source:
Source:
http://www.
Source:
http://www.
the Department of Hydro Med Services (DHMS) website provides hazard related
Box 3.3. Disaster Risk Prevention, Reduction and Response: DHMS Weather
Monitoring and Early Warning in Bhutan and E-resilience in Japan
The data collected for the 2018 United Nations E-government Survey sheds light on the available
functions and readiness of e-government in addressing challenges and creating opportunities
associated with managing disaster risks and enhancing e-resilience. A preliminary regression analysis,
Figure 3.8. Percentage of countries with e-government sites that share updates and
Africa
Asia-Pacic
Latin America & Caribbean
Europe
Middle East & North Africa
North America
Percentage of respondents
Responded - Yes
Sample size: North America ((n=2)), Latin America & Caribbean (n= 33), Europe (n=42),
Asia-Pacic (n=48), Middle East & Africa (n=20) & Africa (n=47)
3.3 Emerging uses of articial intelligence, social media, space
technology applications and geospatial information for
e-resilience
Many innovative disaster and crisis management tools are designed to consolidate structured and
unstructured data for quick and effective decision-making. Some of these tools include Articial
These technologies
along with enhanced data availability, analytics and functionalities hold much promise for advancing
e-resilience initiatives towards the achievement of sustainable development.
CHAPTER 3 E-RESILIENCE THROUGH E-GOVERNMENT: GLOBAL AND REGIONAL PERSPECTIVES
While most practical applications of big data in disaster scenarios are still experimental, useful
cases have emerged, such as in connection with the Haitian earthquake of 2010. A recent survey
conducted by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications of Japan has concluded that
big data is expected to make signicant contributions to disaster risk reduction in the country.
Source:
UNDP-APDIP,
Source:
Source:
http://www.
Source:
http://aidr.
is one of the most disaster-prone countries as it lies on the ring of re plate. The 8.8
magnitude earthquake that occurred there in 2010 was the sixth strongest in the world since
In its aftermath, the government of Chile took progressive steps toward establishing a
tsunami early warning alert system
Box 3.5. Disaster Preparedness and Response: Articial Intelligence using Social Media
and names shown and
Eighty per cent of the land in Mongolia is capable of agricultural production, primarily extensive
livestock production, while arable land occupies only 0.09 per cent of the total land area. Figure a.
shows an example of a drought early warning product developed in June 2015 in a collaboration
among Mongolian institutes, based on the ESCAP Regional Drought Mechanism. When compared
with a land cover map of Mongolia (Figure b), it shows that drought was forecast primarily for
pasture lands.
Figure c provides an overview of poverty by province and district and Figure d provides an overview
of livestock, identifying those farmers at high risk of having their livestock affected by localized
Box 3.6. Disaster Risk Prevention, Reduction and Preparedness: Socio-economic
Figure a. Drought early
warning for June 2015
Figure c. Poverty headcount
Figure e. Desertication and
Figure b. Land cover map
Figure d. Livestock density,
Figure f. MODIS NDVI,
CHAPTER 3 E-RESILIENCE THROUGH E-GOVERNMENT: GLOBAL AND REGIONAL PERSPECTIVES
Similar initiatives are also being implemented in other drought-prone regions such as in Africa where
Source:
https://www.
Source:
http://www.
africanriskcapacity.org/
was established in 2012 as a specialized agency of the
African Union to help Member States improve their capacities to prepare for, plan and respond
Box 3.7. Using Spatial Technologies and Science-Based Modelling in Disaster Risk
3.4 Mainstreaming e-resilience within e-government framework
From a development perspective, mainstreaming e-resilience in all phases of disaster management
requires concerted efforts by various actors in myriad sectors, as well as coherent policy and a sound
Box 3.8. Global-level initiatives of disaster risk management and ICT
**Global Partnership for Preparedness
Source
:https://www.agendaforhumanity.org/initiatives/3840)
Using data analytics and other related tools,
the 1BC initiative maps the resilience of local communities and offers local action preparedness
starter kits and grants. It aims to collectively enhance the impact of resilience building by
integrating actions and strategies of individuals, households and communities on the ground.
Source:
http://media.ifrc.org/1bc/)
First announced at the United Nations Conference of
the Parties Paris Climate summit in 2015, IDF was launched by the United Nations, World Bank
and the insurance industry in 2016. It addresses the risks associated with catastrophic weather and
climate-related hazards through the design and dissemination of solutions for risk-sharing and
transfer to increase global resilience.
this State-led Platform aims to address the protection needs of people displaced across
boarders in the context of natural disasters and climate change. Its main goal is to implement
the recommendations of the Nansen Initiative Protection Agenda of October 2015.
Source:
https://www.agendaforhumanity.org/initiatives/3833)
Inform is a global, open-source risk assessment
for humanitarian crises and disasters. Its model is based on three specic dimensions
of risk: hazards and exposure, vulnerability and lack of coping capacity dimensions.
Source:
http://www.inform-index.org/InDepth)
Source:
compilation and
CHAPTER 3 E-RESILIENCE THROUGH E-GOVERNMENT: GLOBAL AND REGIONAL PERSPECTIVES
From a public administration perspective, internal mechanics of governments and State capacity
are
3.5 Conclusions and Policy Recommendations
E-resilience and sustainable development are highly interrelated. E-resilience and the use of ICTs in
Source:
http://www.
Asia and the Pacic remains the region most affected by natural disasters. ESCAP has been
assisting Member States in building their capacities to withstand disasters, including through
enhanced e-resilience. Some of ESCAPs initiatives include:
a) Intergovernmental cooperation platforms such as the Asia-Pacic Information Superhighway
Steering Committee (AP-IS) initiative, which promotes affordable broadband connectivity
Box 3.9. United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacic
Note: Figure shows
research and
publications produced
Systematic and sustained eorts towards e-resilience
Knowing the specic disaster risks, and degrees and types of vulnerabilities is critical to designing
and implementing appropriate e-resilience initiatives. If a country is on the path of seasonal cyclones
or on a seismic zone, for instance, preparedness as well as measures for risk prevention and
reduction will be different. Risk and vulnerability assessment is expected to identify infrastructure,
data, applications, facilities and communities at risk, which will help design and improve e-resilience
initiatives. Coherent and integrated ICT and disaster risk management policies should clearly map
Awareness raising, participation and capacity development
There are already capacity-building programmes, which assist government ofcials and partners in
e-resilience, but awareness of disaster risks and e-resilience could be raised among ICT and disaster
management authorities. Awareness-raising on emerging technologies, such as IoT, big data and
cloud computing, deserves systematic support from international and regional partners, including
science, is pivotal to the provision of extensive and real-time information for risk management (Paul
and others, 2018). Such concerted efforts can prompt increased investment in e-resilience initiatives,
including resilient infrastructure development and early warning systems. They can also ramp up
ownership by linking knowledge management with resilience.
Sharing of good practices and lessons learned across the globe
Some disasters, such as oods, cyclones/typhoons and droughts are transboundary in nature.
Glacial lake outbursts or monsoon rains upstream will have devastating impact in downstream areas
and countries. Information and data sharing, coordination and cooperation in e-resilience among
CHAPTER 3 E-RESILIENCE THROUGH E-GOVERNMENT: GLOBAL AND REGIONAL PERSPECTIVES
This chapter presented a global and regional overview of natural disasters and their aftermath, and
how those disasters affect regions and countries differently. Particularly worrisome are the inadequate
which encourage the mainstreaming of disaster risk concerns into all sectors, in cooperation with
relevant stakeholders. It concluded that e-resilience through egovernment can be vital in managing
disasters and their associated risks and in moving the world towards sustainable development.
References
1 Note: For reasons of space and scope, this chapter covers natural disasters, and excludes health and nancial crises as well
as man-
23 ESCAP (2016). Space application as a critical tool for enhanced e-resilience. 15 August. E/ESCAP/CICTSTI(1)/5. Available at:
www.unescap.org/sites/default/les/Space_applications_as_a_critical_tool_for_enhanced_e-resilience_Eng.pdf and ESCAP (2016).
ICT in Disaster Risk Management Initiatives in Asia and the Pacic. 4 March. Available at: www.unescap.org/sites/default/les/
24 Note: Preliminary regression analysis is available upon request. It is an assessment based on one point in time, i.e., 2016
CHAPTER 3 E-RESILIENCE THROUGH E-GOVERNMENT: GLOBAL AND REGIONAL PERSPECTIVES
minimizing deaths emanating from natural disasters? To examine these two questions, two binary (yes/no) variables from the UN
Building the resilience of
e-government
4.1. Introduction: Need for a resilient
e-government system
4.1. Introduction: Need for a resilient
e-government system 67
4.2. Global view in cybersecurity 68
4.3. Designing a secure e-government
4.3.1. Legal framework 72
4.3.2. Organizational framework 75
4.3.3. Technical framework 76
4.3.4. Capacity building and
Cooperation 78
4.3. Conclusion 80
Photo credit: pixabay.com
e-government system. However, this requires not only a change in existing procedures, but also in
systems functioning.
It is also crucial for agencies to create a feedback mechanism for cooperation
4.2. Global view in cybersecurity
Over the past several years, experts and policymakers have expressed increasing concerns about
The response to the aforementioned attacks has been an increase in global spending on cybersecurity
products and services. Cybersecurity Ventures predicts that worldwide, this will exceed $1 trillion
It is also predicted that global spending on security awareness training
for employees will reach $10 billion by 2027, up from some $1 billion in 2014. Such investments
are aimed at expanding ICT use in cybersecurity strategies and preventing future damage from
cyberattacks. Long-term economic opportunity, however, lay in modernizing industrial infrastructure,
The Global Cybersecurity Index (see Box 4.1) developed by the International Telecommunication
Union can serve as reference for government ofcials in the process of designing secure egovernment
systems. Through use of the Index, governments can assess progress in the effective deployment
of ICTs and development of cybersecurity strategies. It provides governments with an assessment
of the level of their cybersecurity wellness and offers solutions to addressing e-government risks.
More specically, the Index measures the type, level and evolution of cybersecurity commitment in
which will eventually give experts an opportunity to assess the performance of those
commitments from both regional and global perspectives.
It is crucial to protect critical information infrastructures, or CIIs, the interconnected information
Source:
https://www.itu.
benchmark measure to monitor the cybersecurity commitments of the 193 ITU Member States
in the ve pillars identied by high-level experts (see Figure 4.2). It revolves around the Global
a framework for international cooperation launched by the International
Box 4.1. ITU Global Cybersecurity Index
Table 4.1. Top 10 Member States with the highest commitment to cybersecurity
CountryGCI ScoreLegalTechnicalOrganizational
BuildingCooperation
Singapore0.920.950.960.880.970.87
USA0.9110.960.9210.73
Malaysia0.890.870.960.7710.87
Oman0.870.980.820.850.950.75
Estonia0.840.990.820.850.940.64
Mauritius0.820.850.960.740.910.70
Australia0.820.940.960.860.940.44
Georgia0.810.910.770.820.900.70
France0.810.940.960.6010.61
Canada0.810.940.930.710.820.70
Source:
Figure 4.1. Percentage of countries with CII protection included in their legislation or
Source:
ITU GCI report 2017
Table 4.1. above shows the top 10 countries ranked according to their GCI score. It is clear that
geographical location is irrelevant when it comes to cybersecurity commitments. These ten countries
managed to establish coherent cybersecurity strategies while signicantly improving their ICT
mechanisms. Since these Member States are leaders in their regions, they could foster the creation
and development of different forms of collaboration with neighbouring countries to improve regional
Protection of CII
Cybersecurity Audits
Measures on critical
infrastructure
Yes
0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%
Cybercriminal Legislation, Substantive law,
Procedural cybercriminal law,
Cybersecurity Regulation.
National CIRT, Government CIRT, Sectoral CIRT,
Standards for organisations
Standardisation body.
Intra-state cooperation, M
ultilateral agreements,
International fora, Public-Private partnerships,
Inter-agency partnerships.
Public awareness, Professional training,
National education programmes, R&D programmes,
Incentive mechanisms, Home-grown industry.
Strategy,
Responsible agency,
As seen in Figure 4.1. above, only less than one-fth of United Nations Member States included
protection of critical information structures in their legislation or cybersecurity strategy. Similarly, less
than one-third conduct cybersecurity audits and have measures on critical infrastructure.
Critical information protection secures communications or information services that are essential to
the functioning of a modern economy.
For example, the Australian Privacy Principle Act
all eligible entities must take reasonable steps to protect personal information it holds from misuse,
interference and loss, as well as unauthorized access, modication or disclosure.
National protection of critical information infrastructures presents an organized view of strategic
information services and available infrastructure resources. This requires an assessment of potential
risks, threats and information components supporting critical infrastructures. It also denes risk
management protocols essential to the health of the national economy and mitigates possible
risks. Protection protocols overall have positive long-term stabilizing effects
, whereas insufcient
protection provides criminals with opportunities to exploit online vulnerabilities and conduct
4.3.Designing a secure e-government system
There are ve main pillars in ITUs Global Cybersecurity Agenda (see Figure 4.2) that lay a solid
foundation for the creation of a secure e-government system legal, technical, organizational,
capacity building and cooperation. These measure different aspects of government cybersecurity
Figure 4.2. Five Pillars of ITUs Global Cybersecurity Agenda
Source:
ITU, GCI report 2017
4.3.1. Legal framework
Legal measures allow governments and other stakeholders to dene basic response mechanisms to
cyberattacks, including within e-government systems. These mechanisms may involve investigation
and prosecution of crimes and violation of norms, leading to the imposition of sanctions for non-
Figure 4.3. Total number of Member States with laws related to cybercrime in 2017
Source:
ITU, GCI report 2017
Africa
Europe
Oceania
Asia
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Cybersecurity training
Cybersecurity regulation
Cybercriminal legislation
% of countries in the region
100100
Figure 4.4. shows that 133 out of 193 United Nations Member States, or about 69 per cent, have
laws pertaining to citizens rights to access government information online. Of these countries, 20
are in Africa, 32 are in the Americas, 33 are in Asia, 42 are in Europe and 6 are in Oceania. As many
as 34 African countries do not have government information or laws on citizens rights to access it
Figure 4.4. Percentage of countries with Access to Information Act
Figure 4.5. Personal data protection legislation available online
As seen in Figure 4.5., the
United Nations E-Government Survey
highlights that 141 Member States,
or 73 per cent, have legislation on personal data protection online. While the legislation may be
available in the remaining 52 countries, this information is not accessible online.
100
120
AfricaAmericasAsiaEuropeOceania
% of countries in the region
Yes
Africa
AsiaEurope
Oceania
% of countries in the region
Yes
In 2017, the Swiss government issued a preliminary draft of a new Data Protection Act intended
to amend existing provisions on digital technology and strengthen personal data protection. It was
also crafted to maintain the European Commission knowledge of ways of securinf the free ow of
https://www.swlegal.ch/les/media/ler_public/68/68/6868d658-d977-41f0-948f-7468edcb8931 news_alert_september_2017_english.pdf
Box 4.2. Data Protection Act of Switzerland
Figure 4.6. Countries with cybersecurity legislation onlin
Africa
AsiaEurope
Oceania
% of countries in the region
Yes
4.3.2. Organizational framework
It is important for Member States to have a cybersecurity strategy, a coordinating agency and a
compilation of indicators for tracking cybercrime.
Governments should design and execute a robust cybersecurity strategy so as to secure its
E-government system. An effective strategy should include the protection of critical information
infrastructure and a national resiliency plan. Box 4.3. highlights the United Kingdom organizational
framework for cybersecurity. The strategys formulation should also be open for consultation with
all the relevant stakeholders to create trust and transparency in the government and ensure that all
reap the benet. Ideally, cybersecurity strategies should be aligned with the national e-government
strategy.
Governments also should consider establishing national agencies responsible for ensuring
coherence in putting cybersecurity strategies into action and assessing their efcacy. This needs to
be complemented by a commitment to human resource development and leadership. Without a
national cybersecurity strategy, a governance model and a supervisory body, the efforts of various
sectors and industries can become disparate and disconnected, which could thwart efforts to attain
national harmonization and increase e-government resilience in the event of a cyberattack.
Equally important is the compilation of indicators for tracking cyber incidents. Measuring progress
is vital, as is observing current and past trends, and putting in place appropriate future actions to
Source:
www.gov.uk/
government/
national-cyber-
issued its second ve-year National Cyber Security Strategy in 2016.
Box 4.3. National Cybersecurity Strategy of the United Kingdom
4.3.3. Technical framework
Figure 4.7. Countries with cybersecurity legislation online
Africa
Europe
Oceania
Asia
% of countries in the region
25
35
50
Figure 4.8. Regional view of CERT/CIRT/CSIRT
Source:
https://www.
tra.gov.ae
Source:
Government
The United Arab Emirates develops actionable intelligence from analysis of threat, incident
and vulnerability data. It also provides constituents with proactive services in the form of
preliminary alerts, remediation and recovery from security incidents, and advisories to improve
the infrastructure as well as related security processes of their clients or citizens before an event
occurs. The national CERT acts as the central point in disseminating information and advises all
Box 4.4. The National Computer Emergency Response Team of the United Arab
Box 4.5. Information Security Policy in Georgia
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Africa
Europe
Oceania
Asia
Sectorial CERT
Govt CERT
National CIRT
7272
8888
% of countries in the region
A well-designed cloud computing strategy can be made cost-effective by sharing platforms across
various e-government applications, increasing resource utilization and providing scalability. Cloud
computing can further increase the capacity for integration and interoperability across egovernment
4.3.4. Capacity building and Cooperation
The cybersecurity of e-government systems requires inputs from all sectors and disciplines, given the
Table 4.2. Global cybersecurity activities
United Nations Group of Governmental Experts on Developments in the Field
of Information and Telecommunications in the Context of International Security
was established with the aim of examining existing and potential threats from
cybersphere and possible cooperative measures to address them. The mandate of the Group
was reconrmed in 2009, 2011, 2013 and 2015. The main outcome of the UN GGE 2013
Report was the reconrmation of the principle that existing international law(s) apply to
the use of ICT by States. In addition, the 2015 Report contained new provisions on norms
and principles of responsible State behaviour in cyberspace, specifying, for example, that a
otherwise impairs the use and operation of critical infrastructure. The fth UN GGE ended
its fourth and nal session in June 2017 without a consensus on a nal report, leaving the
Cybersecurity has been very prominent in the agenda of the
The main conclusions of this Chapter are as follows:
References
1 ITU, (2017). ICT Facts and Figures 2017. [online] Available at: https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/Statistics/Pages/facts/default.a
2 Nye, J. (2018) How will new cybersecutiry norms develop?. [online] Project Syndicate. Available at: https://www.project-syndi
5.1 Introduction 83
5.2 E-government rankings in 2018 83
5.2.1 E-government development
at a glance 84
5.2.2 The leading e-government
developed countries 88
5.2.3 National Income and
e-Government Development 94
5.3 Progress in online service delivery 96
5.3.1 Trends in Transactional
Online Services 99
5.3.2 Distribution of online services
by sector 101
5.4 Trends in Open Government Data 107
5.5 Trends in mobile service delivery 109
5.6 E-participation: public engagement for
innovative public eservices delivery 112
5.6.1 E-participation concepts
and features 112
5.6.2 Global and regional rankings 114
5.6.3 E-information 118
5.6.4 E-consultation 119
5.6.5 E-decision-making 120
5.6.6 Innovative partnerships,
crowdsourcing, and crowdfunding 121
5.7 Conclusions 122
Photo credit: pixabay.com
Chapter 5. Global trends in
e-government
5.1 Introduction
The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development introduces the
concept of data-driven governance and highlights the challenge to
increase signicantly the availability of high-quality, timely, reliable
and disaggregated data by 2030.
This chapter presents a data-driven
analysis of the key trends of e-government development in 2018 based
on the assessment of the E-Government Development Index (EGDI). It
also describes and analyzes global trends in electronic and mobile service
States according to EGDI subgroups (Very-High, High, Middle, and Low).
The analysis also presents major drivers of EGDI such as progress in online
transactional services delivery, trends in open government data and mobile
5.2 E-government rankings in 2018
The 2018 United Nations E-Government Survey is the tenth edition of
tracking e-government development achieved by all Member States of the
capture e-government development in absolute terms. Rather, it aims to
give an indicative assessment of the diffusion of e-government through
performance rating of national governments relative to one another. As
the Telecommunication Infrastructure Index (TII) and the inherent human capital scored through
the Human Capital Index (HCI). Each of these indices is by itself a composite measure that can
be extracted and analyzed independently. The composite value of each component index is then
5.2.1 E-government development at a glance
E-government has been growing rapidly over the past 17 years since the rst attempt of the United
Nations to benchmark the state of e-government in 2001. The 2018 Survey highlights a persistent
positive global trend towards higher levels of e-government development. In this edition, 40 countries
score Very-High, with EGDI values in the range of 0.75 to 1.00, as compared to only 10 countries
form of online presence.
Figure 5.1 shows the percentages of the different groupings based on EGDI in 2018 compared to
2016. Table 5.1 lists all countries grouped by E-Government Development Index (EGDI) levels in
High EGDI, 65,
20162018
Middle EGDI, 67,
Very High EGDI, 29,
Low EGDI, 32,
Low EGDI, 16,
Very High EGDI, 40,
High EGDI, 71,
Middle EGDI, 66,
High and Very-High EGDI Group
Source:
http://www.un-page.
The other nine out of the 17 countries that transitioned from Middle- to High-EGDI level group
include ve from Asia (India, Indonesia, Iran, Maldives, Kyrgyzstan), three from the Pacic (Fiji, Palau,
Tonga) and one from Africa (Ghana). Ghana is the only African country that made this transition, in
part, by streamlining its institutional and policy frameworks to capitalize on ICT innovations. Since
2017, it has also been investing in improving online services delivery (see Box 5.1 below).
Box 5.1 e-Ghana and e-Transform projects
Ghanas economy experienced dramatic growth in 2017 when its GDP increased by 8.5 percent,
compared with 3.7 percent in 2016
. The government of Ghana made signicant contributions
towards the development of ICTs under the e-Ghana and e-Transform projects. The Ghana Shared
Growth and Development Agenda (GSGDA) incorporates an ICT strategy which implies increasing
use of ICT across economic sectors, e-government, in implementing the National Electronic Security
system and the proliferation of other ICT-related mechanisms for public benet
. Various projects
conducted by the National Information Technology Agency and the Ghana Investment Fund for
Electronic Communication
are ensuring stable growth in the use of ICTs and are creating a favorable
environment for further development and deployment of e-government mechanisms
initiatives are securing Ghanas commitment towards the attainment of SDGs.
The Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) countries are demonstrating remarkable progress in
advancing positions in the EGDI. In the 2018 Survey, eight countries in the region jumped to the
High-EGDI group, reecting improved online presence boosted by strategies linking digital policies
Table 5.1 Countries grouped by EGDI levels
Very High EGDI 2018
Very High EGDI 2018
Figure 5.2 Breakdown of EGDI Indices comparing data from 2014, 2016 and 2018
5.2.2 e leading e-government developed countries
In presenting the 2018 ranking, it is pertinent to reiterate that the E-Government Development Index
is a normalized broad relative index. Dropping a few positions in rankings does not necessarily imply
Components of EGDI Index
Comparing 2014, 2016 and 2018 Data
EGDIHCI
Year
201420162018
OSITII
average = 0.55
Table 5.2 Leading countries in e-government development
Country NameRegionOSIHCITIIEGDI
DenmarkEurope1.00000.94720.79780.915091None
AustraliaOceania0.97221.00000.74360.905322None
Republic of KoreaAsia0.97920.87430.84960.901033None
United Kingdom of Great
Britain and Northern Ireland
Europe0.97920.92000.80040.899914None
SwedenEurope0.94440.93660.78350.888265None
FinlandEurope0.96530.95090.72840.881556None
SingaporeAsia0.98610.85570.80190.881247None
New ZealandOceania0.95140.94500.74550.880688None
FranceEurope0.97920.85980.79790.8790109None
JapanAsia0.95140.84280.84060.87831110None
United States of AmericaAmericas0.98610.88830.75640.87691211None
GermanyEurope0.93060.90360.79520.87651512None
Belarus transitioned from High-EGDI in 2016 to Very-High-EGDI in 2018. This could be attributed
to 2030 incorporating several initiatives related to ICT development in various sectors of its
economy. For example, the Strategy of Informatization of the Republic of Belarus for the period
2016 2022 was implemented in 2015 with the purpose of enhancing ICTs in the provision
of e-government services. Another initiative, the State Program for the Development of the
http://www.
economy.gov.by/ru/
Box 5.2 Belarus e-government development
Republic of Korea to share its know-how in digital government strategies
resulting in e-government
capacity-building and the training of more than 4,820 public ofcials from other countries in the
The United Kingdom ranks fourth in the 2018 Survey, a few spots down from being the top-ranking
country in 2016. The drop is due to a relative decrease in the ranking of its human capital and online
service indices. The British Government is providing more integrated online services through its one-
stop platform GOV.UK. Its Government Transformation Strategy published in 2017
to support their personal, development and learning, access job opportunities, run businesses, and
trade goods and services all over the world. More importantly, it charges the Government to use
digital technologies for efciency and to reduce paper-based processes
France improved its ranking from the tenth position in 2016 to ninth in 2018. Among factors
contributing to improved scores is governments vision to achieve digital transformation of the public
aiming, among others,
to simplify and digitize administrative processes. The government of France has also launched a
Coordinated Development Program of the Digital Territorial Administration (DCANT
common foundation of applications, digital bricks, repositories and shared frameworks to accelerate
Africa
Min 0.0566
Average 0.3423
Min 0.3047
Min 0.2154
Min 0.2787
Average 0.4611
Average 0.5779
Average 0.5898
Average 0.7727
Max 0.9150
Max 0.9010
Max 0.8769
Max 0.6678
World
Average
Max 0.9053
AmericasAsiaEuropeOceania
More specically, as shown in Figure 5.4, in the Very-High-EGDI group, 67 per cent of all countries
are from Europe, followed by Asia (20 per cent), Americas (8 per cent) and Oceania (5 per cent).
In the High-EGDI group, the leaders are Asia and Americas regions (33 per cent and 31 per cent
respectfully), followed by Europe (22 per cent), Africa (11 per cent), and Oceania (3 per cent). In the
Middle-EGDI group, African countries comprise 50 per cent, the geographic distribution of countries
from Americas and Oceania is similar (15 per cent), and Asia takes up to 20 per cent of the share
in the group. No European country is in the Middle and Low EGDI-level groups. The majority of 15
countries in Low-EGDI-level group are from Africa (87 per cent) followed by 2 countries in Asia (13
The Africa region overall lags in e-government development compared to the rest of the world. While
the share of African countries with improved EGDI scores expanded in 2018, the upward movement
has mainly been from low to middle EGDI-level groups. The number of African countries within
High-EGDI level group remains at the relatively modest count of six, including Ghana, Mauritius,
Morocco, Seychelles, South Africa, and Tunisia. Except Ghana, all other ve countries were in this
group in 2016.
The regional average EGDI scores for countries in Africa and Oceania are signicantly lower than the
are the only two countries in Oceania that have high EGDI scores of 0.9053 and 0.8806 respectively.
Europe, 27,
Oceania, 2,
Africa, 0,
Americas, 3,
Americas, 22,
Asia, 8,
Europe, 16,
Oceania, 2,
Africa, 13,
Africa, 33,
Americas, 0,
Africa, 8,
Oceania, 0,
Asia, 2,
Europe, 0,
Europe, 0,
Oceania, 10,
Asia, 13,
Americas, 10,
Asia, 24,
2018: Very High EGDI2018: High EGDI
2018: Middle EGDI2018: Low EGDI
Similarly, only 4 countries out of 54 in Africa score higher than the world average of 0.55, whereas
14 countries, namely Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea,
Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Somalia, South Sudan, and Sudan have very low EGDI
scores. These are also low-income countries, which face signicant constraints in socio-economic
development, creating additional pressure for prioritizing and allocating resources for e-government
In the Americas and Asia, the overall progress in e-government development is slow but noticeable.
Two-thirds of the countries in Asia (31 out of 47) and almost half of the countries in the Americas (15
out of 32) score above the world average EGDI. In the Americas, Bolivia, El Salvador, Paraguay, Saint
Vincent and the Grenadines rose from Middle- to High-EGDI, and Haiti from Low- to Middle-EGDI, in
the last two years. In Asia, six countries recorded an improvement in their e-presence and provision
of public services online Pakistan, Nepal, Indonesia, from Middle- to High-OSI and Cambodia,
Timor Leste and Tajikistan, from Low to Middle-OSI level.
5.2.3 National Income and e-Government Development
The average EGDI scores and its component indices have improved over time for all income groups,
scores across income groups
Year
20162018
Log (GDP)
0.50
0.25
0.00
EGDI average = 0.5
111
0.050.10.150.20.20.30.350.40.450.50.550.60.650.70.750.80.850.9
Low Income
Lower Middle Income
Upper Middle Income
Income Level 2018
High Income
This is not universal, however. Twenty-two upper middle-income countries and 39 lower-middle
income countries have EGDI scores ranging from 0.2154 to 0.5390, which is below the global EGDI
average of 0.55. On the other hand, 10 countries in the lower middle-income group have scores
Very High OSIHigh OSIMiddle OSILow OSI
Corresponding EGDI levelCorresponding EGDI levelCorresponding EGDI levelCorresponding EGDI level
AustraliaVery HighAlbaniaHighAfghanistanMedium
AustriaVery HighAndorraHighAngolaMedium
BahrainVery HighArgentinaHighAntigua and
BangladeshMediumArmeniaHighBelizeMedium
BelgiumVery HighAzerbaijanHighBeninMedium
BrazilHighBahamasHighBhutanMedium
Comoros
BulgariaHighBarbadosHigh
CanadaVery HighBelarusVery HighBurundiMedium
Cte dIvore
ChileHighBolivia (Plurinational
HighCameroonMedium
Democratic Peoples
Republic of Korea
ChinaHighBrunei DarussalamHighCape VerdeMedium
Figure 5.7 EGDI and its component indices for 2014 and 2018
Component
0.3076
0.3709
0.2307
0.3522
0.6845
0.3884
0.5787
0.7253
0.8343
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.8
0.9
0.4411
0.5655
0.7838
0.4688
0.5479
0.812
0.2703
0.4256
0.7018
0.5843
income
Lower
Middle
income
Upper
Middle
income
Higher
income
Lower
income
Lower
Middle
income
Upper
Middle
income
Higher
income
5.3 Progress in online service delivery
The Online Services Index component of the E-Government Development Index is a composite
indicator measuring the use of ICTs by governments in delivering public services at the national level.
It is based on a comprehensive survey of the online presence of all 193 Member States. The Survey
assesses the technical features of national websites as well as e-government policies and strategies
applied in general and by specic sectors in delivering services. The results are tabulated and presented
Table 5.3 Countries grouping by Level of Online Service Index (OSI), 2018
Very High OSIHigh OSIMiddle OSILow OSI
Corresponding EGDI levelCorresponding EGDI levelCorresponding EGDI levelCorresponding EGDI level
ColombiaHighBurkina FasoMediumCubaMedium
CyprusVery HighCosta RicaHighDjiboutiLow
Eritrea
DenmarkVery HighCroatiaHighFijiHigh
EstoniaVery HighCzech RepublicHighGambiaMedium
FinlandVery HighDominicaHighGrenadaHigh
Lao Peoples Democratic
FranceVery HighDominican RepublicHighGuineaLow
GermanyVery HighEcuadorHighGuyanaMedium
GreeceVery HighEgyptMediumHaitiMedium
IndiaHighEl SalvadorHighIraqMedium
5.3.1 Trends in Transactional Online Services
All 193 Member States had national portals and back-end systems automating core administrative
tasks, improving the availability of public services and promoting transparency and accountability.
Although not all countries provide transactional online services, the coverage and availability of
services in countries that do provide these services has increased from 18 per cent to 47 per cent in
all service categories compared to 2016 (see Table 5.4 below). The three most commonly used online
services in 2018 were paying for utilities (140 countries), submitting income taxes (139 countries),
and registering new businesses (126 countries).
The Government of Uruguay committed to the digitalization of all services by 2020 as
a presidential goal. As part of this strategy, all services should be started online by the last
international prize-winning enterprise architecture, services such as e-forms, e-notications,
epayments are being digitized using shared and reusable components, making them more user-
friendly through standardization. One of these components is the single-sign-in allowing
citizens to log in to all government services with a single user ID and password or by using the
Box 5.3 Uruguay: Democratizing access to all government services
Source:
https://www.
Table 5.4 Trends in transactional online services
Trends of transactional services
online, 2014, 2016 and 2018201420162018
Increase in percent of countries offering
2016 to 20182014 to 2018
Pay for utilities4110414026%71%
Submit income taxs7311413918%47%
Regoster a business609712623%52%
Pay nes427611132%62%
Apply for a birth certicate44558636%49%
Apply for marriage certicate39538235%52%
Register a motor vehicle33477638%57%
Apply for drivers licence29386239%53%
Apply for personal identity card27315947%54%
Identity registration at birth is a United Nations proclaimed human right being tracked by the 2030
Figure 5.8 Trends in transactional services online
The trend of improvement in providing online services have been steady over the last four years in all
OSI level groups including in 31 countries with Low-OSI level scores in 2018; 23 countries (or 74 per
cent) are providing at least one kind of online service. The most commonly offered services among
the Low-OSI level countries are submitting income taxes online (23 countries), paying for utilities
(21 countries), registering a new business (20 countries), applying for birth certicates online and
paying nes online (15 countries), registering vehicles online (14 countries), applying for marriage
identication cards (11 countries).
Even though the share of Low-OSI countries providing online services in 2018 may seem relatively
smaller compared to 2016 (see Figure 5.8 above), the reason for this is that the number of countries
with Low OSI scores has signicantly decreased from 53 to 31 in 2018 too. Further, four countries in
the Low OSI group provide all the online services listed above, namely: Lesotho, Federated State of
Micronesia, Sao Tome and Principe and Yemen.
Figure 5.9 Number of countries offering new transactional services assessed in 2018
Comparing 2014, 2016 and 2018 responses by OSI Level
2016
2014
2018
2016
2014
2018
2016
2014
2018
2016
2014
2018
2016
2014
2018
2016
2014
2018
2016
2014
2018
2016
2014
2018
2016
2014
Pay for utilities
income taxes
Register a new
Pay nes
for birth
certicates
for marriage
certicates
Very High OSI
High OSI
OSI Level
Middle OSI
Low OSI
for motor
vehicles
for drivers
license
for personal
indentity cards
2337
4930
2030
2322
1912
1613
1117
1813
137
2110
108
2812
139
3316
129
3414
4223
129
2821
5032
Apply for building permit
Submit change of address
Apply for land title registration
Apply for death certicate
Declare to police
Apply for social protection programs
Apply for visa
Apply for business license
Submit Value Added Tax
Apply for land title registration
services being offered (see Figure 5.9) The top three new services for 2018 are applying for land title
registration (129 countries), submitting value added taxes (121 countries) and applying for business
5.3.2 Distribution of online services by sector
050100150200
Downloadable forms
Mobile Apps or SMS services
Updates via email, RSS
Archived information
050100150200
Education
Health
Employment
Environment
Education
Health
Social
Protection
Social
Protection
Employment
Environment
As shown on Figure 5.11, Services provided through mobile Apps are growing fastest, at 52 per cent,
in the education, employment, environment sectors. Updates via email and RSS have increased the
most, at 62 per cent, in the employment sector, followed by the environment sector, at 38 per cent.
Interestingly, fewer countries offer downloadable forms in the environment sector in 2018 compared
Figure 5.11 Changes in sector-specic online service provision, percentage
The regional distribution of countries that provide online services via email, SMS or RSS in the
abovementioned sectors is as follows (see Figure 5.12): in average, 86 per cent of countries in Europe,
frequently, the online services offered are in education (64 per cent in average), followed by health
(55 per cent), labor (54 per cent), environment (54 per cent) and social protection (47 per cent).
Figure 5.12 Services provided via email, SMS or RSS, percentage of countries in each
EducationHealthSocial ProtectionEmployment
Environment
Archived information
Updates via email, RSS
Mobile Apps or SMS services
Downloadable forms
64%64%64%
21%21%
EducationHealthLabourEnvironmentSocial Protection
Services provided via email, SMS or RSS; percentage of countries in each region, 2018
One positive trend recorded in 2018 Survey is that increasingly more countries are providing online
020406080100120140160
Youth
Women
Persons with disabilities
Older persons
Immigrants
Poor
Online services provided for vulnerable groups, 2016 and 2018
Online service delivery for all vulnerable groups in Europe has been growing, reaching almost universal
coverage across the region or 81-89 per cent of all European countries. The percentage of countries
offering services to vulnerable groups also rose from 69 to 86 per cent in the Americas, from 70 to
79 per cent in Asia, from 33 to 57 per cent in Africa, and from 4 to 15 per cent in Oceania.
Table 5.5 Online services provided to vulnerable groups, regional distribution, 2018
Africa (54)Americas (35)Asia (47)Europe (43)Oceania (14)
numberpercentnumberpercentnumberpercentnumberpercentnumberpercent
Poor people2037.0%2777.1%3370.2%3880.9%24.3%
1833.3%2880.0%3676.6%4289.4%48.5%
Older persons2037.0%2777.1%3778.7%3983.0%510.6%
Immigrants2037.0%2468.6%3778.7%3983.0%510.6%
Women2750.0%2880.0%3778.7%3983.0%48.5%
Youth3157.4%3085.7%3472.3%4289.4%714.9%
5.3.4 Key Dimensions of Governance for Sustainable Development
Figure 5.14 The aspects of governance assessed on websites, by EGDI level group, 2018
One of the indicators of openness, transparency and accountability on the part of government is
the provision of public mechanisms to participate in e-procurement and public bidding processes.
This may include the availability of e-procurement platforms, public announcements about
e-procurement processes and bidding results, as well as online mechanisms to monitor and evaluate
e-procurement contracts. The 2018 Survey shows that 130 out of 193 United Nations Member
States have e-procurement platforms compared to only 98 in 2016 (see Figure 5.15). In 2018, more
than two-thirds of the Member States are providing online announcements and sharing the results
of the bidding processes, as well as providing information for monitoring and evaluating public
procurements contracts, which is a signicant increase from 40 to 59 per cent of countries offering
Eectiveness
Accountability
Trustworthiness
Inclusiveness
Low EGDIMiddle EGDIHigh EGDIVery High EGDI
100
120
140
160
announcement
Eprocurement
platform
Find
procurement /
bidding process
results online
Monitor and
evaluate procurement
contracts online
Similarly, by announcing government vacancies online and sharing information about employment
opportunities with the public sector, governments are increasing transparency in recruitment and
encouraging greater participation. Increasingly, more countries are now offering such features in
government websites compared to 2016, as shown on Figure 5.16 summarizing the ndings of
2018 Survey.
Figure 5.16 Government vacancies online, 2016 and 2018
5.3.5 Global disparities in e-government services
ICT-supported and innovative delivery of public services are primarily aiming to ensure the universality
of basic services to the poorest and most vulnerableleaving no one behind. In many parts of
the world, especially in developing countries, public service delivery applications are still lacking.
While some countries and governments are now fully exploiting ICTs, large disparities remain among
regions and countries on how ICTs are being harnessed to deliver public services, innovate service
Africa
(total of 54
countries)
(total of 35
countries)
Asia
(total of 47
countries)
Europe
(total of 43
countries)
Oceania
(total of 14
countries)
Figure 5.17 Availability of basic, advanced and very advanced services on national
5.4 Trends in Open Government Data
Open government data (OGD) contributes to the achievement of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable
High income
Upper middle income
Lower middle income
Low income
Basic features
Advanced features
Very advanced features
Figure 5.18 Countries with Open Government Data Portal and/or Catalogues in 2014, 2016 and
201420162018
106
139
The functionality of OGD portals is also improving. About 74 per cent of countries that have OGD
Countries with Open Government
Data Portal, 2018
Availability of data dictionary or
117
104
103
102
Open data can be considered as such when information is released in a machine-readable format,
there are no legal barriers to access, the information is free of charge and is available in widespread
type or open standard les. Making data both human- and machine-readable is an important step
towards greater utilization of open government data.
Figure 5.20 below presents the number of countries providing data in machine readable and non-
readable formats about the education, health, social welfare, labor and environment sectors.
Compared to 2016, it is increasingly common to nd sector-specic information in dedicated
government websites. However, data are often in non-machine-readable formats, for example, in
PDF. While the data being provided in non-machine-readable formats has doubled in the past two
Non Machine Readable
Machine Readable
Environment
Welfare
alue
5.5 Trends in mobile service delivery
With the continuous increase in mobile broadband coverage, mobile data trafc, and the rising
governments around the world are actively adapting e-government services to mobile platforms to
enable delivery of public services anytime and anywhere.
In 2018, the percentage of countries among the 193 Member States providing updates via email,
or rich site summary (RSS) feeds has increased in all sectors compared to 2016. The highest number
of countries are offering mobile services or applications (Apps) in education at 46 per cent, followed
by 38 per cent in employment, 36 per cent in health and environment, and 33 per cent in social
protection sectors.
Figure 5.21 Trends in Mobile Apps and SMS Services usage by sectors in 2016 and 2018
36%36%
Social ProtectionHealthEnvironmentEmploymentEducation
The increasing use of email and RSS, as well as mobile Apps and short messaging system (SMS)
services by governments signify the commitment to utilize technology to benet the people. Updates
subscriptions are expanding faster, but the availability of mobile Apps and SMS services is also
growing signicantly, especially in the education sector with 88 countries offering such services
compared to 58 in 2016.
Figure 5.22 Mobile Services Delivery by Sector
Social
Protection
EnvironmentHealthEmploymentEducation
84
70
88
70
99
73
99
88
116
Social
Protection
EnvironmentHealthEmploymentEducation
66
46
64
65
75
48
61
58
88
The expansion of mobile services is linked to the increased subscription of mobile phones and xed
broadband across all regions. As shown in Figure 5.23, the accessibility and subscription of xed
broadband has grown by an average of 1-2 per cent in all regions. For every 100 persons, usage
grew in Africa from 1.2 users to 2.16 users; in Asia, from 8.68 users to 9.51 users; in the Americas,
from 11.03 users to 12.31 users; in Europe, from 28.31 to 30.42; and in Oceania, from 6.94 to 7.14.
Figure 5.23 Trends in xed broadband subscriptions in 2016 and 2018
AfricaAsiaAmericasEuropeOceania
Wireless-broadband subscriptions across the regions has been increasing briskly in the last two years.
The number of subscriptions per 100 persons in Africa jumped from 10.75 in 2016 to 28.62 in 2018
even as the region remains in the lower end. Asia and Americas experienced more than a two-
fold increase in wireless broadband subscriptions reaching 68.15 and 48.74 subscriptions per 100
inhabitants in 2018 respectively. The Oceania had a modest increase from 27.74 in 2016 to 31.56
in 2018. Europe with an overall subscription rate of 80.45 in 2018 is at the most advanced level
globally.
Figure 5.24 Trends in active wireless-broadband subscriptions in 2016 and 2018
AfricaAsiaAmericasEuropeOceania
The trend of mobile phone subscription per 100 inhabitants for the last two years, according to
ITU data as shown in Figure 5.25 below, is increasing in Asia, Americas and Oceania, but is slightly
decreasing in Africa and Europe.
Figure 5.25 Trends in mobile phone subscriptions in 2016 and 2018
20.00
40.00
60.00
80.00
100.00
120.00
140.00
Africa
Asia
Americas
Europe
Oceania
5.6 E-participation: public engagement for innovative public
e-services delivery
5.6.1 E-participation concepts and features
E-participation is dened as the process of engaging citizens through ICTs in policy, decision-
making, and service design and delivery so as to make it participatory, inclusive, and deliberative
(United Nations, 2013). As in previous Surveys, the 2018 Survey measures e-participation through
(ii) e-consultation online public consultations, and (iii) e-decision-making directly involving
citizens in decision processes. The Survey assesses the availability of e-participation tools on national
government portals for each of the above criteria. It is noted in the 2018 Survey that more and
more governments are encouraging citizens and businesses to collaborate by contributing ideas and
providing feedback.
calls for equitable, tolerant, open and socially inclusive world in which the needs
Table 5.6 Summary of assessed e-participation features
Figure 5.26 Number of countries grouped by EPI levels in 2016 and 2018
Very High EPI
High EPI
High EPI,
59 countries,
Middle EPI
Middle EPI,
47 countries,
Low EPI
Low EPI,
56 countries,
Very High EPI,
31 countries,
Low EPI,
35 countries,
Middle EPI,
43 countries,
High EPI,
53 countries,
Very High EPI,
62 countries,
2016 Survey2018 Survey
5.6.2 Global and regional rankings
According to the 2018 Survey, Denmark, Finland, Republic of Korea are ranked as global leaders on
Table 5.8 Countries grouped by E-participation Index levels
Very High EPI
Table 5.7 Top 10 Performers in 2018
RankCountry NameEPI score
1Denmark1
1Finland1
1Republic of Korea1
Very High EPI
Very High EPI
Figure 5.27 Distribution of 62 countries with Very-High EPI level by region, 2018 (compared
18%
24%
22%
7%
7%
26%
36%
70%
14%
20%
40%
80%
100%
among all 193 countries
among 62 countries with VH-EPI level
As seen in Figure 5.27, only 22 per cent of the countries in the world are in Europe, while European
countries contribute 70 per cent in the group of 62 countries with Very-High EPI levels. Asia follows
with the largest proportion of 36 per cent in the same Very High-EPI level group while comprising 24
per cent of the 193 Member States. Americas share in the group is 26 per cent, Oceanias share is
14 per cent, and Africas share is 7 per cent.
Table 5.9 Countries that have advanced more than 30 positions in the 2018 EPI ranking
CountryChange in rank2016 EPI2018 EPI
+5614387
Dominica+50156106
Philippines+486719
Panama+4811466
+47164117
+468236
+437633
+40191151
+388446
+38149111
+38167129
+38191153
South Africa+377639
Antigua and Barbuda+36157121
Saint Kitts and Nevis+3513398
+35173138
Nepal+348955
Oman+337643
Bangladesh+338451
+328250
Rwanda+329159
Greece+316534
Switzerland+317241
Bahamas+3012292
Tuvalu
+30191161
The rst level of e-participation is e-information. Governments are providing people with information
through ICT channels to help them make more informed choices at the next stage of consultation.
be evidence-based, fully relevant, or signicant. As seen in Figure 5.28 below, Member States are
sharing an increasing amount of information with their citizens mostly in the education and health
Figure 5.28 Number of countries offering archived information in 2016 and 2018, by sector
020406080100120140160180200
Vulnerable groups
Labour
Social welfare
Environment
Health
Education
20182016
Openness and democratic principles are key values and principles in Finland that are being
applied in the digital era through the Openness of Government Act which was revised in 1999.
examples of these development work are the Governments Project Register (HARE), established
in 1999; and the otakantaa. website, established in 2000 to promote public discussion on
government proposals; Hear Citizens project (2000-2005); Governments Policy Programme on
States Questionnaire 2018
Box 5.4 E-participation activities in Finland
of the process of crafting new policies, designing new services or projects. Consultation however,
need not mean that the government is obligated to use the inputs received. Rather, it has the ability
Source:
39
40
35
40
24
46
32
34
0
5
15
20
35
40
50
(54 countries)
Americas
(35 countries)
Oceania
(14 countries)
(43 countries)
Asia
(47 countries)
28
30
29
21
12
23
11
4
2
6
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
(54 countries)
Americas
(35 countries)
Oceania
(14 countries)
Europe
(43 countries)
Asia
(47 countries)
Portals with social media
networking tools
Protals with e-to
ols for public
consultation/deliberation
Recent use of online consultation/
deliberation e-tools
No online engagement tools/
activities
E-decision-making, the third level of the e-participation model, remains a serious challenge. It refers
to a process in which people provide their own inputs into decision-making processes. Two examples
are: (i) direct e-voting via secure systems and (ii) identifying preferred (popular) options and proposals
by rating them through social medias Like/Dislike or plus/minus functions. While policy-making
consultations are equally valuable participation forms in their own right. Recently, policy discourse has
been gaining special attention as new software tools are creating more complex and sophisticated
The third axis of the Digital Governance Strategy of Brazil is about social participation, and its
objectives are: (1) Endorse the collaboration in the public policies cycle; (2) Amplify and drive
social participation in the creation and improvement of digital public services; and (3) Improve
Questionnaire 2018
Box 5.5 E-participation activities in Brazil
Source: UNDESA
Questionnaire 2018
On 24 March 2014, the Government of Malta presented Digital Malta the National Digital
Box 5.7 Digital Malta Strategy 2014-2020
Source:
Questionnaire 2018
5.6.6 Innovative partnerships, crowdsourcing, and crowdfunding
Innovative public-private partnerships (PPPs) have emerged as models for the provision of public
services and social entitlements in areas such as education, health and environmental sustainability.
banks as in the case of Ghana and Cabo Verde.
01020304050
Africa
Americas
Asia
Europe
Oceania
Africa
Americas
Asia
Europe
Oceania
0510152025303550
2016 Survey2018 Survey
The key conclusions from this chapter are as follows:
Countries are advancing towards higher levels of e-government signied by an upward
movement of 46 countries from Low- to Middle- to High- and Very High-EGDI levels. The world
average EGDI has been increasing from 0.47 in 2014 to 0.55 in 2018 due to the continuous
improvement of its sub-indices in the last 4 years.
The percentage of countries with High- and Very-High levels of e-government development is
reaching 58 per cent or close to two-thirds of all United Nations Member States. The share of
countries with Low-EGDI level, has dropped by a signicant 50 percent, that is, 16 countries in
2018 compared to 32 in 2016.
The regional distribution of e-government development in 2018 mirror those of previous
Surveys. In 2018, Europe with 0.77 continues to lead with the highest regional EGDI, followed
The overall progress of e-government development in the Americas and Asia is noteworthy.
countries transitioned to High-EGDI level in 2018. Moreover, two-thirds of the countries in Asia,
above the world average EGDI scores.
Despite some development gains and investments in technology in several countries,
e-government divide and digital divide continue to persist. Fourteen countries with Low-EGDI
values are African and belong to the least developed countries. Within these countries, there is
The improvement of the average score of the Online Service Index (OSI) was the fastest from
0.39 to 0.57 or by an average of 40 per centsuggesting that globally, there was a steady
progress in improving e-government and public services provision online. It is important to note
that for the rst time, in 2018, the main contributor of EGDI score improvement in all income
groups is OSI.
Although not all countries provide transactional online services, the coverage and availability of
References
1 General Assembly (2015). Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 25 September 2015, A/RES/70/1, para 48. Available
at: http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/migration/generalassembly/docs/globalcompact/A_RES_70_1.pdf
2 The World Bank (2018). The World Bank in Ghana. Overview. Available at: http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/ghana/
3 Government of Ghana NDPC (2015). Ghana shared growth and development agenda II. Available at:
http://www.un-page.org/
4 GIFEC. Ghana Investment Fund for Electronic Communication. Available at: http://gifec.gov.gh/
5 NITA. National Information Technology Agency. Available at:
https://nita.gov.gh/
6 The World Bank. World Bank Country and Lending Groups. Available at: https://datahelpdesk.worldbank.org/knowledgebase/
articles/906519-world-bank-country-and-lending-groups
7 Agency for Digitisation Denmark (2016). A Stronger and More Secure Digital Denmark (2016-2020). Available at: https://digst.
Member States Questionnaire submitted by Australia to UNDESA in 2017.
ICT.govt.nz (2017). ICT Strategy and Action Plan. Available at:
https://www.ict.govt.nz/strategy-and-action-plan/strategy/
16 Member States Questionnaire submitted by New Zealand to UNDESA in 2017.
17 Gouvernement.fr (2018). Action Publique 2022 : pour une transformation du service public. Available at :
https://www.
gouvernement.fr/action/action-publique-2022-pour-une-transformation-du-service-public
Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Japan. Japans e-Government Initiatives. Available at: http://www.e-gov.go.jp/
en/e-government.html
20 Member States Questionnaire submitted by Japan to UNDESA in 2017.
21 Ericsson Mobility Report (2017). 5.2 billion mobile broadband subscriptions. Available at: https://www.ericsson.com/en/
news/2018/2/5.2-billion-mobile-broadband-subscriptions
22 General Assembly (2015). Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 25 September 2015. Available at:
http://www.
un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/RES/70/1&Lang=E
23 Agency for Digitisation Denmark (2016). A Stronger and More Secure Digital Denmark (2016-2016). Available at: https://digst
24 Australian Government Digital Transformation Agency (2018). Digital Service Standard. Make it accessible. Available at: htt
www.dta.gov.au/standard/9-make-it-accessible/
CHAPTER 6 REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND COUNTRY GROUPINGS PERFORMANCE
Regional development
and country groupings
performance
6.1. Introduction
The swift evolution and subsequent diffusion of technology are bringing
their immediate environments. Governments around the world are using
the advancement in infrastructure and information and communication
technologies (ICTs) to promote innovation of and sustainable development
in their economies. This chapter presents an overview of e-government
development initiatives at regional levels. It features important trends and
analyses of regional e-government development performance, including
by specic country groups such as the small island developing States
6.2. Regional rankings
Figure 6.1. below highlights the breakdown of the EGDI and its sub-
indices per region. As was the case in previous editions, Europe continues
to lead e-government development as indicated by the highest EGDI
Oceania (0.4610), and Africa (0.3420) respectively. The Human Capital
Index (HCI) is the highest contributing sub-index in all regions while the
Telecommunication Infrastructure Index (TII) is the lowest. This implies
that the major impediments to the further growth of e-government
development worldwide are still the lack of infrastructure and the digital
OSI at 0.3630 is relatively close to Oceanias OSI, at 0.3930. While Asias
6.1. Introduction 127
6.2. Regional rankings 127
6.2.1 Africa 133
6.2.2 Americas 135
6.2.3 Asia 137
6.2.4 Europe 140
6.2.5 Oceania 142
6.3 The situation in the Least Developed
Countries (LDCs) 142
6.4 Landlocked Developing Countries
(LLDCs) 143
6.5 The situation in Small Island
Developing States (SIDS) 144
6.5.1 Comparing EGDI Levels of LDCs,
LLDCs, and SIDS 146
6.6 Conclusion 148
Photo credit: pixabay.com
As Figure 6.1 indicates, Africa has the least developed technical infrastructure and is less connected
Africa
Highest
Lowest
Asia
Europe
Oceania
EGDIOSIHCITII
Figure 6.1. Breakdown of E-Government Development Index (EGDI) per geographical region
CHAPTER 6 REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND COUNTRY GROUPINGS PERFORMANCE
Figure 6.2 Contributors to the EGDI improvements
Figure 6.3 shows the comparison of the standard deviation for each region indicating intra-regional
gaps in development. Europe, due to the relative homogeneity in the level of development across
Breakdown of improvements per category (2018)
201420162018
OSITIHCI
Improvement
Biggest contributor
Worldwide EGDI scores over time
Highest
3rd
Lowest
Africa
Asia
Europe
Oceania
0.1380.2130.1680.131
0.1320.2050.1010.160
0.1830.2630.1380.218
0.0900.1430.0670.123
0.2630.1600.217
EGDIOSIHCITII
Figure 6.4 highlights the absolute improvements in EGDI levels for each region. The largest gains
come from 18 countries
across the regions improving from Low-EGDI level to Medium-EGDI level.
that moved from Medium-EGDI level to High-EGDI level and 11
moving from High-EGDI level to Very-High-EGDI level. Africa has the largest improvement with 14
Low to medium
Medium to high
High to very high
Africa
Asia
Europe
Oceania
02468101214
Each region contains differing percentages of EGDI levels in their respective countries. Figure 6.5
CHAPTER 6 REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND COUNTRY GROUPINGS PERFORMANCE
Figure 6.5 Percentage of countries grouped by E-Government Development Index (EGDI)
Low EGDI
Number of countries
Medium EGDI
High EGDI
Very High EGDI
Africa
Asia
Europe
Oceania
5435474314
Figure 6.6 shows the percentage of GNI per capita spent by citizens to access broadband, and the
percentage of broadband subscriptions for each region. While Europeans spend the least on mobile
broadband, at 0.63 percent of their income, they have the largest mobile broadband subscription
at 80.46 per cent. In contrast, Africa has the lowest level of mobile broadband subscription with
broadband. Clearly, there is a need to lower the cost of access to technology so that it could be
utilized to serve a wider segment of the population. According to ITU data in 2018, 156 countries
have National Broadband Plan implemented.
These countries indicate their intent to improve access
and affordability through various measures.
Figure 6.6 Amount spent on mobile broadband as percentage of GNI per capita against the
Average subscription
% of subscription in population
31.5668.44
Africa
Asia
Europe
Oceania
While efciency gains do not come automatically with e-government, savings are possible both on
the government and citizen sides with the implementation of transactional services. As seen in Figure
6.7, all regions made progress in their implementation. Submitting income taxes and paying for
utilities are the most used transactional services across all regions. Africa made signicant progress
CHAPTER 6 REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND COUNTRY GROUPINGS PERFORMANCE
Figure 6.7 Transactional services per geographical region
6.2.1 Africa
Africa has large gaps in infrastructure, including broadband infrastructure and access to broadband
services, where it exists, is very expensive. This is evident in the regions low TII score of 0.2030.
Progress with respect to the EGDI across the whole region remains positive albeit uneven. The
average 2018 EGDI is 0.3420 compared to 0.2880 in 2016, which represents the third highest
regional improvement in EGDI largely driven by a 0.1060 increase in the provision of online services.
In an effort to contribute to the advancement of e-government development in Africa, the Economic
Commission for Africa (ECA), among others, plays an active role in strengthening the environment
Trends in transactional services online
Comparing 2014, 2016 and 2018 responses by region
Year
2016
2014
101954
income taxes
Pay Utilities
Register a new
Pay nes
certicates
birth
certicates
Register for
motor
vehicles
drivers
licence
identity cards
4021
292518
19146
362927
272417
322722
281814
20104
342017
23158
1782
22149
116
783
2311
1298
1084
23149
1354
22811
1348
1224
161111
102030405060708090100110120130140
Africa
Asia
Europe
Oceania
3128
Box 6.1 UN Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) work on selected areas in ICT
Box 6.2 Case study on Mauritius Vision 2030 Blueprint
Source:
Source:
www.govmu.org
CHAPTER 6 REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND COUNTRY GROUPINGS PERFORMANCE
Table 6.1 Top 10 countries for e-government in Africa
CountrySub-regionOSIHCITIIEGDIEGDI Level2018 Rank
MauritiusEastern Africa0.72920.73080.54350.6678High66
Southern
0.83330.72910.42310.6618High68
Tunisia
Northern
0.80560.66400.40660.6254High80
SeychellesEastern Africa0.61810.72990.50080.6163High83
GhanaWestern Africa0.69440.56690.35580.5390High101
Morocco
Northern
0.66670.52780.36970.5214High110
Cabo VerdeWestern Africa0.48610.61520.39260.4980Medium112
Northern
0.53470.60720.32220.4880Medium114
RwandaEastern Africa0.72220.48150.17330.4590Medium120
Southern
0.45140.58500.32990.4554Medium121
6.2.2 Americas
The Americas is continuing its improvement in e-government development into 2018. The region is
no longer represented in the low-EGDI and low-OSI levels. Uruguay has moved from a High-EGDI
to a Very-High-EGDI level country in 2018, followed closely by Chile and Argentina just below the
Very-High-EGDI threshold. Since 2016, eight countries (Panama, Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica,
Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Bolivia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and Paraguay) have
improved their EGDI level from Medium- to High-range. Fifty-seven per cent of the region comprising
20 countries are in the top 50th percentile. These positive developments have allowed the Americas
to maintain its position as the second most developed region in e-government development,
The average regional EGDI in the Americas has risen from 0.5250 in 2016 to 0.5900 in 2018, an
improvement of 0.0650 representing the largest regional improvement in 2018. The top performing
country in the Americas region remains the United States, one of the world leaders in e-government
(11th), followed by Canada (23rd) and Uruguay (34th), both among the countries with Very-High-
In addition to developing Digital Government Plan 2020, the Government of Uruguay has
created Agenda Uruguay Digital 2020, a plan built on four key pillars: i) social policy and
inclusion, ii) sustainable economic development, iii) government management, and iv) governance
Box 6.3 Case Study on Agenda Uruguay Digital 2020
Source:
uruguaydigital.
CountrySub-regionOSIHCITIIEGDIEGDI Level2018 Rank
United States of AmericaNorthern America0.98610.88830.75640.8769Very High11
CanadaNorthern America0.93060.87440.67240.8258Very High23
UruguaySouth America0.88890.77190.69670.7858Very High34
ChileSouth America0.83330.83390.53770.7350High42
ArgentinaSouth America0.75000.85790.59270.7335High43
BrazilSouth America0.92360.75250.52200.7327High44
BarbadosCaribbean0.66670.83010.67190.7229High46
Costa RicaCentral America0.67360.79330.63430.7004High56
ColombiaSouth America0.88190.73820.44120.6871High61
MexicoCentral America0.92360.70440.41730.6818High64
Saint Kitts and Nevis leapt by 23 places from 94th to 71st, the most improved ranking in the region,
followed closely by the Bahamas and Dominica, whose rankings increased by 21 and 16 respectively.
Haiti has improved its ranking from 178th to 163rd, but remains the lowest ranking country in the
region, owing mostly to difculties that it has been experiencing such as natural disasters, which
hinder its e-government development, particularly, the development of its telecommunications
infrastructure.
Table 6.2 Top 10 countries in e-government in the Americas
CHAPTER 6 REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND COUNTRY GROUPINGS PERFORMANCE
Asia is not only the most populous region, but it is also the largest continent in terms of land mass. The
e-government development trend is highly diverse across the countries in the region. The Republic
of Korea (third), Singapore (seventh) and Japan (tenth) are ranked among the top 10 in the world,
while in the low-EGDI spectrum are the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (185th) and Yemen
(186th). Such vast differences in the availability of e-government services were highlighted in Figure
6.4 depicting high levels of dispersion across the region. Despite this, Asias strong performance in
e-government development from 2016 to 2018 is a continuing challenge to the Americas position
as the second best performing region. The average regional EGDI has risen from 0.5130 in 2016 to
0.5780 in 2018, an improvement of 0.0650 representing the second highest leap across all of the
regions. Moreover, the average ranking for the region is 90th, while the Americas average is 87th.
Source:
Source:
http://www.
countries in the region to democratize public management, accountability, access to information
and participation in order to respond to the expectations of citizens who demand accessible
and higher quality public services through the formulation of open government policies.
For instance, in Costa Rica, ECLAC, through ILPES, collaborated in the design of a Policy on
Open Justice. The Costa Rican government generated this policy as an innovative form of
The Judicial Power is aware that the implementation of the Open Justice Policy demands a
change of paradigm that includes a citizen-centered cultural change. It includes changes in the
processes seeking efciency and effectiveness in the delivery of justice, employing information
technology for simplication, traceability and predictability. It also includes organisational
Box 6.4 Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC)
Box 6.5 Case Study on the Republic of Koreas e-Government Master Plan 2020
Compared to 2016, the region has made signicant improvements to its OSI (0.1100) and TII (0.0660),
This is evident when analyzing Cyprus, which has made the biggest improvement in this years
Survey. In 2018, the countrys ranking rose to 36th from 64th in 2016 representing an improvement
of 28 spots, the highest in the region. Similarly, the Maldives (97th), Timor-Leste (142nd) and Brunei
(59th) have improved their rankings by 20 or more places.
followed by Bahrain, Kuwait and Qatar. GCC countries managed to achieve a series of substantial
accomplishments related to improving e-government systems and making it easier for citizens to access
government portals of other GCC Member States. During the Fifth GCC eGovernment Ministerial
Committee, which took place in Bahrain, the proposal of a virtual academy for e-Government training
was discussed. Such an institution would contribute towards the development of e-government by
providing qualied specialists for GCC comprehensive e-government strategy.
The World Government Summit is hosted in United Arab Emirates on an annual basis since 2013. This
event allows government leaders to take part in the global dialogue and outline strategies regarding
This event also gives opportunities to
showcase innovative solutions in e-government and analyze best practices in 150 participating countries
with the aim of addressing future challenges using and improve already existing e-government policies.
Box 6.6 The World Government Summit
Source:
http://www.
worldgovernment
CountrySub-regionOSIHCITIIEGDIEGDI Level2018 Rank
Republic of KoreaEastern Asia0.97920.87430.84960.9010Very High3
SingaporeSouth-Eastern Asia0.98610.85570.80190.8812Very High7
JapanEastern Asia0.95140.84280.84060.8783Very High10
United Arab EmiratesWestern Asia0.94440.68770.85640.8295Very High21
BahrainWestern Asia0.79860.78970.84660.8116Very High26
IsraelWestern Asia0.82640.86350.70950.7998Very High31
CyprusWestern Asia0.78470.80830.72790.7736Very High36
KazakhstanCentral Asia0.86810.83880.57230.7597Very High39
KuwaitWestern Asia0.79170.68520.73940.7388High41
MalaysiaSouth-Eastern Asia0.88890.69870.56470.7174High48
Table 6.4 Level of e-government development in Gulf Cooperation Council member states
CountryLevel of IncomeEGDI2018 Rank2016 RankChange in Rank*
United Arab EmiratesHigh incomeVery High EGDI2129+8
BahrainHigh incomeVery High EGDI2624-2
KuwaitHigh incomeHigh EGDI4140-1
QatarHigh incomeHigh EGDI5148-3
Saudi ArabiaHigh incomeHigh EGDI5244-8
OmanHigh incomeHigh EGDI6366+3
* A plus sign (+) implies rank improvement, while minus (-) sign implies rank drop.
Table 6.3 Top 10 countries for e-government in Asia
CHAPTER 6 REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND COUNTRY GROUPINGS PERFORMANCE
Source:
ESCWA
(AHLF 2017),
provided conceptual frameworks of transition from government applications to government
services; and highlighted the role of technology and the smart paradigm in the transformation
from e-government to smart government. It proposed linkages of the SDGs with smart government
and highlighted the top 10 technologies for smart government. The study considered that smart
governments are those which score high on the e-Government Development Index (EGDI).
Committed to continue working on the WSIS and SDG processes and linkages, ESCWA conducted
a study (also in 2017) entitled Arab Horizon 2030: Digital Technologies for Development
provided a preliminary vision on how the Arab region can achieve an appropriate status in seven major
policy areas by 2030, that include Bridging Divide, Digital Strategies, Infrastructure, Cybersecurity, ICT
Sector, e-Government and e-Applications.
As a continuation of this effort ESCWA is currently in the process of conducting a new study Arab
Digital Technologies for Development Report(2019): Towards Empowering People and Ensuring
Inclusiveness, which is considered to be a continuation to 2017th study giving more emphasis to
the assessment of the current status of the Arab Region in the different policy areas, and linking the
role of ICTs to sustainable development in its three dimensions to the theme of empowering people
. It provides a framework for the development of national innovation policies
Arab countries in their efforts to achieve inclusive sustainable development.
With the aim of supporting Arab countries in building stronger public institutions, ESCWA launched a
Box 6.7 UN-ESCWA and E-Government in the Arab Region
6.2.4 Europe
Since the rst edition of the UN E-Government Survey in 2003, Europe has always had the highest
EGDI among the regions. In 2018, this dominance continues at both country and regional levels. Five
of the top 10 countries come from Europe. Fourteen of the top 20 ranked countries are in this region
and no European country ranks below the high-level EGDI category.
Table 6.5 Level of e-government development in European Union member states
CountryLevel of IncomeEGDI2018 Rank2016 RankChange in Rank
DenmarkHigh income0.915019+8
United KingdomHigh income0.899941-3
SwedenHigh income0.888256+1
FinlandHigh income0.881565-1
FranceHigh income0.8790910+1
GermanyHigh income0.87651215+3
CHAPTER 6 REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND COUNTRY GROUPINGS PERFORMANCE
Challenges brought about by an aging workforce, subdued growth and high levels of youth
unemployment have stimulated the region to seek innovative e-government solutions to improve
Source:
ec.europa.eu
Source:
Box 6.8 Case Study of Denmarks Digital Strategy 2016-2020
Europes commitment to enhancing e-government within the region is evidenced by the
, a result of the successes and lessons learned from monitoring
and evaluating previous action plans. The
aims to accelerate
6.2.5 Oceania
region, with island-States having smaller populations, economies and, by extension, fewer resources.
Table 6.6, which shows Australia and New Zealand in the top 10 countries with very high levels of
EGDI, presents this stark contrast vividly. Fiji and Tonga, the 3rd and 4th ranking countries within
the region, are outside of the top 100 ranked countries, despite having relatively high EGDI scores.
Table 6.6 Top 10 countries for e-government in Oceania
CountrySub-regionOSIHCITIIEGDIEGDI Level2018 Rank
AustraliaAustralia and New Zealand0.97221.00000.74360.9053Very High2
New ZealandAustralia and New Zealand0.95140.94500.74550.8806Very High8
FijiMelanesia0.45830.78990.35620.5348High102
TongaPolynesia0.47220.80390.29510.5237High109
PalauMicronesia0.32640.84620.33460.5024Medium111
SamoaPolynesia0.34030.72410.20640.4236Medium128
VanuatuMelanesia0.43750.56750.19200.3990Medium137
TuvaluPolynesia0.22220.64220.26930.3779Medium144
Micronesia0.22920.73010.10370.3543Medium149
KiribatiMicronesia0.29860.65910.07730.3450Medium153
Nte: Table 6.6 shows that Oceania does not have any country in the low-EGDI level, with the majority of its countries in the me
dium-EGDI level. Vanuatu leapt by 12
rankings to 137th, worldwide. Papua New Guinea (171st) and Tuvalu (144th) have improved by 8 and 7 spots respectively.
6.3 e situation in the Least Developed Countries (LDCs)
Least Developed Countries (LDCs) are low-income countries with low levels of human capital
development and are highly vulnerable to economic structural shocks. The United Nations classies
47 countries as LDCs. The African region (33) is the most represented nation in the LDC category,
Table 6.7 shows the top 10 LDCs ranked by 2018 EGDI scores.
CHAPTER 6 REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND COUNTRY GROUPINGS PERFORMANCE
Table 6.7 Top 10 countries for e-government - Least Developed Countries (LDC)
CountryRegionSub-RegionOSIHCITIIEGDIEGDI Level2018 Rank
BangladeshAsiaSouthern Asia0.78470.47630.19760.4862Medium115
NepalAsiaSouthern Asia0.68750.49570.24130.4748Medium117
RwandaAfricaEastern Africa0.72220.48150.17330.4590Medium120
BhutanAsiaSouthern Asia0.50000.47430.30800.4274Medium126
ZambiaAfricaEastern Africa0.47920.56890.18530.4111Medium133
UgandaAfricaEastern Africa0.56940.49060.15660.4055Medium135
VanuatuOceaniaMelanesia0.43750.56750.19200.3990Medium137
TogoAfricaWestern Africa0.55560.50580.13530.3989Medium138
Tanzania
AfricaEastern Africa0.56250.47590.14030.3929Medium139
Timor-LesteAsiaSouth-Eastern Asia0.31250.53870.29370.3816Medium142
Among LDCs, Bangladesh ranks top in e-government development. In launching the Digital
Bangladesh aims to emphasize
the importance of ICTs in improving efciency and productivity in all industries. The country is
expanding e-government in all possible sectors, including health, agriculture, transportation,
education and poverty reduction, to make public services more transparent as stated in its MSQ
6.4 Landlocked Developing Countries (LLDCs)
Seventeen LDCs are also categorized as Landlocked Developing Countries (LLDCs).
LLDCs have the
Table 6.8 Top 10 countries for e-government - Landlocked Developing Countries
CountryRegionSub-RegionOSIHCITIIEGDIEGDI Level2018 Rank
AsiaCentral Asia0.86810.83880.57230.7597
Very High
EuropeEastern Europe0.77080.72740.47870.6590
AsiaWestern Asia0.72920.73690.50620.6574
The former Yugoslav
EuropeSouthern Europe0.71530.69240.48590.6312
AsiaCentral Asia0.79170.73960.33070.6207
AsiaWestern Asia0.56250.75470.46600.5944
AsiaCentral Asia0.64580.76280.34180.5835
AsiaEastern Asia0.59720.78990.36020.5824
AmericasSouth America0.56250.71480.31480.5307
AmericasSouth America0.55560.67010.35070.5255
Kazakhstan has the top EGDI score among the LLDC group, with a very-high-EGDI score of 0.760.
In 2013, the country adopted Information Kazakhstan - 2020, which aims to create conditions
6.5 e situation in Small Island Developing States (SIDS)
geographical impediment. SIDS have small economies and limited resources that are geographically
dispersed. They are heavily vulnerable to environmental changes and external economic shocks. For
example, countries such as the Federated States of Micronesia and Seychelles are small groups of
islands that rely heavily on the international system. This implies that these countries are not only
susceptible to internal and external shocks, such as natural disasters, but also face the omnipresent
challenge of increased costs with respect to the governments provision of infrastructure and services.
There are 37 Small Island Developing States found in the Americas (16), Oceania (12), Africa (6), and
CHAPTER 6 REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND COUNTRY GROUPINGS PERFORMANCE
CountryRegionSub-RegionOSIHCITIIEGDIEGDI Level2018 Rank
SingaporeAsiaSouth-Eastern Asia0.98610.85570.80190.8812Very High
BarbadosAmericasCaribbean0.66670.83010.67190.7229High
MauritiusAfricaEastern Africa0.72920.73080.54350.6678High
Saint Kitts and NevisAmericasCaribbean0.53470.74910.68250.6554High
BahamasAmericasCaribbean0.70140.72490.53930.6552High
Trinidad and TobagoAmericasCaribbean0.63890.71950.57350.6440High
SeychellesAfricaEastern Africa0.61810.72990.50080.6163High
GrenadaAmericasCaribbean0.49310.82020.46580.5930High
Antigua and BarbudaAmericasCaribbean0.45830.75180.56170.5906High
DominicaAmericasCaribbean0.61110.64970.47750.5794High
Among SIDS countries, Singapore has historically had a very-high-EGDI score since the rst publication
of the United Nations E-Government Survey. According to its MSQ submission, since 1980, long
before the Survey, the country was designing and implementing policies to provide its citizenry
with an ever-advancing level of e-governance. From 1980-1999, it aimed to have a computer on
every desk; in 2000-2006, online services delivery; in 2006-2015, integration of data, processes
and systems aimed at creating a collaborative Gov-with-You rather than a Gov-to-You. Finally,
since 2016, Singapore has been providing a digital government to a smart nation improving
lifestyles, creating more opportunities, and stronger communities by harnessing technology. The
countrys strong foundation in its approach to e-governance and ICT development continues to allow
Singapore to be among the world leaders in these elds.
Small Island Developing States (SIDS) face geopolitical realities and socio-economic
dependencies, along with prevalent development challenges, such as the scarcity of resources,
Box 6.10 Small Island Developing States (SIDS) Symposium, Nassau, Commonwealth of the Bahamas (26-27
website: https://publicadministration.un.org/bahamas_symposium[2] Available at: http://
Table 6.9 Top 10 countries for e-government - Small Island Developing States
6.5.1 Comparing EGDI Levels of LDCs, LLDCs, and SIDS
Bangladesh is the highest ranked LDC at 115th. The average EGDI for this group is 0.2980 which
is signicantly lower than the world average of 0.5490, as seen in Figure 6.8 below. It is important
to note that the LDC bloc has seen a signicant improvement in e-government development since
00.10.20.30.40.50.60.70.80.91
20182018 world average
CHAPTER 6 REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND COUNTRY GROUPINGS PERFORMANCE
Figure 6.9. Granular breakdown of 2018 e-Government Development Index (EGDI) and its
The LDC and LLDC countries generally perform poorly in all three sub-indices of the EGDI when
compared to the world average. However, there have been improvements since 2016. E-government
allows these countries to utilize technology in providing more efcient and innovative public services
such as improving access to the most vulnerable, accelerating Governments ability to handle
economic and environmental shocks and improving accountability and transparency. E-government
has the potential to improve the allocation of scarce resources and enable long-term sustainable
Highest
Lowest
EGDIOSIHCI
LLDC
SIDS
Figure 6.10. Percentage of Countries Represented per bloc based on E-Government
473237
Low EGDI
LDCLLDCSIDS
countries
3%3%
Middle EGDI
High EGDI
Very High EGDI
The lessons learned from this chapter are as follows:
There has been an overall increase in e-government development across the regions, driven largely
CHAPTER 6 REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND COUNTRY GROUPINGS PERFORMANCE
References
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Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Myanmar, Papua New Guinea, Sao Tome and Principe, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands
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Republic of), Kyrgyzstan, Maldives, Palau, Panama, Paraguay, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Tonga
3 Note: Belarus, Cyprus, Greece, Kazakhstan, Liechtenstein, Malta, Monaco, Poland, Portugal, Russian Federation, Uruguay
4 P. Biggs and al (2017). The of broadband 2017: broadband catalyzing sustainable development. [online] Available at: https://
www.itu.int/dms_pub/itu-s/opb/pol/S-POL-BROADBAND.18-2017-PDF-E.pdf
5 UN Economic Commission for Africa (2017). Towards improved access to broadband in Africa. [online] Available at:
https://www.
uneca.org/sites/default/les/PublicationFiles/towards_improved_access_to_broadband_inafrica.pdf
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Prime-Minister-presents-Economic-Mission-Statement-.aspx
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10 World Economic Forum (2017). The Summit. [online] Available at: https://www.worldgovernmentsummit.org/about/about-the-
11 UN Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (2017).
Arab High-level Forum on WSIS and 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. [online] Available at:
https://www.unescwa.org/
Innovation Policy for Inclusive Sustainable Development in the Arab Region. [online] Available at:
https://www.unescwa.org/publications/innovation-policy-inclusive-sustainable-development-arab-region
15 ESCWA (2016). Open Government in the Arab Region. [online] Available at: https://www.unescwa.org/sub-site/open-
government-arab-region
16 Agency for Digitisation (2018). Digital Strategy 2016 - 2020. [online] Available at:
[Accessed Mar. 2018].
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[Accessed Mar. 2018].
20 Zerde.gov.kz. Informational Kazakhstan 2020. [online] Available at: https://zerde.gov.kz/en/activity/program-control/informa
[Accessed Mar. 2018].
CHAPTER 7 IMPROVE CITIES RESILIENCE AND SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH E-GOVERNMENT ASSESSMENT
Improve cities resilience
and sustainability through
e-government assessment
7.1. Introduction
7.1.1 Urbanisation and Sustainability
Cities are important hubs of human activity that are gaining in
population and increased importance in the global economy. In 2016,
close to 4 billion people 54 per cent of the worlds population
lived in cities. According to the World Bank
proportion of population living in cities has increased by 50 per cent, and
per cent of the worlds population). In 2014, high levels of urbanisation,
and Northern America. Europe, with 73 per cent of its population living
Asia, in contrast, remain mostly rural, with 40 per cent and 48 per cent
of their respective populations living in urban areas. Over the coming
decades, the level of urbanisation is expected to increase in all regions,
with Africa and Asia urbanising faster than the rest
The role of local administration in the achievement of the United Nations
recognise the transformative power of urbanisation for development
and the signicance of city leaders in driving global change from the
7.1.2 Public service delivery at a local level
Municipality administration constitutes the lowest level of governance
in each country (Lanvin and Lewin, 2006). E-Government at the local
level has its own avour, since cities and municipalities are developing
levels of government. On the one hand, local government serves the
7.1. Introduction 151
7.1.1 Urbanisation and
7.1.2 Public service delivery at
a local level 151
7.2. Local Level e-Government 152
7.2.1 Supporting e-Government
implementation at local level 152
7.2.2. e-Government assessment
on local level 153
7.2.3. Relative assessment efforts 153
7.2.4. Towards Local e-Government
7.3 Current Status of Local Online
Services: a Pilot Study 154
7.4. Using Local e-Government to
Advance SDG implementation 171
7.5. Conclusion 173
Photo credit: pixabay.com
administrative purpose of maintaining the essential infrastructures and providing services, and on the
other hand, it offers their citizens the possibility of active participation in decision-making.
Local governments are key players in public life, since what they do has a daily and direct impact
on citizens. People interact more often with local administration than with the central one, because
the rst delivers the vast majority of services that concerns them
7.2. Local Level e-Government
7.2.1 Supporting e-Government implementation at local level
A signicant number of cities worldwide have adopted local initiatives in response to the growing
recognition of the need to improve their sustainability and resilience. Municipalities, aligning with
Sustainable Development Goals, have taken action on policies related to eradicating poverty;
providing equal opportunities for all, including vulnerable groups; land development and land-use
planning; economic development; smart growth; transport optimisation including in connection
with inner-city public transit; pollution prevention, energy, water and resource conservation; eco-
projects and alternative energy development policies
resilience of cities has prompted many politicians, policy-makers and public ofcials to dene new
CHAPTER 7 IMPROVE CITIES RESILIENCE AND SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH E-GOVERNMENT ASSESSMENT
In order to integrate those policies into local planning and development efforts, public administration
processes are continuously reengineered and increasingly underpinned by emerging technologies and
innovations. Public administration authorities portals provide the opportunity to local governments,
not only to digitize services but, at the same time, to localise their resilience and sustainability.
This underlines the need for web-based local government systems to enhance access to services and
prompt greater engagement among constituents. It should be ensured that policies are tailored to
the socioeconomic characteristics of each city.
7.2.2. e-Government assessment on local level
Therefore, the analysis of public administration portals is essential and a way for e-Government
7.2.3. Relative assessment eorts
Apart from United Nations e-Government Development Index (EGDI), several other assessment efforts
are also commissioned, at national levels, by different stakeholders. The European Commission,
in 2017, found that individual countries, private consulting companies, individual researchers, and
the Commission itself apply various assessment processes. In each case, policy-makers, government
ofcials, researchers, and others seek to learn lessons from other governments e-Government
policies, to measure their relative progress, discover best practices and global trends and explore
underlying e-Government concepts to identify points of leverage
. There are some efforts, mainly in
the research realm, to evaluate municipal portals (Box 7.1). Some of them consider ICT readiness for
the municipality, while others assess the local administration portal.
The United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs considers that the different role cities
play in different countries makes comparison difcult (i.e. a public function that is highly centralised
7.2.4. Towards Local e-Government Assessment
Consequently, a need to move the focus of assessment of e-Government development to different
levels of public administration emerges. It is expected that local level e-Government assessment will
improve public services, citizen engagement and authorities transparency and accountability. Local
e-government could also be used as a tool to propel resiliency and sustainability goals and align local
government operation with national digital strategy plans. Assessment results could produce useful
benchmarks, which can lead to further improvement and application of best practices.
The actions needed to improve local public governance and achieve the UN SDGs need more sub-
national, policy-orientated, and capacity-building indices. That requires comprehensive government
indicators, which reect universal aspects of local governance to enable global comparisons across
participation, support to vulnerable groups, access to information, and anti-corruption measures.
7.3Current Status of Local Online Services: a Pilot Study
This section reports on a pilot study of local e-Government development, which sampled 40 diverse
cities across the globe. It starts by describing the instrument used to assess the municipalities online
services, as well as its application to the 40 cities. The studys main ndings, including some best
practices, are presented in the second part of this section.
Digital Governance in Municipalities Worldwide
assesses the practice of digital governance
in large municipalities around the world. It evaluates the ofcial municipality portals of 100 cities
of the top 100 most wired nations (based on International Telecommunication Union data), in
terms of public service provision and residents participation in governance and ranks the portals.
The evaluation categories they apply are: services provision, privacy/security, usability, content, and
citizen participation. Regarding provided services, it checks 20 specic ones, assessed in terms of
maturity with a reference framework of three stages
e-Government Municipal Assessment Project
(MeGAP) for benchmarking of local
. This bottom-up approach assesses 68 services that are
performed by local administrations in the US and is grouped in four distinct categories (information
dissemination, interactive functions, eCommerce functions and e-Democracy). Each service is
evaluated using a four-level services sophistication assessment framework. Finally, a summary
statistic is dened to encapsulate all the results and is the base for a score used to rank cities.
MeGAP has been also applied to the 30 municipalities in southern Norway.
The Evaluation of the Portuguese Municipalities Online Presence
is a Portuguese robust
Box 7.1 Local e-Government Assessment Efforts
Source:
University
CHAPTER 7 IMPROVE CITIES RESILIENCE AND SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH E-GOVERNMENT ASSESSMENT
Municipalities worldwide are constantly improving their ofcial websites, as those are the primary
interfaces with citizens in the e-Government paradigm.
The focus of the proposed assessment
instrument is the municipalitys ofcial website, where information about administration and online
services are provided by the local government authorities. Specically, a municipal website should
include information about available city services, along with information related to the city council,
use the appropriate technologies to effectively provide government services and engage citizens in
decision-making. Local government portals are also the main gateways to promote and apply cities
resiliency and sustainability programmes.
Table 7.1 LOSI Criteria and Indicators
TechnologyContent Provision
CHAPTER 7 IMPROVE CITIES RESILIENCE AND SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH E-GOVERNMENT ASSESSMENT
The 40 cities in the pilot assessment were selected on the basis of geographical coverage and
population size. All geopolitical regional groups of United Nations Member States were covered.
More specically the number of countries per region that are included is based on the percentage of
that regions total population in the context of the global population: Africa 7; Americas 6; Asia
13; Europe 12; Oceania 2. Wherever possible, all sub regions in the region are covered. Within
regions, the cities with the largest population were selected, wherever possible. Where this was
not possible, other criteria such as gross domestic product (GDP) and e-Government ranking were
considered. Within countries, the city with the largest population was selected. Cities population
were obtained from The United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD) website
city is also the capital city. Table 7.2 systematises the nal list of cities considered. After selection, a
search was conducted to identify the relative municipality website link for each.
The link for each municipalitys website and the 60 indicators to be evaluated were sent to an assessor,
who was a native speaker of the ofcial language of the city. Instructions and guidance regarding
the assessment process and about the email messages to be sent to the municipality to assess
municipalities responsiveness to email contacts, were also sent to the assessors. In order to have
external validation of the information collected by the assessors, an expert review was conducted. To
do so, the assessors were asked to introduce comments to the indicators and, departing from that,
a researcher from the team re-checked the information provided.
Table 7.2 Pilot Cities Prole
CityCountryRegionSub-regionPopulation
LuandaAngolaAfricaMiddle Africa2107648
Buenos AiresArgentinaAmericasSouth America2965403
SydneyAustraliaOceaniaAustralia and New Zealand4451841
TorontoCanada AmericasNorthern America2808503
ShanghaiChinaAsiaEastern Asia14348535
BogotColombiaAmericasSouth America6763325
AbidjanCote dIvoireAfricaWestern Africa4395243
PragueCzech Republic (the)EuropeEastern Europe1259079
Santo DomingoDominican Republic (the)AmericasCaribbean965040
CairoEgyptAfricaNorthern Africa7771617
TallinnEstoniaEuropeNorthern Europe413782
CityCountryRegionSub-regionPopulation
NairobiKenyaAfricaEastern Africa3133518
Kuala LumpurMalaysiaAsiaSouth-Eastern Asia1588750
MexicoAmericasCentral America8851080
7.3.2 Study Findings
CHAPTER 7 IMPROVE CITIES RESILIENCE AND SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH E-GOVERNMENT ASSESSMENT
Table 7.3 Ranking of cities
RankCity
Total
Technology
indicatorsCluster
551026119
Very high
(more than 75%
Cape Town
531026117
Tallinn
531126125
511025116
51112489
501121127
Amsterdam
49925106
49112568
48112585
Warsaw
48112576
47102477
47624126
47102459
46102287
New York City
461021106
441021104
43102347
42122146
Tokyo
41122433
Toronto
4192283
Buenos Aires
4082256
39112126
3791757
36121951
35111933
35111942
3381871
Cairo
33101851
Nairobi
33515104
3191535
3071734
32Mxico City2972012
Colombo (commercial)
2881353
2451154
Port Moresby
2491204
23101202
1910901
178901
1751102
1651101
of e-Government development of the country to which the city belongs. It does so by comparing
very high
� (countries with OSI = 0.75),
the city belongs. This fact reinforces the need to conduct assessments of e-Government development
The discrepancy that may exist in national and local-level e-Government development may be even
greater than the one shown by these gures, considering the fact that the cities included in this
Very high cluster
Medium cluster
High cluster
CHAPTER 7 IMPROVE CITIES RESILIENCE AND SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH E-GOVERNMENT ASSESSMENT
pilot study are the biggest cities, in terms of population, in their countries. Being big cities, it is
highly probable that they present higher levels of e-government development than smaller ones,
LowMediumHighVery high
5%25%37.5%
Very high
Mexico City
Almaty
Athens
Buenos Aires
Kuala Lumpur
Riyadh
Tokyo
Toronto
Amsterdam
Cape Town
Helsinki
London
Madrid
Moscow
New York City
Paris
Seoul
Tallinn
Warsaw
12.5%12.5%
Accra
Colombo (commercial)
Karachi
Santo Domingo
Addis Ababa
Cairo
Jakarta
Nairobi
Prague
Luanda
Port Moresby
Figure 7.3 Performance of cities per region
Despite the reasonable global scores achieved by the cities, when looking individually to the different
As can be seen (Table 7.4), 85 per cent of the 13
Technology
indicators (i.e. indicators which cover
basic features related to accessibility, navigability, and ease of use of the website, such as browser
compatibility, portal nding, portal loading speed, mobile device accessibility, internal search
mechanism, customisation of display features, and foreign language support), were positively assessed
in more than 50 per cent of the cities, meaning that these issues are regarded and implemented in
most of municipalities websites. Similarly, 96 per cent of the
indicators, such as
those related to the availability of essential information, were also found in more than 50 per cent of
the cities analysed, with half of them being satised by more than 75 per cent of the cities.
Table 7.4 Percentage of indicators per criteria that scored by percentage of cities.
IndicatorsPercentage of cities
CriterionTotal Number0%-25%25%-50%50%-75%75%-100%
Technology
13015%39%46%
Content Provision
2604%46%50%
Service Provision
1315%54%31%0
912%44%22%22%
Very high
Africa
43%43%
AmericasAsiaEuropeOceania
10
20
40
50
70
80
High
Medium
CHAPTER 7 IMPROVE CITIES RESILIENCE AND SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH E-GOVERNMENT ASSESSMENT
A different situation emerges with the other two criteria. As shown by the numbers, 56 per cent of
Participation and Engagement
indicators, or those covering the availability of citizen engagement
and participation initiatives through the website, were implemented by less than 50 per cent of the
Service Provision
criterion scored the lowest, with 69 per cent of its indicators
These results tend to show that, despite some very good cases, many municipalities continue to
focus their attention more on providing websites with adequate content and satisfactory usability,
and less on making life easier for citizens insofar as such things as service request and execution and
promoting citizen participation.
As shown in Figure 7.4,
Technology
indicators addressed most by municipality websites are related to
accessibility, ease of use, and navigability. Most of the websites are compliant with the Web Content
Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG1.0), as well as with the technical standard recommendations by
Browser compatibility
Mobile device accessibility
Ease of portal nding
Internal search mechanism
Navigability
Foreign Language support
Internal advanced search mechanism
Alignment with accessibility standards
Alignment with markup validation standards
Alignment with display standards
Portal loading speed
Customization of display features
020406080100
Only 65 per cent of the municipalities provide their website content in more than one language.
are capital cities that attract a huge number of visitors for business and tourism purposes, it would be
reasonable to expect that their websites would be fully or partially available in an oft-used language,
such as English. There is also an expectation that multilingual website content would be used in
Most municipalities, or 95 per cent, already provide websites that are accessible through mobile
Names and contacts of heads of departments
98%
95%
90%
90%
88%
85%
85%
83%
83%
83%
80%
80%
73%
70%
68%
68%
68%
68%
65%
63%
60%
60%
58%
55%
45%
CHAPTER 7 IMPROVE CITIES RESILIENCE AND SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH E-GOVERNMENT ASSESSMENT
The majority of municipalities websites also provide a rich and wide range of information covering
sectorial areas such as education, health, environment, social welfare, leisure, culture and sports.
Announcements of forthcoming municipality procurement/bidding processes were found in 80 per
cent of the websites, although only 63 per cent of them provide the results of the procurement/
bidding processes.
Notably, 68 per cent of the municipalities have a privacy policy or statement available on the website,
which denotes respect for citizens privacy and awareness of transparency and accountability
Helsinki Region Infoshare (HRI) service aims to make regional information quickly and easily
accessible to all. Essentially, HRI is a web service for fast and easy access to open data sources
Box 7.2 Helsinki: Helsinki Region Infoshare
Source:
http://www.
Smart cities initiatives are emerging around the globe. Prompted by environmental, economic, or
social reasons, cities are taking advantage of technology advancements in many domains to become
smarter. The pilot study tends to support this evidence, with some smart city initiatives found in 68
per cent of the cities analysed, such as in Amsterdam (Box 7.3).
Comparing with Open Government Data and smart cities initiatives, the results obtained for emerging
technologies were somewhat lower. The use, or intention to use, of emerging technologies was
found in only 45 per cent of the municipalities. This percentage, however, is a positive sign, since
there is still a signicant general lack of understanding about the use of emerging technologies. These
In Amsterdam, they have designed and installed the worlds rst solar cycle path. Solar path is exactly
what it sounds likesolar panels that pull double duty as road surface and electricity generator.
Box 7.3 Amsterdam: Solar Cycle Path
Source:
http://www.
solaroad.nl/
The favourable scores achieved by municipalities in the
Technology
and
criteria
indicators. As shown in
Table 7.4, there were 56 per cent of
and
indicators that were only found
According to Figure 7.6, one of the
and engagement indicators that received a more
CHAPTER 7 IMPROVE CITIES RESILIENCE AND SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH E-GOVERNMENT ASSESSMENT
Figure 7.6 Implementation of Participation indicators in municipalities websites
Seoul had problems of frequent waste collection and waste overow. With an inadequate number
of public waste bins and with four to ve daily waste collections proving to be insufcient, they
had a serious problem on their hands. Furthermore, because the waste collection planners did
not know how full or how quickly the bins became full, Seouls waste collection staff had to deal
with plastic bottles and paper cups that continuously piled up on top of recycling bins.
Box 7.4 Seoul: smart bins for waste management improvement
Source:
http://gov.
020406080100
Feedback/complaint submission
Regarding the possibility for a citizen to send a complaint or opinion to their municipality present in in
85 per cent of the municipalities - different approaches are used. In some cases, general inquiry options
are available, whereas other websites provide specic areas for that feedback. One kind of information
or feedback provided by citizens to their municipalities is related with the reporting of occurrences/
Bogot DC has created effective mechanisms to permit timely availability of quality geospatial
information to support the range of sectoral, local and regional projects that are deployed in and
from the national capital district. The Infrastructure of Spatial Data for the Capital District (or IDECA)
is responsible for promoting collaborative strategies to manage geographic information based on
ofcial policies and standards, using technological tools that enable information management and
facilitate the development of institutional strategies for best practices related to the data lifecycle.
Tu Bogot is an application that can identify, through an interactive map, variables to make decisions
about housing or investment in the capital within a search radius of 0.5 to 2 km. It can also be
Box 7.5 Bogota: Geographic Information Services
Box 7.6 Sydney: Community Consultation
Source:
http://www.
bogota.gov.co/
Source:
http://www.
cityofsydney.nsw.
gov.au
Too few websites offer mechanisms, such as online forums, social media, online polls, online
CHAPTER 7 IMPROVE CITIES RESILIENCE AND SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH E-GOVERNMENT ASSESSMENT
Despite such initiatives, only 16 of the municipalities in the study, or 40 per cent, could point
to some indication of online public consultation that resulted in a policy decision, regulation, or
service. Likewise, only in 21 of such websites or 53 per cent of those polled, were there calendar
01020304050607080
Portal authentication
e-Procurement service
e-Payment of service fees or nes
Municipality responsiveness to emails
Personal data accessibility
Police online declaration
Quality of email response
Personal data updating
Address change notication
Online residentship
Delay of email response
Figure 7.7 Implementation of Services Provision indicators in municipalities websites
Besides this basic auxiliary service, nine specic services were also analysed: (i) access to personal
data; (ii) personal data updates; (iii) resident application; (iv) application for government vacancies; (v)
building permits; (vi) notication of change of address; (vii) declaration to the municipality police; (viii)
submission of a tender through an e-procurement platform; and (ix) payment of fees for government
The submission of tenders through e-Procurement platforms is the service offered by most
municipalities, as it was found in 60 per cent of the websites, although different approaches are
followed: in some cities, citizens are redirected to specic e-procurement municipality platforms
while, in others, they are redirected to national e-procurement platforms.
The online service for applying for residency is the least available: only 10 cities, or 25 per cent, have
it, and in two of these cases, the service is not provided directly by the municipality but by other
entities, namely the magistrate, to which the citizen is redirected.
provide this option, and, similar to the situation prevailing for residency applications, there are nine
municipalities in which the police declaration service is not provided directly by the city but through
a link to the municipality police website where the declaration can be made.
Application for government positions is available on the websites of 22, or 55 per cent of the
municipalities, and this option is not presented by a city website but through a link to external
per cent of the websites, and 14, or 35 per cent, respectively.
Three nal services related to the usage, delay and quality of responses to email messages sent
by citizens to municipalities were also analysed. For doing so, an email message containing a
simple request, in particular, asking about the ofcial working hours of the ofce, was sent to each
municipality. During this process, it was found that not all the municipalities provide email addresses
on their websites. In some of those cases, it was possible to send a message through an embedded
web form. Overall, only 19, less than half of the municipalities, replied to the messages sent. And
of those, only 10 replied in less than two working days. Also, from the 19 replies received, only
15 responses were considered useful since they applied directly to the request made. The 15
useful messages received had very different formats. Some were short, providing a simple and clear
response to the request. Others did not provide an immediate answer in the email body. Instead they
annexed a le, usually in the pdf format, containing the municipalitys internal regulation where the
CHAPTER 7 IMPROVE CITIES RESILIENCE AND SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH E-GOVERNMENT ASSESSMENT
In Estonia, Tallinn the municipality responds to an email request with specic time indications
regarding the expected answer. The expected time response depends on request type.
Thank you for sending an email to [email protected] If your message is a request for
information, we will answer within 5 business days. A request for information is a query for a
for explanation, we will answer within 30 days. A memorandum is an inquiry that makes a
is an inquiry that requires analysis of existing information or the collection of further information.
Box 7.7 Tallinn: Tallinn City Ofce Response
Source:
https://tallinn.ee/
The analysis reveals that, despite municipalities strong performance in the provision of webpage
7.4. Using Local e-Government to Advance SDG implementation
Improving the local level of e-Government is inseparable from achieving the UN Sustainable
Development Goals. The development of electronic services and the increase in the number of
Goals. It will assist in making cities sustainable, improving local communities, making them inclusive
safe and resilient.
The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development recognises the important role of technological
innovation and contains specic references to the need for high quality, timely, reliable and
disaggregated data, including on Earth observation and geospatial information. Many of the
with the informal sector to improve working conditions and social protections. Also relevant is
SDG 17, aimed at strengthening implementation means and revitalising the Global Partnership for
CHAPTER 7 IMPROVE CITIES RESILIENCE AND SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH E-GOVERNMENT ASSESSMENT
Enhancement of online service provision and online payments, available in half the municipalities,
results prove the overall suitability of the assessment approach. The present study reveals the main
characteristics for a local e-Government assessment, which could be useful for municipality managers,
public ofcials, researchers and politicians. An efcient comparative assessment of municipality
E-Government systems can become a useful tool for local administration in line with achievement
There are already several best practice e-Government cases that can be used as benchmarks for
local governments worldwide.
CHAPTER 7 IMPROVE CITIES RESILIENCE AND SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH E-GOVERNMENT ASSESSMENT
References
CHAPTER 8 FAST-EVOLVING TECHNOLOGIES IN E-GOVERNMENT: GOVERNMENT PLATFORMS, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND PEOPLE
Chapter 8. Fast-
evolving technologies in
e-government: Government
Platforms, Articial
Intelligence and People
8.1. Introduction
with the core principles of leaving no one behind and eradicating
poverty, frontier technologies are creating both opportunities and
risks for future governance.
The fourth industrial revolution and convergence of innovative
8.1. Introduction 177
8.2. Harnessing fast evolving technologies 178
8.2.1. Data, intelligent apps and
analytics 178
8.2.2. Articial Intelligence and
Robotic Process Automation 179
8.2.3. Intelligent things,
Cyber-Physical Integration
and Edge Computing 179
8.2.4. Virtual and Augmented Reality 180
8.2.5. High Performance
and Quantum Computing 180
8.2.6. Distributed Ledger Technologies 181
8.3. Deep Dive into a cluster of new
technology revolving around data 183
8.3.1. Integrating government services public
service as a platform 183
8.3.2. Insights for decision-making
of action 185
8.3.3. Insights and Data-Driven decision-
making in the public sector 185
8.3.4. Insights at the time and point
of action: streamlining the use
of real-time data 187
8.4. Deep dive into a cluster of new
technology revolving around AI
and Robotics 187
8.5.1. People and Technology driving
new uses and new services 189
8.6. Conclusion 193
Photo credit: pixabay.com
8.2. Harnessing fast evolving technologies
There is a case to be made that fast-evolving technologies have already transformed the traditional
ways in which governments operate and deliver services. In the context of e-government, this
energy, biology, health and other domains. Some of the major digital technology trends fuelling
innovation and growth in both the private and public sectors are mainly related to digital, analytics,
cloud, core modernization, and the changing role of information and communications technologies
8.2.1. Data, intelligent apps and analytics
The public sector has the challenge of processing vast amounts of unstructured data, responding to
inquiries, and making knowledge accessible. Through automated capabilities, so-called dark analytics,
CHAPTER 8 FAST-EVOLVING TECHNOLOGIES IN E-GOVERNMENT: GOVERNMENT PLATFORMS, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND PEOPLE
following a form recognition protocol, can read machine print and hand print, and use contextual
logic databases for automated validation. This can reveal trends, population movements, user
8.2.2. Articial Intelligence and Robotic Process Automation
Articial Intelligence constitutes a range of specic technologies through which intelligent machines
are gaining the ability to learn, improve and make calculated decisions in ways that enable them
to perform tasks previously thought to rely solely on human experience, creativity, and ingenuity.
Articial Intelligence is the ability of a computer or a computer-enabled robotic system to process
information and produce outcomes in a manner similar to the thought process of human beings in
learning, decision-making and problem-solving. Articial Intelligence has been rapidly advancing and
will provide benets through enhancing citizen engagement, automating workloads, and increasing
8.2.3. Intelligent things, Cyber-Physical Integration and Edge Computing
instead of inon a central server. This reduces latency and the amount of data that must be moved.
With an increasing number of IoT devices, a mix of on-site and cloud processing will be needed.
8.2.4. Virtual and Augmented Reality
Virtual Reality (VR) enables users to immerse themselves in a digital world. Augmented Reality (AR)
shows the world in real time enriched with digital images, and digital and physical objects interact.
With augmented and virtual reality and intelligent things, information is added to the space around
the user. This helps the user in processing critical information, visualizing scenarios, improving the
augmented reality in the public sector can include public infrastructure management and spatial
8.2.5. High Performance- and Quantum Computing
CHAPTER 8 FAST-EVOLVING TECHNOLOGIES IN E-GOVERNMENT: GOVERNMENT PLATFORMS, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND PEOPLE
science and business. High Performance Computing can cut through complexity, understand patterns
8.2.6. Distributed Ledger Technologies
Distributed Ledger Technologies are ways of storing information in a distributed manner across
numerous actors. Instead of information being stored in one central database, it is stored in several
Ledger Technology where value exchange transactions are sequentially grouped into blocks. Each
The advantages of Blockchain over traditional centralized databases are that it can offer resilience in
cases where central databases are difcult to secure. It also distributes management of the ledger,
increasing trust in it by not centralizing its management in the hands of more actors. This does
UNECEs United Nations Centre for Trade Facilitation and Electronic Business (UN/CEFACT) is
developing two white papers to address the following questions: What is the impact on existing
UN/CEFACT electronic business standards and what gaps could be usefully addressed by new
UN/CEFACT specications? What opportunities do these technologies present for improving
e-business, trade facilitation and the international supply chain? The second whitepaper on the
opportunities for trade facilitation and e-commerce will be available for comment this autumn.
How could blockchain technology be used to facilitate trade? What do government decision-
makers who deal with information technology need to be aware of? And how could UNECE
contribute to the development of this technology as a trade facilitation tool? The international
Box 8.1. United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) : whitepapers on
Source:
CHAPTER 8 FAST-EVOLVING TECHNOLOGIES IN E-GOVERNMENT: GOVERNMENT PLATFORMS, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND PEOPLE
8.3. Deep Dive into a cluster of new technology revolving around data
Data is becoming critical to many government organizations and will fuel the development of new
e-government services.
8.3.1. Integrating government services public service as a platform
Taking advantage of the data economy and the data that governments already possess can allow for
a much greater integration of services. Such digital transformation is based on a data infrastructure
which can either be centralized or decentralized, and rely on two fundamental components. The
rst concerns the re-use of data already collected from the citizens; the second revolves around
the use of Application Programming Interfaces (API) as a core component of the public-sector data
infrastructure.
Estonia created X-Road,
X-Road has made it possible to bring 99 per cent of public services online. On average, 500 million
queries per year are made annually using X-Road. Indeed, its use has been estimated to save as
many as 800 years of working time. The solution has been equally successful in its roll-out to
Finland, Azerbaijan, Namibia, as well as the Faroe Islands. Furthermore, cross-border digital data
Box 8.2. Government as an API
Source:
interoperability-
services/x-road/
CHAPTER 8 FAST-EVOLVING TECHNOLOGIES IN E-GOVERNMENT: GOVERNMENT PLATFORMS, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND PEOPLE
8.3.2. Insights for decision-making and intelligence at the point of action
Data analysis can bring unprecedented insight. Governments are able to take advantage of the
data revolution by making use of insights gained through data analytics as well as formulating their
response at the point and time of action.
As shown in the
2018 United Nations E-Government Survey
as well as in other international benchmarks and indicators, governments have been increasing their
efforts to publish open data.
This reinforces the drive to align with good governance principles,
8.3.3. Insights and Data-Driven decision-making in the public sector
Although evidence-based policy-making is not a novel concept, the growth in the volume of data
SDG 8 on decent work and economic growth by adopting a more prospective vision of the
Box 8.3. Global Pulse Initiative, 2009
Source:
unglobalpulse.org/
CHAPTER 8 FAST-EVOLVING TECHNOLOGIES IN E-GOVERNMENT: GOVERNMENT PLATFORMS, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND PEOPLE
8.3.4. Insights at the time and point of action: streamlining the use of
real-time data
increasing mobile data, are making real-time data available. The benet of real-time data is its ability
to prompt action at very specic locations, as described in Chapter 3. Real-time data, for instance,
earthquake in Emilia Romagna, Italy.
Rapid mobile phone-based surveys were deployed by the Red
The use of Earth Observation data and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has already
2016 United Nations E-Government Survey
as a promising technology
for improving service delivery. With an increase in the availability of satellite data worldwide,
thanks to NASAs Earth Observing system
and the European multi-stakeholder Copernicus
programme,
data, and the insights gleaned from it, can be delivered more rapidly. Indeed,
the different applications of satellite data, be it GPS or Earth Observation data, have a specic
shelf value. Satellite revisit times have proven critical in providing supporting data in the context
of wildres in the United States,
Australia and Italy,
Initiatives are growing across the globe
Box 8.4. Streamlining the use of Earth Observation
Source:
service.eu/
Data use is expected to grow exponentially in the next decade and offer the ability to systematically
8.4. Deep dive into a cluster of new technology revolving around AI
and Robotics
The term Articial Intelligence, or AI, has been around for nearly 60 years, but it is only recently that
AI appears to be on the brink of revolutionizing industries as diverse as health care, law, journalism,
aerospace, and manufacturing, with the potential to profoundly affect how people live, work, and
play.
AI can be mono- or multi-layered, performing simple automated tasks to highly advanced
In April 2018, the European Union chose to pool its resources to foster innovation through the
use of articial intelligence. The Declaration
signed by European countries aims to ensure a
The rst foresees an increase
in nancial support, to reach 20 billion Euros by 2020, thereby promoting the uptake of AI in both
the public and the private sector. The second pillar is based on ensuring framework conditions for
Box 8.5. Europe rolls out an integrated approach to Articial Intelligence
Source:
ec.europa.eu
CHAPTER 8 FAST-EVOLVING TECHNOLOGIES IN E-GOVERNMENT: GOVERNMENT PLATFORMS, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND PEOPLE
8.5.1. People and Technology driving new uses and new services
aims to ensure that AI accelerates progress towards the achievement of the United Nations
to launch inclusive global dialogue on the actions necessary to ensure that AI benets humanity.
The action-oriented 2018 Summit identied AI applications capable of improving the quality
Box 8.6. AI for Good Global Summit
Source:
www.itu.int/en/
The European approach to a modern innovation policy is based on the Open Innovation 2.0
paradigm characterised by citizen participation and prototyping approaches to socio-technical
is driven by Professor Ikujiro Nonakas ideas on Ba
a place for deep interaction and wisdom sharing among stakeholders to create common value.
JIN acts as an innovation accelerator, fostering both creativity and productivity.
They are recognised as two descriptions of one key component in modern innovation ecosystem
Box 8.7. Process innovation insight
Source:
Source:
ec.europa.eu/digital-
CHAPTER 8 FAST-EVOLVING TECHNOLOGIES IN E-GOVERNMENT: GOVERNMENT PLATFORMS, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND PEOPLE
Space science and technology are always at the forefront of human development as they help to
break barriers. Through research and innovation, spin-offs stemming from our efforts in space impact
virtually all elds of human activities. Utilizing the frontier technologies in outer space has also
A team of researchers at the Physics Department of the Bari University in Italy and the local
have developed cross-disciplinary research
approaches and big data techniques with clinical purposes. The team was awarded by Harvard
Medical School for the development of an accurate machine learning tool for schizophrenia
diagnosis. These big data analyses, usually computational intensive, are performed thanks to
the ReCaS computer facility.
Box 8.8. AI and deep machine learning for early diagnosis of
Source:
https://www.
recas-bari.it/index.
It is quite important for governments to understand the challenges and opportunities of the new
technologies and to be aware of new public policy professions that specialize in machine learning
The United Nations Ofce for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA) is the United Nations ofce responsible
for the promotion of international cooperation, and for leading and facilitating the promotion of
coordinates UN activities in the utilization of space-related technology for improvement of human
conditions globally.
UNOOSA, as a global facilitator, plays a leading role in promoting the peaceful use of outer space
and the utilization of space-related technology for sustainable economic and social development.
The Ofces vision is to bring the benets of space to all humankind by strengthening the capacity
of United Nations Member States to use space science technology, applications, data and services
by helping to integrate space capabilities into national development programmes. UNOOSA is part
Box 8.9. The United Nations Ofce for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA )
Source:
http://www.
CHAPTER 8 FAST-EVOLVING TECHNOLOGIES IN E-GOVERNMENT: GOVERNMENT PLATFORMS, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND PEOPLE
2020. To do so, governments require systemic policies for data production, collection, management
Transforming the world and realizing the sustainable development goals by 2030 will require a
CHAPTER 8 FAST-EVOLVING TECHNOLOGIES IN E-GOVERNMENT: GOVERNMENT PLATFORMS, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND PEOPLE
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http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/blog/2017/10/looking-to-future-un-to-consider-how-articial-intelligence-could-
help-achieve-economic-growth-and-reduce-inequalities/
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https://www.itu.int/
57 Curley, M., and Salmelin, B. (2018). Open Innovation 2.0,: The New Mode of Digital Innovation for Prosperity and Sustainabil
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issues-articial-intelligence-and-other-technologies-will-dene-the-future-of-jobs-and-incomes/
63 http://medphysics.ba.infn.it/index.php
A.1. E-Government Development Index:
An Overview 199
A.2. Telecommunication Infrastructure
Index (TII) 200
A.3. Human Capital Index (HCI) 203
A.4. Online Service Index (OSI) 204
A.5. List of Features Assessed 205
A.6. Challenges in reviewing the online
presence of a country 209
A.7. E-Participation Index (EPI) 211
A.8. Member State Questionnaire (MSQ) 212
A.9. Local Online Service Index 216
A.10. Country Classications and
Nomenclature in the Survey 219
A.11. United Nations e-government
knowledge base 219
and its related development 220
Annexes
Mathematically, the E-Government Development Index (EGDI) is the
weighted average of normalized scores on the three most important
dimensions of egovernment, namely: (i) the scope and quality of
status of the development of telecommunication infrastructure or the
Telecommunication Infrastructure Index (TII); and (iii) the inherent human
composite measure that can be extracted and analyzed independently.
Prior to the normalization of the three component indicators, the
Z-score standardization procedure is implemented for each component
indicator to ensure that the overall EGDI is equally decided by the three
component indexes, that is, each component index presents comparable
variance subsequent to the Z-score standardization. In the absence of
the Z-score standardization treatment, the EGDI would mainly depend
on the component index with the greatest dispersion. After the Z-score
&#,1
Where:
x is a raw score to be standardized;
is the standard deviation of the population.
Photo credit: pixabay.com
United Nations E-Government Survey,
each edition of the Survey has been
adjusted to reect emerging trends of e-government strategies, evolving knowledge of best practices
in e-government, changes in technology and other factors. In addition, data collection practices have
been periodically rened.
Figure A.1. The three components of the E-Government Development Index (EGDI)
OSI - Online Service Index
TII - Telecommunication
Infrastructure Index
HCI - Human Capital Index
A.2. Telecommunication Infrastructure Index (TII)
(iii) Mobile subscribers per 100 inhabitants are the number of subscriptions to mobile service in the
last three months. A mobile/cellular telephone refers to a portable telephone subscribed to a
public mobile telephone service using cellular technology, which provides access to the PSTN.
This includes analogue and digital cellular systems and technologies such as IMT-2000 (3G) and
IMT-Advanced. Users of both post-paid subscriptions and prepaid accounts are included.
(iv) Active mobile-broadband subscriptions refer to the sum of data and voice mobile-broadband
1/5
1/5
1/5
1/5
1/5
The improvement of data quality and coverage has led to the reduction of data gaps that appeared
231
2
2
TII (2001)TII (2003)TII (2004)TII (2005)TII (2008)TII (2010)TII (2012)TII (2014)TII (2016)TII (2018)
Table A.1. Telecommunication infrastructure index (TII) and changes of its components (2003-2018)
A.3. Human Capital Index (HCI)
combined primary, secondary and tertiary gross enrolment ratio; (iii) expected years of schooling; and
(iv) average years of schooling. (See Figure A.3)
Figure A.3. Telecommunication Infrastructure Index (TII) and its components
Gross enrolment
Expected years
Mean years of
Adult literacy (%)
2/9
2/9
2/9
1/3
The four indicators of HCI are dened as follows:
1. Adult literacy is measured as the percentage of people aged 15 years and above who can, with
understanding, both read and write a short simple statement on their everyday life.
2. Gross enrolment ratio is measured as the combined primary, secondary and tertiary gross
enrolment ratio, of the total number of students enrolled at the primary, secondary and tertiary
level, regardless of age, as a percentage of the population of school age for that level.
3. Expected years of schooling is the total number of years of schooling that a child of a certain age
can expect to receive in the future, assuming that the probability of his or her being in school at
any specic age is equal to the current enrolment ratio age.
computed, each of the four component indicators is rst standardized through the Z-score procedure
to derive the Z-score value for each component indicator. The human capital composite value for
   231
2
2
A.4. Online Service Index (OSI)
The Online Service Index (OSI) is a composite normalized score derived on the basis on an Online
Service Questionnaire. The 2018 Online Service Questionnaire (OSQ) consists of a list of 140 questions.
Each question calls for a binary response. Every positive answer generates more in-depth question
inside and across the patterns. The outcome is an enhanced quantitative survey with a wider range
of point distributions reecting the differences in the levels of e-government development among
The total number of points scored by each country is normalized to a range of 0 to 1. The online
index value for a given country is equal to the actual total score less the lowest total score divided by
the range of total score values for all countries. For example, if country x has a score of 114, and
the lowest score of any country is 0 and the highest equal to 153, then the online services value for
2003, 2004, 2008, 2010, 2012)Components of HCI in 2014 survey
Adult literacyAdult literacy
Gross enrolment ratioGross enrolment ratio
-Expected years of schooling
-Mean years of schooling
Table A.2. Human Capital Index and changes of its components (2003-2014)
&%$&##(+$!#&"#-2'*&)(.
A.5. List of Features Assessed
Information about womens right to access to sexual/reproductive healthcare, information and
Existence of a national e-government/digital government strategy online
Existence of a mobile app to provide e-government services
A.6. Challenges in reviewing the online presence of a country
Selecting the appropriate site/URL at the national level
One of the essential decisions for researchers when undertaking the country assessment is identifying
the specic site(s) to review as the national government site for each country. Regardless of the
sophistication of e-government in a specic country, the priority for users is to identify which of the
many potentially available government sites would be deemed as the ofcial national government
is sufcient to start an important step towards providing government information and services to
the public in an integrated, usable and easy-to-nd manner. Many national sites state that it is the
ofcial Government site, or Gateway to Government, or other similar statement.
As done for each edition of the Survey, the United Nations Member States were requested, through
the Member State Questionnaire (MSQ), to provide information on the website addresses (URL) of
their national portal(s) and the different government ministries. This information was then utilized
during the assessment process.
Integrated Portal and Multi-Portal Approaches
Some countries have adopted a different approach to their online e-government portal, by utilizing
multiple websites for different topics. Instead of centralizing all the e-information, e-services,
e-participation, open data and other online features into one portal, they are made available in
The research team was fully equipped to handle the six ofcial languages of the United Nations,
namely Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish. However, as in previous assessment
cycles, the team went beyond this mandate and reviewed each website in the ofcial language of
the country, or where that was not possible, in one of the languages available on the site. Translators
aided as necessary so that possible errors based on language are reduced to a minimum.
Towards a more citizen-centric approach
In line with the global trend towards a more citizen-centric approach and the demand for greater
efciency and cost-effectiveness of the public sector, the MSQ has been designed to reect this
paradigm of e-government. User uptake has been included as a special subject in the Survey,
encouraging governments to take account not only of the supply side of e-services but also of what
To ensure data quality, UNDESA has put assessment procedures under close monitoring including
by developing a web-based application platform for data collection and storage, preparing the
Three levels of assessment/supervision (volunteers, First Report Ofcer, Second Report Ofcer)
First check of consistency of data with data patterns by group ranking (VH, H, M, L OSI)
A.7. E-Participation Index (EPI)
Survey.
It extends the dimension of the Survey by focusing on the government use of online services
in providing information to its citizens or einformation sharing, interacting with stakeholders or
e-consultation and engaging in decision-making processes or e-decision-making (See Box A.1)
E-information: Enabling participation by providing citizens with public information and
E-consultation: Engaging citizens in contributions to and deliberation on public policies and
E-decision-making: Empowering citizens through co-design of policy options and co-
production of service components and delivery modalities.
A countrys EPI reects the e-participation mechanisms that are deployed by the government as
compared to all other countries. The purpose of this measure is not to prescribe any specic practice,
but rather to offer insight into how different countries are using online tools in promoting interaction
EGDI, the EPI is not intended as an absolute measurement of e-participation, but rather, as an
attempt to capture the e-participation performance of counties relative to one another at a point in
2018 Survey,
the e-participation questions were carefully reviewed and expanded to reect
current trends and modalities on how governments engage their citizens in public policy-making,
implementation and evaluation. New questions were added to address data publishing and sharing
by government agencies. Other updates included: (i) the availability of information on the citizens
rights to access government information; (ii) feedback from citizens concerning the improvement
of online public services; and (iii) public opinion tools on policy deliberation through social media,
online polls and online discussion forums. While EPI provides a useful qualitative analytical tool
when comparing the data and ranking of countries for one specic year, caution must be taken in
comparing e-participation rankings with past editions of the Survey.
Mathematically, the EPI is normalized by taking the total score value for a given country, subtracting
the lowest total score for any country in the Survey and dividing by the range of total score values
for all countries. For example, if country x has an e-participation score of 29, and the lowest value
/   231
A.8. Member State Questionnaire (MSQ)
As done for each edition of the Survey, Member States were requested, through the Member State
Questionnaire (MSQ) to provide information on the website addresses (URL) of their respective
national portal(s) as well as those of the different government ministries. Information on efforts in
support of egovernment development, open government data, e-participation and the designated
authority in charge of e-government policies was also requested. One hundred (100) Member States
The Questionnaire
Member States Questionnaire (MSQ) for the
2018 United Nations EGovernment Survey
Please provide the most recent information on your country, as this information will be used in
preparation of the United Nations E-Government Survey 2018. Please feel free to skip question for
which you feel you do not have the relevant information.
Strategy/Implementation Plan/Policy (where available, please specify URLs or attach
relevant documents)
Is there a national development strategy or equivalent incorporating the Sustainable
Is there a national e-Government Strategy or Digital Government Strategy or equivalent?
If yes:
Is there an implementation plan for the Strategy?
Is the e-Government Strategy aligned with the national development strategy and with the
Is there an ICT for development strategy?
Is there a national policy on e-participation and/or inclusion in Digital Government?
Is there a Cybersecurity strategy?
Does the e-Government or other strategy provide other specic measures to ensure
e-Government is used by the most vulnerable segments of the population?
Legal Framework (where available, please specify URLs or attach relevant
Has specic legislation been adopted in relation to the SDGs?
Is there any e-Government related legislation?
Is there a law on access to information such as Freedom of Information Act?
Is there a personal data protection law such as Data Protection Act?
Do you collect usage statistics of e-Government services? If yes, is there disaggregation by age,
gender, vulnerable groups, and other dimensions?
I did not have the full information to respond to this questionnaire
This questionnaire did not apply to my country but I did my best to respond to most questions.
I mostly provided my own opinion/assessment rather than ofcial information.
Other:
Please provide additional information and/or data or docs that in your view are relevant
for this questionnaire:
Albania
Belgium
Brazil
A.9. Local Online Service Index
For the rst time, assessment of sub-national or local delivery of e-government services has been
The focus of the content provision criterion is on the relevance of information provided to the citizens.
It assesses the quality, availability, relevance, and concise presentation of specic information provided
on a municipalitys website. This criterion also assesses issues such as access to contact information
about the organizational structure of the municipal government; access to public documents; access
to sectorial information such as those on health, education, social security, economy. The presence of
website privacy policies is also analyzed, since it has the potential to improve public perception, trust
in government, and to enable greater citizen engagement with government.
In the services provision criterion, the focus is on the delivery of fundamental electronic services.
This criterion includes aspects of electronic service delivery such as online application and delivery of
certicates and licenses, employment search/offer, electronic payments, and the ability of users to
apply or register for municipal events or services online, forms and reports submission and registration
for services, participation in tenders and e-Procurement. Issues related to electronic authentication
are likewise addressed in this criterion. This criterion also covers issues related to different aspects
regarding how municipalities respond to citizen email requests for information.
The participation and engagement criterion assesses the existence of relevant online participation
Other features considered in this criterion includes the availability of social media features and
the possibility to send comments/suggestions/complains to the concerned local government and
Technology
Browser compatibility
Internal search mechanism
Internal advanced search mechanism
Alignment with markup validation standards
Alignment with display standards
Alignment with accessibility standards
Customization of display features
Foreign language support
Information about procurement announcements
Information about procurement results
Information about provided services
Information about municipality partnership with third parties
language of that city/municipality. Instructions and guidance regarding the assessment process, and
about email messages to be sent to the municipality to assess municipalities responsiveness to email
contacts, are provided to the assessors. To ensure validity and comparability of the data collected by
the assessors, an expert review of all the data is conducted.
The cities/municipalities assessed are selected based on geographical coverage and population size.
All geopolitical regional groups of United Nations Member States are represented. The number of
A.10. Country Classications and Nomenclature in the Survey
Regional groupings are taken from the classication of the United Nations Statistics Division. For
A.11. United Nations e-government knowledge base
The Division for Public Institutions and Digital Government (formerly Division for Public Administration
and Development Management) of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs
maintains the United Nations egovernment knowledge base (egovkb) to provide governments and
all stakeholders with easy access to data and information on e-government development.
A.12. Evolving denitions and understanding of egovernment and its
related development
SourcesDenition
2001 Benchmarking E-government:
E-government is a tool for information and service provision
2003 World Public Sector Report:
E-Government at the Crossroads
E-government enhances the capacity of public administration
using ICTs to increase the supply of public value (i.e., to deliver
United Nations Global E-Government
Readiness Report 2004: Towards
E-government is dened as the use of all ICTs by government
to provide information and services to the public. This is a
broader concept than in cases where it refers only to G-2-G
DATA TABLES
Data Tables
RankCountryRegionSub-Region
2018OSITIIHCILevel of IncomeLDCLLDCSIDS
177AfghanistanAsiaSouthern Asia0.25850.30560.11380.3562Low incomexx
74AlbaniaEuropeSouthern Europe0.65190.73610.43180.7877Upper middle income
130AlgeriaAfricaNorthern Africa0.42270.21530.38890.6640Upper middle income
62AndorraEuropeSouthern Europe0.68570.60420.72200.7309High income
155AngolaAfricaMiddle Africa0.33760.40970.09720.5060Lower middle incomex
90Antigua and BarbudaAmericasCaribbean0.59060.45830.56170.7518High incomex
43ArgentinaAmericasSouth America0.73350.75000.59270.8579Upper middle income
87ArmeniaAsiaWestern Asia0.59440.56250.46600.7547Lower middle incomex
2AustraliaOceaniaAustralia and New Zealand0.90530.97220.74361.0000High income
20AustriaEuropeWestern Europe0.83010.86810.77160.8505High income
70AzerbaijanAsiaWestern Asia0.65740.72920.50620.7369Upper middle incomex
72BahamasAmericasCaribbean0.65520.70140.53930.7249High incomex
26BahrainAsiaWestern Asia0.81160.79860.84660.7897High income
115BangladeshAsiaSouthern Asia0.48620.78470.19760.4763Lower middle incomex
46BarbadosAmericasCaribbean0.72290.66670.67190.8301High incomex
38BelarusEuropeEastern Europe0.76410.73610.68810.8681Upper middle income
27BelgiumEuropeWestern Europe0.80800.75690.69300.9740High income
132BelizeAmericasCentral America0.41150.33330.22470.6765Upper middle incomex
159BeninAfricaWestern Africa0.32640.47220.14180.3653Low incomex
126BhutanAsiaSouthern Asia0.42740.50000.30800.4743Lower middle incomexx
103Bolivia(Plurinational State of)AmericasSouth America0.53070.56250.31480.7148Lower middle incomex
105Bosnia and HerzegovinaEuropeSouthern Europe0.53030.43060.43850.7217Upper middle income
127BotswanaAfricaSouthern Africa0.42530.20830.39820.6694Upper middle incomex
44BrazilAmericasSouth America0.73270.92360.52200.7525Upper middle income
59Brunei DarussalamAsiaSouth-Eastern Asia0.69230.72220.60660.7480High income
47BulgariaEuropeEastern Europe0.71770.76390.57850.8106Upper middle income
165Burkina FasoAfricaWestern Africa0.30160.53470.16030.2097Low incomexx
166BurundiAfricaEastern Africa0.29850.30560.07860.5113Low incomexx
145CambodiaAsiaSouth-Eastern Asia0.37530.25000.31320.5626Lower middle incomex
136CameroonAfricaMiddle Africa0.39970.45830.17900.5618Lower middle income
23CanadaAmericasNorthern America0.82580.93060.67240.8744High income
112Cabo VerdeAfricaWestern Africa0.49800.48610.39260.6152Lower middle incomex
Table 1. Country Proles
Data Tables
Table 1. Country Proles (continued)
RankCountryRegionSub-Region
2018OSITIIHCILevel of IncomeLDCLLDCSIDS
188Central African RepublicAfricaMiddle Africa0.15840.20830.03220.2347Low incomexx
190ChadAfricaMiddle Africa0.12570.14580.06690.1644Low incomexx
42ChileAmericasSouth America0.73500.83330.53770.8339High income
65ChinaAsiaEastern Asia0.68110.86110.47350.7088Upper middle income
61ColombiaAmericasSouth America0.68710.88190.44120.7382Upper middle income
182ComorosAfricaEastern Africa0.23360.09720.08710.5166Low incomexx
164CongoAfricaMiddle Africa0.30240.16670.18890.5515Lower middle income
56Costa RicaAmericasCentral America0.70040.67360.63430.7933Upper middle income
172Cte d'IvoireAfricaWestern Africa0.27760.22220.27480.3357Lower middle income
55CroatiaEuropeSouthern Europe0.70180.68060.60510.8196Upper middle income
134CubaAmericasCaribbean0.41010.29860.14550.7862Upper middle incomex
36CyprusAsiaWestern Asia0.77360.78470.72790.8083High income
EuropeEastern Europe0.70840.65280.59710.8752High income
185Democratic People's Republic of
Korea
AsiaEastern Asia0.21590.00000.03270.6150Low income
176Democratic Republic of the CongoAfricaMiddle Africa0.26120.20830.06450.5108Low incomex
1DenmarkEuropeNorthern Europe0.91501.00000.79780.9472High income
179DjiboutiAfricaEastern Africa0.24010.29170.09610.3325Lower middle incomex
93DominicaAmericasCaribbean0.57940.61110.47750.6497Upper middle incomex
95Dominican RepublicAmericasCaribbean0.57260.65970.36550.6927Upper middle incomex
84EcuadorAmericasSouth America0.61290.72920.36990.7395Upper middle income
114EgyptAfricaNorthern Africa0.48800.53470.32220.6072Lower middle income
100El SalvadorAmericasCentral America0.54690.62500.38100.6348Lower middle income
184Equatioral GuineaAfricaMiddle Africa0.22980.04860.10100.5397Upper middle income
189EritreaAfricaEastern Africa0.13370.08330.00000.3179Low incomex
16EstoniaEuropeNorthern Europe0.84860.90280.76130.8818High income
141EswatiniAfricaSouthern Africa0.38200.37500.17720.5939Lower middle incomex
DATA TABLES
Data Tables
Table 1. Country Proles (continued)
RankCountryRegionSub-Region
2018OSITIIHCILevel of IncomeLDCLLDCSIDS
168GambiaAfricaWestern Africa0.29580.27080.26270.3539Low incomex
60GeorgiaAsiaWestern Asia0.68930.69440.54030.8333Lower middle income
12GermanyEuropeWestern Europe0.87650.93060.79520.9036High income
101GhanaAfricaWestern Africa0.53900.69440.35580.5669Lower middle income
35GreeceEuropeSouthern Europe0.78330.81940.64390.8867High income
89GrenadaAmericasCaribbean0.59300.49310.46580.8202Upper middle incomex
113GuatemalaAmericasCentral America0.49740.64580.29410.5524Lower middle income
181GuineaAfricaWestern Africa0.23480.31250.15130.2406Low incomex
187Guinea-BissauAfricaWestern Africa0.18870.07640.10280.3869Low incomexx
124GuyanaAmericasSouth America0.43160.43060.25410.6102Upper middle incomex
163HaitiAmericasCaribbean0.30470.44440.10780.3620Low incomexx
123HondurasAmericasCentral America0.44740.51390.22680.6015Lower middle income
45HungaryEuropeEastern Europe0.72650.73610.60710.8364High income
19IcelandEuropeNorthern Europe0.83160.72920.82920.9365High income
96IndiaAsiaSouthern Asia0.56690.95140.20090.5484Lower middle income
107IndonesiaAsiaSouth-Eastern Asia0.52580.56940.32220.6857Lower middle income
86Iran (Islamic Republic of)AsiaSouthern Asia0.60830.63190.45660.7364Upper middle income
155IraqAsiaWestern Asia0.33760.31940.18400.5094Upper middle income
22IrelandEuropeNorthern Europe0.82870.82640.69700.9626High income
31IsraelAsiaWestern Asia0.79980.82640.70950.8635High income
24ItalyEuropeSouthern Europe0.82090.95140.67710.8341High income
118JamaicaAmericasCaribbean0.46970.31940.39410.6957Upper middle incomex
10JapanAsiaEastern Asia0.87830.95140.84060.8428High income
98JordanAsiaWestern Asia0.55750.49310.44060.7387Lower middle income
39KazakhistanAsiaCentral Asia0.75970.86810.57230.8388Upper middle incomex
122KenyaAfricaEastern Africa0.45410.62500.19010.5472Lower middle income
153KiribatiOceaniaMicronesia0.34500.29860.07730.6591Lower middle incomexx
41KuwaitAsiaWestern Asia0.73880.79170.73940.6852High income
91KyrgizistanAsiaCentral Asia0.58350.64580.34180.7628Lower middle incomex
162"Lao People's Democratic
AsiaSouth-Eastern Asia0.30560.16670.22460.5254Lower middle incomexx
57LatviaEuropeNorthern Europe0.69960.66670.61880.8132High income
Data Tables
RankCountryRegionSub-Region
2018OSITIIHCILevel of IncomeLDCLLDCSIDS
99LebanonAsiaWestern Asia0.55300.47220.52190.6649Upper middle income
167LesothoAfricaSouthern Africa0.29680.11110.24680.5324Lower middle incomexx
173LiberiaAfricaWestern Africa0.27370.34030.10360.3772Low incomex
140LibyaAfricaNorthern Africa0.38330.09720.33530.7173Upper middle income
25LiechtensteinEuropeWestern Europe0.82040.79860.83890.8237High income
40LithuaniaEuropeNorthern Europe0.75340.79860.62930.8323High income
18LuxembourgEuropeWestern Europe0.83340.92360.79640.7803High income
170MadagascarAfricaEastern Africa0.27920.30560.04990.4822Low incomex
175MalawiAfricaEastern Africa0.27080.25690.08340.4720Low incomexx
48MalaysiaAsiaSouth-Eastern Asia0.71740.88890.56470.6987Upper middle income
97MaldivesAsiaSouthern Asia0.56150.49310.51590.6754Upper middle incomex
178MaliAfricaWestern Africa0.24240.26390.20740.2558Low incomexx
30MaltaEuropeSouthern Europe0.80110.84030.76570.7973High income
149Marshall IslandsOceaniaMicronesia0.35430.22920.10370.7301Upper middle incomex
183MauritaniaAfricaWestern Africa0.23140.15970.18780.3467Lower middle incomex
66MauritiusAfricaEastern Africa0.66780.72920.54350.7308Upper middle incomex
64MexicoAmericasCentral America0.68180.92360.41730.7044Upper middle income
161MicronesiaOceaniaMicronesia0.31550.14580.11180.6889Lower middle incomex
28MonacoEuropeWestern Europe0.80500.62501.00000.7901High income
92MongoliaAsiaEastern Asia0.58240.59720.36020.7899Lower middle incomex
58MontenegroEuropeSouthern Europe0.69660.66670.60590.8172Upper middle income
110MoroccoAfricaNorthern Africa0.52140.66670.36970.5278Lower middle income
160MozambiqueAfricaEastern Africa0.31950.42360.13980.3951Low incomex
157MyanmarAsiaSouth-Eastern Asia0.33280.22920.25650.5127Lower middle incomex
121NamibiaAfricaSouthern Africa0.45540.45140.32990.5850Upper middle income
158NauruOceaniaMicronesia0.33240.13190.30330.5619Upper middle incomex
117NepalAsiaSouthern Asia0.47480.68750.24130.4957Low incomexx
Table 1. Country Proles (continued)
DATA TABLES
Data Tables
RankCountryRegionSub-Region
2018OSITIIHCILevel of IncomeLDCLLDCSIDS
14NorwayEuropeNorthern Europe0.85570.95140.71310.9025High income
63OmanAsiaWestern Asia0.68460.81250.53990.7013High income
148PakistanAsiaSouthern Asia0.35660.54860.15290.3682Lower middle income
111PalauOceaniaMicronesia0.50240.32640.33460.8462High incomex
85PanamaAmericasCentral America0.60920.65970.45430.7137Upper middle income
171Papua New GuineaOceaniaMelanesia0.27870.27080.08750.4778Lower middle incomex
108ParaguayAmericasSouth America0.52550.55560.35070.6701Upper middle incomex
77PeruAmericasSouth America0.64610.81940.39130.7276Upper middle income
75PhilippinesAsiaSouth-Eastern Asia0.65120.88190.35470.7171Lower middle income
33PolandEuropeEastern Europe0.79260.93060.58050.8668High income
29PortugalEuropeSouthern Europe0.80310.93060.66170.8170High income
51QatarAsiaWestern Asia0.71320.79170.67970.6683High income
3Republic of KoreaAsiaEastern Asia0.90100.97920.84960.8743High income
69Republic of MoldovaEuropeEastern Europe0.65900.77080.47870.7274Lower middle incomex
67RomaniaEuropeEastern Europe0.66710.65970.54710.7944Upper middle income
32Russian FederationEuropeEastern Europe0.79690.91670.62190.8522Upper middle income
120RwandaAfricaEastern Africa0.45900.72220.17330.4815Low incomexx
71Saint Kittis and NevisAmericasCaribbean0.65540.53470.68250.7491High incomex
119Saint LuciaAmericasCaribbean0.46600.28470.41100.7022Upper middle incomex
104"Saint Vincent and the
Grenadines"
AmericasCaribbean0.53060.45140.45830.6820Upper middle incomex
128SamoaOceaniaPolynesia0.42360.34030.20640.7241Upper middle incomex
76San MarinoEuropeSouthern Europe0.64710.42360.70750.8102High income
154Sao Tome and PrincipeAfricaMiddle Africa0.34240.13890.30530.5830Lower middle incomexx
52Saudi ArabiaAsiaWestern Asia0.71190.79170.53390.8101High income
150SenegalAfricaWestern Africa0.34860.47920.22400.3427Low incomex
49SerbiaEuropeSouthern Europe0.71550.73610.62080.7896Upper middle income
83SeychellesAfricaEastern Africa0.61630.61810.50080.7299High incomex
174Sierra LeoneAfricaWestern Africa0.27170.34720.15970.3081Low incomex
7SingaporeAsiaSouth-Eastern Asia0.88120.98610.80190.8557High incomex
49SlovakiaEuropeEastern Europe0.71550.73610.59640.8141High income
37SloveniaEuropeSouthern Europe0.77140.79860.62320.8923High income
Table 1. Country Proles (continued)
Data Tables
RankCountryRegionSub-Region
2018OSITIIHCILevel of IncomeLDCLLDCSIDS
169Solomon IslandsOceaniaMelanesia0.28160.24310.12850.4732Lower middle incomexx
193SomaliaAfricaEastern Africa0.05660.11110.05860.0000Low incomex
68South AfricaAfricaSouthern Africa0.66180.83330.42310.7291Upper middle income
191South SudanAfricaEastern Africa0.12140.11110.02620.2269Low incomexx
17SpainEuropeSouthern Europe0.84150.93750.69860.8885High income
94Sri LankaAsiaSouthern Asia0.57510.66670.31360.7451Lower middle income
180SudanAfricaNorthern Africa0.23940.15280.17800.3873Lower middle incomex
116SurinameAmericasSouth America0.47730.29170.45950.6808Upper middle incomex
5SwedenEuropeNorthern Europe0.88820.94440.78350.9366High income
EuropeWestern Europe0.85200.84720.84280.8660High income
152Syrian Arab RepublicAsiaWestern Asia0.34590.29860.25320.4860Lower middle income
131TajikistanAsiaCentral Asia0.42200.34030.22540.7002Lower middle incomex
73ThailandAsiaSouth-Eastern Asia0.65430.63890.53380.7903Upper middle income
79The former Yugoslav
EuropeSouthern Europe0.63120.71530.48590.6924Upper middle incomex
142Timor-LesteAsiaSouth-Eastern Asia0.38160.31250.29370.5387Lower middle incomexx
138TogoAfricaWestern Africa0.39890.55560.13530.5058Low incomex
109TongaOceaniaPolynesia0.52370.47220.29510.8039Upper middle incomex
78Trinidad and TobagoAmericasCaribbean0.64400.63890.57350.7195High incomex
80TunisiaAfricaNorthern Africa0.62540.80560.40660.6640Lower middle income
53TurkeyAsiaWestern Asia0.71120.88890.42980.8148Upper middle income
147TurkmenistanAsiaCentral Asia0.36520.13190.30110.6626Upper middle incomex
144TuvaluOceaniaPolynesia0.37790.22220.26930.6422Upper middle incomexx
135UgandaAfricaEastern Africa0.40550.56940.15660.4906Low incomexx
82UkraineEuropeEastern Europe0.61650.56940.43640.8436Lower middle income
21United Arab EmiratesAsiaWestern Asia0.82950.94440.85640.6877High income
4United Kingoom
of Great Britain and
Northern Ireland
EuropeNorthern Europe0.89990.97920.80040.9200High income
139United Republic of
Tanzania
AfricaEastern Africa0.39290.56250.14030.4759Low incomex
11United States of AmericaAmericasNorthern America0.87690.98610.75640.8883High income
34UruguayAmericasSouth America0.78580.88890.69670.7719High income
Table 1. Country Proles (continued)
DATA TABLES
Data Tables
RankCountryRegionSub-Region
2018OSITIIHCILevel of IncomeLDCLLDCSIDS
81UzbekistanAsiaCentral Asia0.62070.79170.33070.7396Lower middle incomex
137VanuatuOceaniaMelanesia0.39900.43750.19200.5675Lower middle incomexx
106Venuzuela (Bolivian
AmericasSouth America0.52870.40970.41480.7615Upper middle income
Table 1. Country Proles (continued)
Data Tables
RankCountryEGDI LevelEGDI
Telecomm.
177AfghanistanMiddle EGDI0.25850.30560.11380.3562
74AlbaniaHigh EGDI0.65190.73610.43180.7877
130AlgeriaMiddle EGDI0.42270.21530.38890.6640
62AndorraHigh EGDI0.68570.60420.72200.7309
155AngolaMiddle EGDI0.33760.40970.09720.5060
90Antigua and BarbudaHigh EGDI0.59060.45830.56170.7518
43ArgentinaHigh EGDI0.73350.75000.59270.8579
87ArmeniaHigh EGDI0.59440.56250.46600.7547
2AustraliaVery High EGDI0.90530.97220.74361.0000
20AustriaVery High EGDI0.83010.86810.77160.8505
70AzerbaijanHigh EGDI0.65740.72920.50620.7369
72BahamasHigh EGDI0.65520.70140.53930.7249
26BahrainVery High EGDI0.81160.79860.84660.7897
115BangladeshMiddle EGDI0.48620.78470.19760.4763
46BarbadosHigh EGDI0.72290.66670.67190.8301
38BelarusVery High EGDI0.76410.73610.68810.8681
27BelgiumVery High EGDI0.80800.75690.69300.9740
132BelizeMiddle EGDI0.41150.33330.22470.6765
159BeninMiddle EGDI0.32640.47220.14180.3653
126BhutanMiddle EGDI0.42740.50000.30800.4743
103Bolivia(Plurinational State of)High EGDI0.53070.56250.31480.7148
105Bosnia and HerzegovinaHigh EGDI0.53030.43060.43850.7217
127BotswanaMiddle EGDI0.42530.20830.39820.6694
44BrazilHigh EGDI0.73270.92360.52200.7525
59Brunei DarussalamHigh EGDI0.69230.72220.60660.7480
47BulgariaHigh EGDI0.71770.76390.57850.8106
165Burkina FasoMiddle EGDI0.30160.53470.16030.2097
166BurundiMiddle EGDI0.29850.30560.07860.5113
145CambodiaMiddle EGDI0.37530.25000.31320.5626
136CameroonMiddle EGDI0.39970.45830.17900.5618
23CanadaVery High EGDI0.82580.93060.67240.8744
112Cabo VerdeMiddle EGDI0.49800.48610.39260.6152
188Central African RepublicLow EGDI0.15840.20830.03220.2347
190ChadLow EGDI0.12570.14580.06690.1644
42ChileHigh EGDI0.73500.83330.53770.8339
65ChinaHigh EGDI0.68110.86110.47350.7088
61ColombiaHigh EGDI0.68710.88190.44120.7382
182ComorosLow EGDI0.23360.09720.08710.5166
164CongoMiddle EGDI0.30240.16670.18890.5515
56Costa RicaHigh EGDI0.70040.67360.63430.7933
172Cte d'IvoireMiddle EGDI0.27760.22220.27480.3357
55CroatiaHigh EGDI0.70180.68060.60510.8196
Table 2. E-Government Development Index (EGDI)
DATA TABLES
Data Tables
Table 2. E-Government Development Index (EGDI) (continued)
RankCountryEGDI LevelEGDI
Telecomm.
134CubaMiddle EGDI0.41010.29860.14550.7862
36CyprusVery High EGDI0.77360.78470.72790.8083
High EGDI0.70840.65280.59710.8752
185Democratic People's Republic of
Korea
Low EGDI0.21590.00000.03270.6150
176Democratic Republic of the CongoMiddle EGDI0.26120.20830.06450.5108
1DenmarkVery High EGDI0.91501.00000.79780.9472
179DjiboutiLow EGDI0.24010.29170.09610.3325
93DominicaHigh EGDI0.57940.61110.47750.6497
95Dominican RepublicHigh EGDI0.57260.65970.36550.6927
84EcuadorHigh EGDI0.61290.72920.36990.7395
114EgyptMiddle EGDI0.48800.53470.32220.6072
100El SalvadorHigh EGDI0.54690.62500.38100.6348
184Equatioral GuineaLow EGDI0.22980.04860.10100.5397
189EritreaLow EGDI0.13370.08330.00000.3179
16EstoniaVery High EGDI0.84860.90280.76130.8818
141EswatiniMiddle EGDI0.38200.37500.17720.5939
Data Tables
RankCountryEGDI LevelEGDI
Telecomm.
24ItalyVery High EGDI0.82090.95140.67710.8341
118JamaicaMiddle EGDI0.46970.31940.39410.6957
10JapanVery High EGDI0.87830.95140.84060.8428
98JordanHigh EGDI0.55750.49310.44060.7387
39KazakhistanVery High EGDI0.75970.86810.57230.8388
122KenyaMiddle EGDI0.45410.62500.19010.5472
153KiribatiMiddle EGDI0.34500.29860.07730.6591
41KuwaitHigh EGDI0.73880.79170.73940.6852
91KyrgizistanHigh EGDI0.58350.64580.34180.7628
162Lao People's Democratic RepublicMiddle EGDI0.30560.16670.22460.5254
57LatviaHigh EGDI0.69960.66670.61880.8132
99LebanonHigh EGDI0.55300.47220.52190.6649
167LesothoMiddle EGDI0.29680.11110.24680.5324
173LiberiaMiddle EGDI0.27370.34030.10360.3772
140LibyaMiddle EGDI0.38330.09720.33530.7173
25LiechtensteinVery High EGDI0.82040.79860.83890.8237
40LithuaniaVery High EGDI0.75340.79860.62930.8323
18LuxembourgVery High EGDI0.83340.92360.79640.7803
170MadagascarMiddle EGDI0.27920.30560.04990.4822
175MalawiMiddle EGDI0.27080.25690.08340.4720
48MalaysiaHigh EGDI0.71740.88890.56470.6987
97MaldivesHigh EGDI0.56150.49310.51590.6754
178MaliLow EGDI0.24240.26390.20740.2558
30MaltaVery High EGDI0.80110.84030.76570.7973
149Marshall IslandsMiddle EGDI0.35430.22920.10370.7301
183MauritaniaLow EGDI0.23140.15970.18780.3467
66MauritiusHigh EGDI0.66780.72920.54350.7308
64MexicoHigh EGDI0.68180.92360.41730.7044
161MicronesiaMiddle EGDI0.31550.14580.11180.6889
28MonacoVery High EGDI0.80500.62501.00000.7901
92MongoliaHigh EGDI0.58240.59720.36020.7899
58MontenegroHigh EGDI0.69660.66670.60590.8172
110MoroccoHigh EGDI0.52140.66670.36970.5278
160MozambiqueMiddle EGDI0.31950.42360.13980.3951
157MyanmarMiddle EGDI0.33280.22920.25650.5127
121NamibiaMiddle EGDI0.45540.45140.32990.5850
158NauruMiddle EGDI0.33240.13190.30330.5619
117NepalMiddle EGDI0.47480.68750.24130.4957
Table 2. E-Government Development Index (EGDI) (continued)
DATA TABLES
Data Tables
RankCountryEGDI LevelEGDI
Telecomm.
143NigeriaMiddle EGDI0.38070.52780.18830.4261
14NorwayVery High EGDI0.85570.95140.71310.9025
63OmanHigh EGDI0.68460.81250.53990.7013
148PakistanMiddle EGDI0.35660.54860.15290.3682
111PalauHigh EGDI0.50240.32640.33460.8462
85PanamaHigh EGDI0.60920.65970.45430.7137
171Papua New GuineaMiddle EGDI0.27870.27080.08750.4778
108ParaguayHigh EGDI0.52550.55560.35070.6701
77PeruHigh EGDI0.64610.81940.39130.7276
75PhilippinesHigh EGDI0.65120.88190.35470.7171
33PolandVery High EGDI0.79260.93060.58050.8668
29PortugalVery High EGDI0.80310.93060.66170.8170
51QatarHigh EGDI0.71320.79170.67970.6683
3Republic of KoreaVery High EGDI0.90100.97920.84960.8743
69Republic of MoldovaHigh EGDI0.65900.77080.47870.7274
67RomaniaHigh EGDI0.66710.65970.54710.7944
32Russian FederationVery High EGDI0.79690.91670.62190.8522
120RwandaMiddle EGDI0.45900.72220.17330.4815
71Saint Kittis and NevisHigh EGDI0.65540.53470.68250.7491
119Saint LuciaMiddle EGDI0.46600.28470.41100.7022
104Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesHigh EGDI0.53060.45140.45830.6820
128SamoaMiddle EGDI0.42360.34030.20640.7241
76San MarinoHigh EGDI0.64710.42360.70750.8102
154Sao Tome and PrincipeMiddle EGDI0.34240.13890.30530.5830
52Saudi ArabiaHigh EGDI0.71190.79170.53390.8101
150SenegalMiddle EGDI0.34860.47920.22400.3427
49SerbiaHigh EGDI0.71550.73610.62080.7896
83SeychellesHigh EGDI0.61630.61810.50080.7299
174Sierra LeoneMiddle EGDI0.27170.34720.15970.3081
7SingaporeVery High EGDI0.88120.98610.80190.8557
49SlovakiaHigh EGDI0.71550.73610.59640.8141
37SloveniaVery High EGDI0.77140.79860.62320.8923
169Solomon IslandsMiddle EGDI0.28160.24310.12850.4732
193SomaliaLow EGDI0.05660.11110.05860.0000
68South AfricaHigh EGDI0.66180.83330.42310.7291
191South SudanLow EGDI0.12140.11110.02620.2269
17SpainVery High EGDI0.84150.93750.69860.8885
94Sri LankaHigh EGDI0.57510.66670.31360.7451
180SudanLow EGDI0.23940.15280.17800.3873
116SurinameMiddle EGDI0.47730.29170.45950.6808
5SwedenVery High EGDI0.88820.94440.78350.9366
Very High EGDI0.85200.84720.84280.8660
Table 2. E-Government Development Index (EGDI) (continued)
Data Tables
RankCountryEGDI LevelEGDI
Telecomm.
152Syrian Arab RepublicMiddle EGDI0.34590.29860.25320.4860
131TajikistanMiddle EGDI0.42200.34030.22540.7002
73ThailandHigh EGDI0.65430.63890.53380.7903
79The former Yugoslav Republic of
High EGDI0.63120.71530.48590.6924
142Timor-LesteMiddle EGDI0.38160.31250.29370.5387
138TogoMiddle EGDI0.39890.55560.13530.5058
109TongaHigh EGDI0.52370.47220.29510.8039
78Trinidad and TobagoHigh EGDI0.64400.63890.57350.7195
80TunisiaHigh EGDI0.62540.80560.40660.6640
53TurkeyHigh EGDI0.71120.88890.42980.8148
147TurkmenistanMiddle EGDI0.36520.13190.30110.6626
144TuvaluMiddle EGDI0.37790.22220.26930.6422
135UgandaMiddle EGDI0.40550.56940.15660.4906
82UkraineHigh EGDI0.61650.56940.43640.8436
21United Arab EmiratesVery High EGDI0.82950.94440.85640.6877
4United Kingoom of Great Britain
and Northern Ireland
Very High EGDI0.89990.97920.80040.9200
139United Republic of TanzaniaMiddle EGDI0.39290.56250.14030.4759
11United States of AmericaVery High EGDI0.87690.98610.75640.8883
34UruguayVery High EGDI0.78580.88890.69670.7719
81UzbekistanHigh EGDI0.62070.79170.33070.7396
137VanuatuMiddle EGDI0.39900.43750.19200.5675
106Venuzuela (Bolivian Republic of)High EGDI0.52870.40970.41480.7615
Table 2. E-Government Development Index (EGDI) (continued)
DATA TABLES
Data Tables
RegionEGDI
Telecomm.
Africa0.34230.36330.20340.4602
Americas0.58980.60950.44410.7157
Asia0.57790.62160.43850.6735
Europe0.77270.79460.67650.8471
Oceania0.46110.39290.28250.7078
World0.54910.56910.41550.4155
Telecomm.
Small Island Developing States0.47440.40900.34600.6684
Land Locked Developing Countries0.41000.44810.25020.5318
Least Developed Countries0.29610.32510.15210.4113
Levels of Income EGDI
Telecomm.
High income0.78380.81200.70180.8375
Upper middle income0.56550.54790.42560.7231
Lower middle income0.44110.46880.27030.5843
Low income0.27350.33290.11910.3684
Table 3. Regional and Economic Groupings for E-Government Development Index (EGDI)
Data Tables
RankCountrySub-RegionEGDI
Telecomm.
130AlgeriaNorthern Africa0.42270.21530.38890.6640
155AngolaMiddle Africa0.33760.40970.09720.5060
159BeninWestern Africa0.32640.47220.14180.3653
127BotswanaSouthern Africa0.42530.20830.39820.6694
165Burkina FasoWestern Africa0.30160.53470.16030.2097
166BurundiEastern Africa0.29850.30560.07860.5113
136CameroonMiddle Africa0.39970.45830.17900.5618
112Cabo VerdeWestern Africa0.49800.48610.39260.6152
188Central African RepublicMiddle Africa0.15840.20830.03220.2347
190ChadMiddle Africa0.12570.14580.06690.1644
182ComorosEastern Africa0.23360.09720.08710.5166
164CongoMiddle Africa0.30240.16670.18890.5515
172Cte d'IvoireWestern Africa0.27760.22220.27480.3357
176Democratic Republic of the
Middle Africa0.26120.20830.06450.5108
179DjiboutiEastern Africa0.24010.29170.09610.3325
114EgyptNorthern Africa0.48800.53470.32220.6072
184Equatioral GuineaMiddle Africa0.22980.04860.10100.5397
189EritreaEastern Africa0.13370.08330.00000.3179
141EswatiniSouthern Africa0.38200.37500.17720.5939
Table 4. E-Government Development Index (EGDI) by region - AFRICA
DATA TABLES
Data Tables
Table 4. E-Government Development Index (EGDI) by region - AFRICA (continued)
RankCountrySub-RegionEGDI
Telecomm.
150SenegalWestern Africa0.34860.47920.22400.3427
83SeychellesEastern Africa0.61630.61810.50080.7299
174Sierra LeoneWestern Africa0.27170.34720.15970.3081
193SomaliaEastern Africa0.05660.11110.05860.0000
68South AfricaSouthern Africa0.66180.83330.42310.7291
191South SudanEastern Africa0.12140.11110.02620.2269
180SudanNorthern Africa0.23940.15280.17800.3873
138TogoWestern Africa0.39890.55560.13530.5058
80TunisiaNorthern Africa0.62540.80560.40660.6640
135UgandaEastern Africa0.40550.56940.15660.4906
139United Republic of
Tanzania
Eastern Africa0.39290.56250.14030.4759
133ZambiaEastern Africa0.41110.47920.18530.5689
146ZimbabweEastern Africa0.36920.32640.21440.5668
Data Tables
RankCountrySub-RegionEGDI
Telecomm.
90Antigua and BarbudaCaribbean0.59060.45830.56170.7518
43ArgentinaSouth America0.73350.75000.59270.8579
72BahamasCaribbean0.65520.70140.53930.7249
46BarbadosCaribbean0.72290.66670.67190.8301
132BelizeCentral America0.41150.33330.22470.6765
103Bolivia(Plurinational State of)South America0.53070.56250.31480.7148
44BrazilSouth America0.73270.92360.52200.7525
23CanadaNorthern America0.82580.93060.67240.8744
42ChileSouth America0.73500.83330.53770.8339
61ColombiaSouth America0.68710.88190.44120.7382
56Costa RicaCentral America0.70040.67360.63430.7933
134CubaCaribbean0.41010.29860.14550.7862
93DominicaCaribbean0.57940.61110.47750.6497
95Dominican RepublicCaribbean0.57260.65970.36550.6927
84EcuadorSouth America0.61290.72920.36990.7395
100El SalvadorCentral America0.54690.62500.38100.6348
89GrenadaCaribbean0.59300.49310.46580.8202
113GuatemalaCentral America0.49740.64580.29410.5524
124GuyanaSouth America0.43160.43060.25410.6102
163HaitiCaribbean0.30470.44440.10780.3620
123HondurasCentral America0.44740.51390.22680.6015
118JamaicaCaribbean0.46970.31940.39410.6957
64MexicoCentral America0.68180.92360.41730.7044
129NicaraguaCentral America0.42330.40280.28250.5847
85PanamaCentral America0.60920.65970.45430.7137
108ParaguaySouth America0.52550.55560.35070.6701
77PeruSouth America0.64610.81940.39130.7276
71Saint Kittis and NevisCaribbean0.65540.53470.68250.7491
119Saint LuciaCaribbean0.46600.28470.41100.7022
104Saint Vincent and the
Grenadines
Caribbean0.53060.45140.45830.6820
116SurinameSouth America0.47730.29170.45950.6808
78Trinidad and TobagoCaribbean0.64400.63890.57350.7195
11United States of AmericaNorthern America0.87690.98610.75640.8883
34UruguaySouth America0.78580.88890.69670.7719
106Venuzuela (Bolivian
South America0.52870.40970.41480.7615
Table 5. E-Government Development Index (EGDI) by region - AMERICAS
DATA TABLES
Data Tables
RankCountrySub-RegionEGDI
Telecomm.
177AfghanistanSouthern Asia0.25850.30560.11380.3562
87ArmeniaWestern Asia0.59440.56250.46600.7547
70AzerbaijanWestern Asia0.65740.72920.50620.7369
26BahrainWestern Asia0.81160.79860.84660.7897
115BangladeshSouthern Asia0.48620.78470.19760.4763
126BhutanSouthern Asia0.42740.50000.30800.4743
59Brunei DarussalamSouth-Eastern Asia0.69230.72220.60660.7480
145CambodiaSouth-Eastern Asia0.37530.25000.31320.5626
65ChinaEastern Asia0.68110.86110.47350.7088
36CyprusWestern Asia0.77360.78470.72790.8083
185Democratic People's Republic
of Korea
Eastern Asia0.21590.00000.03270.6150
60GeorgiaWestern Asia0.68930.69440.54030.8333
96IndiaSouthern Asia0.56690.95140.20090.5484
107IndonesiaSouth-Eastern Asia0.52580.56940.32220.6857
86Iran (Islamic Republic of)Southern Asia0.60830.63190.45660.7364
155IraqWestern Asia0.33760.31940.18400.5094
31IsraelWestern Asia0.79980.82640.70950.8635
10JapanEastern Asia0.87830.95140.84060.8428
98JordanWestern Asia0.55750.49310.44060.7387
39KazakhistanCentral Asia0.75970.86810.57230.8388
41KuwaitWestern Asia0.73880.79170.73940.6852
91KyrgizistanCentral Asia0.58350.64580.34180.7628
162Lao People's Democratic
South-Eastern Asia0.30560.16670.22460.5254
99LebanonWestern Asia0.55300.47220.52190.6649
48MalaysiaSouth-Eastern Asia0.71740.88890.56470.6987
97MaldivesSouthern Asia0.56150.49310.51590.6754
92MongoliaEastern Asia0.58240.59720.36020.7899
157MyanmarSouth-Eastern Asia0.33280.22920.25650.5127
117NepalSouthern Asia0.47480.68750.24130.4957
63OmanWestern Asia0.68460.81250.53990.7013
148PakistanSouthern Asia0.35660.54860.15290.3682
75PhilippinesSouth-Eastern Asia0.65120.88190.35470.7171
51QatarWestern Asia0.71320.79170.67970.6683
3Republic of KoreaEastern Asia0.90100.97920.84960.8743
52Saudi ArabiaWestern Asia0.71190.79170.53390.8101
7SingaporeSouth-Eastern Asia0.88120.98610.80190.8557
94Sri LankaSouthern Asia0.57510.66670.31360.7451
152Syrian Arab RepublicWestern Asia0.34590.29860.25320.4860
131TajikistanCentral Asia0.42200.34030.22540.7002
73ThailandSouth-Eastern Asia0.65430.63890.53380.7903
Table 6. E-Government Development Index EGDI by region - ASIA
Data Tables
RankCountrySub-RegionEGDI
Telecomm.
142Timor-LesteSouth-Eastern Asia0.38160.31250.29370.5387
53TurkeyWestern Asia0.71120.88890.42980.8148
147TurkmenistanCentral Asia0.36520.13190.30110.6626
21United Arab EmiratesWestern Asia0.82950.94440.85640.6877
81UzbekistanCentral Asia0.62070.79170.33070.7396
Table 6. E-Government Development Index EGDI by region - ASIA (continued)
DATA TABLES
Data Tables
RankCountrySub-RegionEGDI
Telecomm.
74AlbaniaSouthern Europe0.65190.73610.43180.7877
62AndorraSouthern Europe0.68570.60420.7220.7309
20AustriaWestern Europe0.83010.86810.77160.8505
38BelarusEastern Europe0.76410.73610.68810.8681
27BelgiumWestern Europe0.8080.75690.6930.974
105Bosnia and HerzegovinaSouthern Europe0.53030.43060.43850.7217
47BulgariaEastern Europe0.71770.76390.57850.8106
55CroatiaSouthern Europe0.70180.68060.60510.8196
Eastern Europe0.70840.65280.59710.8752
1DenmarkNorthern Europe0.91510.79780.9472
16EstoniaNorthern Europe0.84860.90280.76130.8818
6FinlandNorthern Europe0.88150.96530.72840.9509
9FranceWestern Europe0.8790.97920.79790.8598
12GermanyWestern Europe0.87650.93060.79520.9036
35GreeceSouthern Europe0.78330.81940.64390.8867
45HungaryEastern Europe0.72650.73610.60710.8364
19IcelandNorthern Europe0.83160.72920.82920.9365
22IrelandNorthern Europe0.82870.82640.6970.9626
24ItalySouthern Europe0.82090.95140.67710.8341
57LatviaNorthern Europe0.69960.66670.61880.8132
25LiechtensteinWestern Europe0.82040.79860.83890.8237
40LithuaniaNorthern Europe0.75340.79860.62930.8323
18LuxembourgWestern Europe0.83340.92360.79640.7803
30MaltaSouthern Europe0.80110.84030.76570.7973
28MonacoWestern Europe0.8050.62510.7901
58MontenegroSouthern Europe0.69660.66670.60590.8172
Table 7. E-Government Development Index EGDI by region - EUROPE
Data Tables
RankCountrySub-RegionEGDI
Telecomm.
82UkraineEastern Europe0.61650.56940.43640.8436
4United Kingoom
of Great Britain and
Northern Ireland
Northern Europe0.89990.97920.80040.92
Table 7. E-Government Development Index EGDI by region - EUROPE (continued)
RankCountrySub-RegionEGDI
Telecomm.
2AustraliaAustralia and New
0.90530.97220.74361
102FijiMelanesia0.53480.45830.35620.7899
153KiribatiMicronesia0.3450.29860.07730.6591
149Marshall IslandsMicronesia0.35430.22920.10370.7301
161MicronesiaMicronesia0.31550.14580.11180.6889
158NauruMicronesia0.33240.13190.30330.5619
8New ZealandAustralia and New
0.88060.95140.74550.945
111PalauMicronesia0.50240.32640.33460.8462
171Papua New GuineaMelanesia0.27870.27080.08750.4778
128SamoaPolynesia0.42360.34030.20640.7241
169Solomon IslandsMelanesia0.28160.24310.12850.4732
109TongaPolynesia0.52370.47220.29510.8039
144TuvaluPolynesia0.37790.22220.26930.6422
137VanuatuMelanesia0.3990.43750.1920.5675
Table 8. E-Government Development Index EGDI by region - OCEANIA
DATA TABLES
Data Tables
RankCountrySub-RegionEGDI
Telecomm.
177AfghanistanSouthern Asia0.25850.30560.11380.3562
155AngolaMiddle Africa0.33760.40970.09720.506
115BangladeshSouthern Asia0.48620.78470.19760.4763
159BeninWestern Africa0.32640.47220.14180.3653
126BhutanSouthern Asia0.42740.50.3080.4743
165Burkina FasoWestern Africa0.30160.53470.16030.2097
166BurundiEastern Africa0.29850.30560.07860.5113
145CambodiaSouth-Eastern Asia0.37530.250.31320.5626
188Central African RepublicMiddle Africa0.15840.20830.03220.2347
190ChadMiddle Africa0.12570.14580.06690.1644
182ComorosEastern Africa0.23360.09720.08710.5166
176Democratic Republic of the
Middle Africa0.26120.20830.06450.5108
179DjiboutiEastern Africa0.24010.29170.09610.3325
189EritreaEastern Africa0.13370.083300.3179
Table 9. E-Government Development Index EGDI of Least Developed Countries(LDCs)
Data Tables
RankCountrySub-RegionEGDI
Telecomm.
138TogoWestern Africa0.39890.55560.13530.5058
144TuvaluPolynesia0.37790.22220.26930.6422
135UgandaEastern Africa0.40550.56940.15660.4906
139United Republic of TanzaniaEastern Africa0.39290.56250.14030.4759
137VanuatuMelanesia0.3990.43750.1920.5675
186YemenWestern Asia0.21540.09720.14540.4037
133ZambiaEastern Africa0.41110.47920.18530.5689
Table 9. E-Government Development Index EGDI of Least Developed Countries(LDCs)
DATA TABLES
Data Tables
RankCountrySub-RegionEGDI
Telecomm.
90Antigua and BarbudaCaribbean0.59060.45830.56170.7518
72BahamasCaribbean0.65520.70140.53930.7249
46BarbadosCaribbean0.72290.66670.67190.8301
132BelizeCentral America0.41150.33330.22470.6765
112Cabo VerdeWestern Africa0.4980.48610.39260.6152
182ComorosEastern Africa0.23360.09720.08710.5166
134CubaCaribbean0.41010.29860.14550.7862
93DominicaCaribbean0.57940.61110.47750.6497
95Dominican RepublicCaribbean0.57260.65970.36550.6927
102FijiMelanesia0.53480.45830.35620.7899
89GrenadaCaribbean0.5930.49310.46580.8202
187Guinea-BissauWestern Africa0.18870.07640.10280.3869
124GuyanaSouth America0.43160.43060.25410.6102
163HaitiCaribbean0.30470.44440.10780.362
118JamaicaCaribbean0.46970.31940.39410.6957
153KiribatiMicronesia0.3450.29860.07730.6591
97MaldivesSouthern Asia0.56150.49310.51590.6754
149Marshall IslandsMicronesia0.35430.22920.10370.7301
66MauritiusEastern Africa0.66780.72920.54350.7308
161MicronesiaMicronesia0.31550.14580.11180.6889
158NauruMicronesia0.33240.13190.30330.5619
111PalauMicronesia0.50240.32640.33460.8462
171Papua New GuineaMelanesia0.27870.27080.08750.4778
71Saint Kittis and NevisCaribbean0.65540.53470.68250.7491
119Saint LuciaCaribbean0.4660.28470.4110.7022
104Saint Vincent and the
Grenadines
Caribbean0.53060.45140.45830.682
128SamoaPolynesia0.42360.34030.20640.7241
154Sao Tome and PrincipeMiddle Africa0.34240.13890.30530.583
83SeychellesEastern Africa0.61630.61810.50080.7299
7SingaporeSouth-Eastern Asia0.88120.98610.80190.8557
169Solomon IslandsMelanesia0.28160.24310.12850.4732
116SurinameSouth America0.47730.29170.45950.6808
142Timor-LesteSouth-Eastern Asia0.38160.31250.29370.5387
109TongaPolynesia0.52370.47220.29510.8039
78Trinidad and TobagoCaribbean0.6440.63890.57350.7195
144TuvaluPolynesia0.37790.22220.26930.6422
137VanuatuMelanesia0.3990.43750.1920.5675
Table 10. E-Government Development Index EGDI of Small Island Developing States (SIDS)
Data Tables
RankCountrySub-RegionEGDI
Telecomm.
177AfghanistanSouthern Asia0.25850.30560.11380.3562
87ArmeniaWestern Asia0.59440.56250.4660.7547
70AzerbaijanWestern Asia0.65740.72920.50620.7369
126BhutanSouthern Asia0.42740.50.3080.4743
103Bolivia(Plurinational State of)South America0.53070.56250.31480.7148
127BotswanaSouthern Africa0.42530.20830.39820.6694
165Burkina FasoWestern Africa0.30160.53470.16030.2097
166BurundiEastern Africa0.29850.30560.07860.5113
188Central African RepublicMiddle Africa0.15840.20830.03220.2347
190ChadMiddle Africa0.12570.14580.06690.1644
141EswatiniSouthern Africa0.3820.3750.17720.5939
Table 11. E-Government Development Index EGDI of Landlocked Developing Counties(LLDCs)
DATA TABLES
Data Tables
RankCountry EPITotal %Stage 1%Stage 2%Stage 3%
145Afghanistan0.320234.24%63.33%21.74%18.18%
59Albania0.758476.63%63.33%91.30%72.73%
165Algeria0.202222.83%30.00%34.78%0.00%
103Andorra0.567458.15%70.00%65.22%36.36%
125Angola0.432645.11%66.67%47.83%18.18%
121Antigua and Barbuda0.460747.83%56.67%34.78%54.55%
87Argentina0.623663.59%76.67%73.91%36.36%
103Armenia0.567458.15%60.00%52.17%63.64%
5Australia0.983198.37%100.00%95.65%100.00%
45Austria0.825883.15%90.00%78.26%81.82%
79Azerbaijan0.679869.02%76.67%73.91%54.55%
92Bahamas0.61863.04%60.00%65.22%63.64%
53Bahrain0.797880.43%76.67%82.61%81.82%
51Bangladesh0.803480.98%86.67%82.61%72.73%
87Barbados0.623663.59%80.00%56.52%54.55%
33Belarus0.88288.59%90.00%78.26%100.00%
59Belgium0.758476.63%86.67%78.26%63.64%
148Belize0.292131.52%46.67%43.48%0.00%
136Benin0.370839.13%53.33%43.48%18.18%
111Bhutan0.528154.35%60.00%78.26%18.18%
99Bolivia(Plurinational State of)0.578759.24%63.33%73.91%36.36%
125Bosnia and Herzegovina0.432645.11%53.33%52.17%27.27%
168Botswana0.196622.28%43.33%21.74%0.00%
12Brazil0.971997.28%96.67%95.65%100.00%
97Brunei Darussalam0.606761.96%83.33%78.26%18.18%
35Bulgaria0.870887.50%83.33%95.65%81.82%
87Burkina Faso0.623663.59%73.33%69.57%45.45%
147Burundi0.30933.15%50.00%30.43%18.18%
171Cambodia0.174220.11%36.67%21.74%0.00%
143Cameroon0.325834.78%63.33%30.43%9.09%
27Canada0.910191.30%96.67%86.96%90.91%
127Cabo Verde0.42744.57%66.67%39.13%27.27%
151Central African Republic0.275329.89%36.67%26.09%27.27%
177Chad0.146117.39%33.33%17.39%0.00%
46Chile0.820282.61%96.67%78.26%72.73%
29China0.904590.76%86.67%86.96%100.00%
23Colombia0.921392.39%96.67%82.61%100.00%
190Comoros0.05628.70%16.67%8.70%0.00%
169Congo0.185421.20%23.33%21.74%18.18%
57Costa Rica0.769777.72%83.33%69.57%81.82%
171Cte d'Ivoire0.174220.11%23.33%26.09%9.09%
57Croatia0.769777.72%63.33%86.96%81.82%
150Cuba0.280930.43%56.67%17.39%18.18%
46Cyprus0.820282.61%80.00%78.26%90.91%
Table 12. E-Participation Index (EPI) and its utilisation by stages
Data Tables
RankCountry EPITotal %Stage 1%Stage 2%Stage 3%
0.61863.04%73.33%60.87%54.55%
193Democratic People's Republic of Korea03.26%10.00%0.00%0.00%
183Democratic Republic of the Congo0.123615.22%36.67%8.70%0.00%
1Denmark1100.00%100.00%100.00%100.00%
153Djibouti0.269729.35%50.00%13.04%27.27%
106Dominica0.556257.07%50.00%65.22%54.55%
79Dominican Republic0.679869.02%73.33%69.57%63.64%
81Ecuador0.674268.48%70.00%78.26%54.55%
109Egypt0.539355.43%53.33%65.22%45.45%
82El Salvador0.651766.30%80.00%78.26%36.36%
191Equatioral Guinea0.05068.15%20.00%4.35%0.00%
192Eritrea0.03376.52%20.00%0.00%0.00%
27Estonia0.910191.30%96.67%86.96%90.91%
142Eswatini0.331535.33%60.00%34.78%9.09%
Table 12. E-Participation Index (EPI) and its utilisation by stages (continued)
DATA TABLES
Data Tables
RankCountry EPITotal %Stage 1%Stage 2%Stage 3%
110Kenya0.533754.89%66.67%73.91%18.18%
157Kiribati0.252827.72%46.67%26.09%9.09%
72Kuwait0.69170.11%93.33%69.57%45.45%
75Kyrgizistan0.685469.57%60.00%82.61%63.64%
171Lao People's Democratic Republic0.174220.11%33.33%17.39%9.09%
75Latvia0.685469.57%76.67%60.87%72.73%
122Lebanon0.443846.20%63.33%39.13%36.36%
189Lesotho0.078710.87%23.33%8.70%0.00%
127Liberia0.42744.57%50.00%60.87%18.18%
183Libya0.123615.22%26.67%17.39%0.00%
63Liechtenstein0.747275.54%86.67%82.61%54.55%
51Lithuania0.803480.98%86.67%82.61%72.73%
19Luxembourg0.938294.02%96.67%86.96%100.00%
143Madagascar0.325834.78%50.00%34.78%18.18%
165Malawi0.202222.83%40.00%26.09%0.00%
32Malaysia0.887689.13%93.33%91.30%81.82%
129Maldives0.410142.93%56.67%43.48%27.27%
159Mali0.241626.63%43.33%26.09%9.09%
39Malta0.848385.33%96.67%78.26%81.82%
171Marshall Islands0.174220.11%36.67%21.74%0.00%
170Mauritania0.179820.65%30.00%21.74%9.09%
72Mauritius0.69170.11%93.33%69.57%45.45%
17Mexico0.943894.57%93.33%91.30%100.00%
179Micronesia0.140416.85%26.67%21.74%0.00%
105Monaco0.561857.61%80.00%47.83%45.45%
65Mongolia0.73674.46%73.33%69.57%81.82%
64Montenegro0.741675.00%76.67%60.87%90.91%
56Morocco0.775378.26%80.00%73.91%81.82%
122Mozambique0.443846.20%43.33%56.52%36.36%
181Myanmar0.134816.30%26.67%13.04%9.09%
133Namibia0.393341.30%63.33%47.83%9.09%
177Nauru0.146117.39%20.00%21.74%9.09%
55Nepal0.780978.80%80.00%82.61%72.73%
Table 12. E-Participation Index (EPI) and its utilisation by stages (continued)
Data Tables
RankCountry EPITotal %Stage 1%Stage 2%Stage 3%
101Paraguay0.57358.70%70.00%73.91%27.27%
36Peru0.865286.96%83.33%86.96%90.91%
19Philippines0.938294.02%100.00%91.30%90.91%
31Poland0.893389.67%100.00%86.96%81.82%
30Portugal0.898990.22%96.67%91.30%81.82%
67Qatar0.713572.28%73.33%78.26%63.64%
1Republic of Korea1100.00%100.00%100.00%100.00%
37Republic of Moldova0.859686.41%76.67%91.30%90.91%
69Romania0.707971.74%70.00%65.22%81.82%
23Russian Federation0.921392.39%93.33%100.00%81.82%
59Rwanda0.758476.63%83.33%73.91%72.73%
98Saint Kittis and Nevis0.584359.78%60.00%56.52%63.64%
161Saint Lucia0.219124.46%36.67%26.09%9.09%
113Saint Vincent and theGrenadines0.516953.26%50.00%47.83%63.64%
155Samoa0.26428.80%46.67%21.74%18.18%
156San Marino0.258428.26%53.33%21.74%9.09%
176Sao Tome and Principe0.157318.48%20.00%17.39%18.18%
67Saudi Arabia0.713572.28%76.67%82.61%54.55%
114Senegal0.505652.17%63.33%47.83%45.45%
48Serbia0.814682.07%73.33%82.61%90.91%
84Seychelles0.646165.76%63.33%69.57%63.64%
129Sierra Leone0.410142.93%56.67%43.48%27.27%
13Singapore0.966396.74%100.00%91.30%100.00%
50Slovakia0.80981.52%80.00%82.61%81.82%
48Slovenia0.814682.07%90.00%82.61%72.73%
163Solomon Islands0.213523.91%30.00%30.43%9.09%
181Somalia0.134816.30%13.33%17.39%18.18%
39South Africa0.848385.33%96.67%78.26%81.82%
188South Sudan0.089911.96%26.67%8.70%0.00%
5Spain0.983198.37%100.00%95.65%100.00%
85Sri Lanka0.629264.13%73.33%56.52%63.64%
179Sudan0.140416.85%36.67%13.04%0.00%
159Suriname0.241626.63%56.67%21.74%0.00%
19Sweden0.938294.02%100.00%91.30%90.91%
0.842784.78%90.00%82.61%81.82%
137Syrian Arab Republic0.365238.59%43.33%43.48%27.27%
134Tajikistan0.387640.76%36.67%47.83%36.36%
82Thailand0.651766.30%86.67%65.22%45.45%
71The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia"0.702271.20%76.67%86.96%45.45%
153Timor-Leste0.269729.35%46.67%30.43%9.09%
107Togo0.544955.98%70.00%73.91%18.18%
120Tonga0.466348.37%60.00%47.83%36.36%
99Trinidad and Tobago0.578759.24%76.67%69.57%27.27%
53Tunisia0.797880.43%86.67%73.91%81.82%
Table 12. E-Participation Index (EPI) and its utilisation by stages (continued)
DATA TABLES
Data Tables
RankCountry EPITotal %Stage 1%Stage 2%Stage 3%
37Turkey0.859686.41%93.33%91.30%72.73%
186Turkmenistan0.112414.13%23.33%17.39%0.00%
161Tuvalu0.219124.46%53.33%4.35%18.18%
87Uganda0.623663.59%70.00%86.96%27.27%
75Ukraine0.685469.57%63.33%65.22%81.82%
17United Arab Emirates0.943894.57%96.67%95.65%90.91%
5United Kingoom of Great Britain and
Northern Ireland
0.983198.37%100.00%95.65%100.00%
92United Republic of Tanzania0.61863.04%83.33%73.91%27.27%
5United States of America0.983198.37%100.00%95.65%100.00%
26Uruguay0.915791.85%93.33%91.30%90.91%
59Uzbekistan0.758476.63%93.33%86.96%45.45%
124Vanuatu0.438245.65%60.00%47.83%27.27%
131Venuzuela (Bolivian Republic of)0.404542.39%46.67%43.48%36.36%
Table 12. E-Participation Index (EPI) and its utilisation by stages (continued)
Data Tables
EPITotalStage 1Stage 2Stage 3
Small Island Developing States0.38190.40200.51530.38900.2948
Landlocked Developing Countries0.45680.47450.57400.51500.3153
Least Developed Countries0.32700.34900.47160.36170.1992
High Income0.80280.80920.86550.79970.7598
Upper Middle Income0.54430.55920.64000.55650.4744
Lower Middle Income0.46220.47980.57450.50130.3494
Low Income0.34400.36540.48060.38570.2141
Africa0.35660.37760.50250.39290.2222
Americas0.60430.61720.68760.61740.5403
Asia0.61260.62520.70140.63640.5280
Europe0.81030.81650.84880.81400.7844
Oceania0.36320.38390.51430.36960.2597
World0.56540.57960.66250.58500.4823
Table 13. Regional and Economic Groupings for E-Participation Index (EPI)
DATA TABLES
Data Tables
CountryTII
Table 14. Telecommunication Infrastructure Index (TII) and its components
Data Tables
Table 14. Telecommunication Infrastructure Index (TII) and its components (continued)
CountryTII
DATA TABLES
Data Tables
Table 14. Telecommunication Infrastructure Index (TII) and its components (continued)
CountryTII
Data Tables
Table 14. Telecommunication Infrastructure Index (TII) and its components (continued)
CountryTII
DATA TABLES
Data Tables
Table 14. Telecommunication Infrastructure Index (TII) and its components (continued)
CountryTII
Source:
International Telecommunications Union (ITU)
Data Tables
CountryHCI
Adult Literacy (%) Gross Enrollment RatioExpected Year of SchoolingMean Year of Schooling
ValueYearSource
ValueYearSource
ValueYearSource
ValueYearSource
Afghanistan0.356238.22015UNDP (HDI)69.522014UNESCO10.772014UNESCO3.52015UNDP (HDI)
Albania0.787797.62015UNDP (HDI)86.392015UNESCO15.522015UNESCO9.62015UNDP (HDI)
Algeria0.664080.22015UNDP (HDI)80.972011UNESCO14.42015UNDP (HDI)7.82015UNDP (HDI)
Andorra0.7309100.002016UNESCO692014UNESCO13.52012UNDP (HDI)10.32015UNDP (HDI)
Angola0.506071.12015UNDP (HDI)67.102011UNESCO11.42012UNDP (HDI)52015UNDP (HDI)
Antigua and Barbuda0.751899.02013UNDP (HDI)82.032012UNESCO13.952015UNDP (HDI)9.22015UNDP (HDI)
Argentina0.857998.12015UNDP (HDI)101.052014UNESCO17.292014UNESCO9.82015UNDP (HDI)
Armenia0.754799.82015UNDP (HDI)74.482015UNESCO13.192015UNESCO11.32015UNDP (HDI)
Australia1992014UNESCO 116.232014UNESCO20.472014UNESCO13.22015UNDP (HDI)
Austria0.8505992014UNESCO95.642015UNESCO16.042015UNESCO11.32015UNDP (HDI)
Azerbaijan0.736999.792016UNESCO71.112012UNESCO12.72014UNDP (HDI)11.22015UNDP (HDI)
Bahamas0.724995.802014UNESCO742014UNESCO12.72015UNDP (HDI)10.92015UNDP (HDI)
Bahrain0.789795.72015UNDP (HDI)88.542015UNESCO15.952015UNESCO9.42015UNDP (HDI)
Bangladesh0.476372.762016UNESCO59.222011UNESCO10.22015UNDP (HDI)5.22015UNDP (HDI)
Barbados0.830199.72014UNESCO95.742011UNESCO15.292015UNESCO10.52015UNDP (HDI)
Belarus0.868199.72015UNDP (HDI)99.932015UNESCO15.602015UNESCO122015UNDP (HDI)
Belgium0.9740992014UNESCO119.382015UNESCO19.982015UNESCO11.42015UNDP (HDI)
Belize0.676582.72015UNDP (HDI)75.972015UNESCO12.822015UNESCO10.52015UNDP (HDI)
Benin0.365338.42015UNDP (HDI)73.102013UNESCO10.72015UNDP (HDI)3.52015UNDP (HDI)
Bhutan0.474364.92015UNDP (HDI)68.252013UNESCO12.522013UNESCO3.12015UNDP (HDI)
0.714895.72015UNDP (HDI)79.252007UNESCO13.82015UNDP (HDI)8.22015UNDP (HDI)
Bosnia and Herzegovina0.721798.52015UNDP (HDI)712014UNESCO14.22015UNDP (HDI)92015UNDP (HDI)
Botswana0.669488.52015UNDP (HDI)73.582008UNESCO12.62015UNDP (HDI)9.22015UNDP (HDI)
Brazil0.752592.62015UNDP (HDI)91.082015UNESCO15.402015UNESCO7.82015UNDP (HDI)
Brunei Darussalam0.748096.42015UNDP (HDI)80.912015UNESCO14.742015UNESCO92015UNDP (HDI)
Bulgaria0.810698.42015UNDP (HDI)90.532015UNESCO14.942015UNESCO10.82015UNDP (HDI)
Burkina Faso0.2097362015UNDP (HDI)46.542013UNESCO7.702013UNESCO1.42015UNDP (HDI)
Burundi0.511385.62015UNDP (HDI)64.232014UNESCO10.62015UNDP (HDI)32015UNDP (HDI)
Cambodia0.562677.22015UNDP (HDI)84.492010UNESCO10.92015UNDP (HDI)4.72015UNDP (HDI)
Cameroon0.5618752015UNDP (HDI)71.952015UNESCO12.192015UNESCO6.12015UNDP (HDI)
Canada0.8744992014UNESCO93.042000UNESCO16.32015UNDP (HDI)13.12015UNDP (HDI)
Table 15. Human Capital Index (HCI) and its components
DATA TABLES
Data Tables
Table 15. Human Capital Index (HCI) and its components (continued)
CountryHCI
Adult Literacy (%) Gross Enrollment RatioExpected Year of SchoolingMean Year of Schooling
ValueYearSource
ValueYearSource
ValueYearSource
ValueYearSource
Cabo Verde0.615287.62015UNDP (HDI)75.772015UNESCO13.192015UNESCO4.82015UNDP (HDI)
Central African Republic0.234736.82015UNDP (HDI)42.492013UNESCO7.102012UNESCO4.22015UNDP (HDI)
Chad0.164422.312016UNESCO46.192011UNESCO7.302011UNESCO2.32015UNDP (HDI)
Chile0.833997.32015UNDP (HDI)97.172015UNESCO16.482015UNESCO9.92015UNDP (HDI)
China0.708895.122010UNESCO79.972015UNESCO14.012015UNESCO7.62015UNDP (HDI)
Colombia0.738294.72015UNDP (HDI)89.412015UNESCO14.422015UNESCO7.62015UNDP (HDI)
Comoros0.516677.82015UNDP (HDI)64.452014UNESCO11.092014UNESCO4.82015UNDP (HDI)
Congo0.551579.32015UNDP (HDI)67.022012UNESCO11.12015UNDP (HDI)6.32015UNDP (HDI)
Costa Rica0.793397.82015UNDP (HDI)95.072015UNESCO15.222015UNESCO8.72015UNDP (HDI)
Cte d'Ivoire0.335743.12015UNDP (HDI)55.252015UNESCO9.202015UNESCO52015UNDP (HDI)
Croatia0.819699.32015UNDP (HDI)89.242015UNESCO15.142015UNESCO11.22015UNDP (HDI)
Cuba0.786299.72015UNDP (HDI)80.222015UNESCO13.812015UNESCO11.82015UNDP (HDI)
Cyprus0.808399.12015UNDP (HDI)85.672015UNESCO14.572015UNESCO11.72015UNDP (HDI)
0.8752992014UNESCO94.212015UNESCO16.942015UNESCO12.32015UNDP (HDI)
of Korea
0.61501002015UNDP (HDI)66.942015UNESCO10.962015UNESCO5.472017estimation
0.510877.042016UNESCO59.452013UNESCO9.82015UNDP (HDI)6.82016UNESCO
Denmark0.947299.002014UNESCO105.712015UNESCO19.302015UNESCO12.72015UNDP (HDI)
Djibouti0.332570.302014UNESCO36.812011UNESCO6.292011UNESCO4.12015UNDP (HDI)
Dominica0.649788.002014UNESCO73.002014UNESCO12.82015UNDP (HDI)7.92015UNDP (HDI)
Dominican Republic0.692791.82015UNDP (HDI)79.542015UNESCO13.752015UNESCO7.72015UNDP (HDI)
Ecuador0.739594.352016UNESCO88.872013UNESCO14.02015UNDP (HDI)8.32015UNDP (HDI)
Egypt0.607275.22015UNDP (HDI)78.012014UNESCO13.102014UNESCO7.12015UNDP (HDI)
El Salvador0.634588.42015UNDP (HDI)74.172015UNESCO12.892015UNESCO6.52015UNDP (HDI)
Equatioral Guinea0.539795.32015UNDP (HDI)55.002014UNESCO9.22015UNDP (HDI)5.52015UNDP (HDI)
Eritrea0.317973.82015UNDP (HDI)32.762014UNESCO5.352014UNESCO3.92015UNDP (HDI)
Estonia0.881899.82015UNDP (HDI)97.832015UNESCO16.352015UNESCO12.52015UNDP (HDI)
Eswatini0.593987.52015UNDP (HDI)66.732011UNESCO11.412013UNESCO6.82015UNDP (HDI)
Data Tables
Table 15. Human Capital Index (HCI) and its components (continued)
CountryHCI
Adult Literacy (%) Gross Enrollment RatioExpected Year of SchoolingMean Year of Schooling
ValueYearSource
ValueYearSource
ValueYearSource
ValueYearSource
Finland0.950999.002014UNESCO115.412015UNESCO19.342015UNESCO11.22015UNDP (HDI)
France0.859899.002014UNESCO96.152014UNESCO16.272014UNESCO11.62015UNDP (HDI)
Gabon0.639883.22015UNDP (HDI)76.152001UNESCO12.62015UNDP (HDI)8.12015UNDP (HDI)
Gambia0.353955.52015UNDP (HDI)55.702010UNESCO8.92015UNDP (HDI)3.32015UNDP (HDI)
Georgia0.833399.82015UNDP (HDI)86.332015UNESCO15.442015UNESCO12.22015UNDP (HDI)
Germany0.903699.002014UNESCO97.872015UNESCO17.292015UNESCO13.22015UNDP (HDI)
Ghana0.566976.62015UNDP (HDI)68.602015UNESCO11.922015UNESCO6.92015UNDP (HDI)
Greece0.886797.72015UNDP (HDI)105.782014UNESCO17.782014UNESCO10.52015UNDP (HDI)
Grenada0.820296.002005UNDP99.792015UNESCO16.722015UNESCO8.62015UNDP (HDI)
Guatemala0.552479.32015UNDP (HDI)68.612013UNESCO10.882015UNESCO6.32015UNDP (HDI)
Guinea0.240630.42015UNDP (HDI)53.112014UNESCO8.822014UNESCO2.62015UNDP (HDI)
Guinea-Bissau0.386959.92015UNDP (HDI)62.462006UNESCO9.22015UNDP (HDI)2.92015UNDP (HDI)
Guyana0.610288.52015UNDP (HDI)68.542012UNESCO10.352012UNESCO8.42015UNDP (HDI)
Haiti0.362060.72015UNDP (HDI)39.402014UNESCO9.12015UNDP (HDI)5.22015UNDP (HDI)
Honduras0.601588.992016UNESCO70.232015UNESCO11.522015UNESCO6.22015UNDP (HDI)
Hungary0.8364992015UNDP (HDI)90.172015UNESCO15.372015UNESCO122015UNDP (HDI)
Iceland0.936599.002014UNESCO102.562013UNESCO19.632013UNESCO12.22015UNDP (HDI)
India0.548472.12015UNDP (HDI)71.212015UNESCO11.962015UNESCO6.32015UNDP (HDI)
Indonesia0.685795.382016UNESCO76.262015UNESCO12.772015UNESCO7.92015UNDP (HDI)
Iran (Islamic Republic of)0.736486.82015UNDP (HDI)90.342015UNESCO14.932015UNESCO8.82015UNDP (HDI)
Iraq0.509479.72015UNDP (HDI)54.482000UNESCO10.12015UNDP (HDI)6.62015UNDP (HDI)
Ireland0.962699.22015UNDP (HDI)111.542015UNESCO19.652015UNESCO12.32015UNDP (HDI)
Israel0.863597.762011UNESCO94.072015UNESCO16.012015UNESCO12.82015UNDP (HDI)
Italy0.834198.852011UNESCO90.862015UNESCO16.222015UNESCO10.92015UNDP (HDI)
Jamaica0.695788.72015UNDP (HDI)79.862004UNESCO12.82015UNDP (HDI)9.62015UNDP (HDI)
DATA TABLES
Data Tables
Table 15. Human Capital Index (HCI) and its components (continued)
CountryHCI
Adult Literacy (%) Gross Enrollment RatioExpected Year of SchoolingMean Year of Schooling
ValueYearSource
ValueYearSource
ValueYearSource
ValueYearSource
Japan0.842899.002014UNESCO89.842014UNESCO15.362014UNESCO12.52015UNDP (HDI)
Jordan0.738796.72015UNDP (HDI)80.172012UNESCO13.12015UNDP (HDI)10.12015UNDP (HDI)
Kazakhistan0.838899.82015UNDP (HDI)93.732016UNESCO15.012016UNESCO11.72015UNDP (HDI)
Kenya0.5472782015UNDP (HDI)67.222009UNESCO11.12015UNDP (HDI)6.32015UNDP (HDI)
Kiribati0.659193.002014UN E-GOV
75.142008UNESCO11.92015UNDP (HDI)7.82015UNDP (HDI)
Kuwait0.685296.22015UNDP (HDI)75.242013UNESCO13.32015UNDP (HDI)7.32015UNDP (HDI)
Kyrgizistan0.762899.52015UNDP (HDI)81.192015UNESCO13.132015UNESCO10.82015UNDP (HDI)
0.525479.92015UNDP (HDI)63.542015UNESCO10.912015UNESCO5.22015UNDP (HDI)
Latvia0.813199.92015UNDP (HDI)93.352014UNESCO13.362015UNESCO11.72015UNDP (HDI)
Lebanon0.664993.92015UNDP (HDI)63.432015UNESCO13.32015UNDP (HDI)8.62015UNDP (HDI)
Lesotho0.532479.42015UNDP (HDI)62.792014UNESCO10.742014UNESCO6.12015UNDP (HDI)
Liberia0.377247.62015UNDP (HDI)63.922000UNESCO9.92015UNDP (HDI)4.42015UNDP (HDI)
Libya0.7173912015UNDP (HDI)94.382003UNESCO13.42015UNDP (HDI)7.32015UNDP (HDI)
Liechtenstein0.823799.002014UN E-GOV
86.912015UNESCO14.712015UNESCO12.42015UNDP (HDI)
Lithuania0.832399.82015UNDP (HDI)94.822014UNESCO13.412015UNESCO12.72015UNDP (HDI)
Luxembourg0.780399.002014UNESCO77.312012UNESCO13.92015UNDP (HDI)122015UNDP (HDI)
Madagascar0.482264.72015UNDP (HDI)66.202014UNESCO10.502014UNESCO6.12015UNDP (HDI)
Malawi0.472065.82015UNDP (HDI)69.122011UNESCO10.722011UNESCO4.42015UNDP (HDI)
Malaysia0.698794.62015UNDP (HDI)68.932015UNESCO12.932015UNESCO10.12015UNDP (HDI)
Maldives0.675499.32015UNDP (HDI)76.762003UNESCO12.72015UNDP (HDI)6.22015UNDP (HDI)
Mali0.255838.72015UNDP (HDI)51.082011UNESCO8.42015UNDP (HDI)2.32015UNDP (HDI)
Malta0.797394.12015UNDP (HDI)85.042015UNESCO15.592015UNESCO11.32015UNDP (HDI)
Marshall Islands0.730198.272011UNESCO74.622002UNESCO12.322002UNESCO10.92011UNESCO
Mauritania0.346752.12015UNDP (HDI)52.552015UNESCO8.842015UNESCO4.32015UNDP (HDI)
Mauritius0.730890.62015UNDP (HDI)81.282015UNESCO14.892015UNESCO9.12015UNDP (HDI)
Mexico0.704494.42015UNDP (HDI)77.762014UNESCO13.302014UNESCO8.62015UNDP (HDI)
Micronesia0.688994.002014UNESCO75.432004UNESCO11.72015UNDP (HDI)9.72015UNDP (HDI)
Data Tables
Table 15. Human Capital Index (HCI) and its components (continued)
CountryHCI
Adult Literacy (%) Gross Enrollment RatioExpected Year of SchoolingMean Year of Schooling
ValueYearSource
ValueYearSource
ValueYearSource
ValueYearSource
Monaco0.790199.002014UN E-GOV
99.002014UNDP11.82015UNDP (HDI)11.272017estimation
Mongolia0.789998.42015UNDP (HDI)87.902015UNESCO15.012015UNESCO9.82015UNDP (HDI)
Montenegro0.817298.72015UNDP (HDI)88.662010UNESCO15.132010UNESCO11.32015UNDP (HDI)
Morocco0.527872.42015UNDP (HDI)69.772012UNESCO12.052012UNESCO52015UNDP (HDI)
Mozambique0.395158.82015UNDP (HDI)61.522015UNESCO9.592015UNESCO3.52015UNDP (HDI)
Myanmar0.512793.12015UNDP (HDI)53.002007UNESCO9.12015UNDP (HDI)4.72015UNDP (HDI)
Namibia0.585081.92015UNDP (HDI)70.282006UNESCO11.72015UNDP (HDI)6.72015UNDP (HDI)
Nauru0.561992.002014UN E-GOV
56.132008UNESCO9.72015UNDP (HDI)7.122017estimation
Nepal0.495764.72015UNDP (HDI)72.932015UNESCO12.192015UNESCO4.12015UNDP (HDI)
DATA TABLES
Data Tables
Table 15. Human Capital Index (HCI) and its components (continued)
CountryHCI
Adult Literacy (%) Gross Enrollment RatioExpected Year of SchoolingMean Year of Schooling
ValueYearSource
ValueYearSource
ValueYearSource
ValueYearSource
Philippines0.717096.32015UNDP (HDI)85.132013UNESCO11.72015UNDP (HDI)9.32015UNDP (HDI)
Poland0.866899.82015UNDP (HDI)95.232014UNESCO16.42015UNDP (HDI)11.92015UNDP (HDI)
Portugal0.816795.72015UNDP (HDI)98.582015UNESCO16.502015UNESCO8.92015UNDP (HDI)
Qatar0.668397.82015UNDP (HDI)60.022015UNESCO11.972015UNESCO9.82015UNDP (HDI)
Republic of Korea0.874399.002014UNESCO96.852015UNESCO16.522015UNESCO12.22015UNDP (HDI)
Republic of Moldova0.727499.42015UNDP (HDI)70.272015UNESCO11.632015UNESCO11.92015UNDP (HDI)
Romania0.794498.82015UNDP (HDI)83.822015UNESCO14.932015UNESCO10.82015UNDP (HDI)
Russian Federation0.852299.72015UNDP (HDI)95.152015UNESCO15.382015UNESCO122015UNDP (HDI)
Rwanda0.481570.52015UNDP (HDI)70.342015UNESCO10.552015UNESCO3.82015UNDP (HDI)
Saint Kittis and Nevis0.749197.802014UNESCO84.732015UNESCO14.392015UNESCO8.42015UNDP (HDI)
Saint Lucia0.702294.802014UNESCO73.532007UNESCO13.12015UNDP (HDI)9.32015UNDP (HDI)
Saint Vincent and the
Grenadines
0.682088.102014UNESCO78.282004UNESCO13.32015UNDP (HDI)8.62015UNDP (HDI)
Samoa0.7241992015UNDP (HDI)71.322000UNESCO12.92015UNDP (HDI)10.32015UNDP (HDI)
San Marino0.810299.002014UN E-Gov
85.332012UNESCO15.112012UNESCO11.362017estimation
Sao Tome and Principe0.583074.92015UNDP (HDI)80.272015UNESCO12.962015UNESCO5.32015UNDP (HDI)
Saudi Arabia0.810094.72015UNDP (HDI)95.682014UNESCO16.112014UNESCO9.62015UNDP (HDI)
Senegal0.342755.72015UNDP (HDI)53.512015UNESCO8.982015 UNESCO2.82015UNDP (HDI)
Serbia0.789698.12015UNDP (HDI)85.212015UNESCO14.552015UNESCO10.82015UNDP (HDI)
Seychelles0.729995.22015UNDP (HDI)77.232015UNESCO14.092015UNESCO9.42015UNDP (HDI)
Sierra Leone0.308148.12015UNDP (HDI)45.432001UNESCO9.52015UNDP (HDI)3.32015UNDP (HDI)
Singapore0.855796.82015UNDP (HDI)102.802014UNESCO15.402015UNDP (HDI)11.62015UNDP (HDI)
Slovakia0.814199.62015UNDP (HDI)81.852014UNESCO15.02015UNDP (HDI)12.22015UNDP (HDI)
Slovenia0.892399.72015UNDP (HDI)98.462014UNESCO17.352014UNESCO12.12015UNDP (HDI)
Solomon Islands0.473276.61999UNESCO55.422007UNESCO9.62015UNDP (HDI)5.32015UNDP (HDI)
Somalia024.002014UN E-Gov
17.002014UNDP2.402013UNDP (HDI)0.972017estimation
South Africa0.729194.32015UNDP (HDI)77.432014UNESCO13.342014UNESCO10.32015UNDP (HDI)
South Sudan0.226931.92015UNDP (HDI)38.002014UNESCO8.002014UNESCO4.82015UNDP (HDI)
Spain0.888498.12015UNDP (HDI)109.292015UNESCO17.882015UNESCO9.82015UNDP (HDI)
Data Tables
Table 15. Human Capital Index (HCI) and its components (continued)
CountryHCI
Adult Literacy (%) Gross Enrollment RatioExpected Year of SchoolingMean Year of Schooling
ValueYearSource
ValueYearSource
ValueYearSource
ValueYearSource
Sri Lanka0.745192.62015UNDP (HDI)78.842013UNESCO13.992013UNESCO10.92015UNDP (HDI)
Sudan0.387375.92015UNDP (HDI)47.702013UNESCO7.212013UNESCO3.52015UNDP (HDI)
Suriname0.680895.62015UNDP (HDI)72.212002UNESCO12.72015UNDP (HDI)8.32015UNDP (HDI)
Sweden0.936699.002014UNESCO107.992015UNESCO18.602015UNESCO12.32015UNDP (HDI)
0.866099.002014UNESCO88.892014UNESCO16.172015UNESCO13.42015UNDP (HDI)
Syrian Arab Republic0.486086.42015UNDP (HDI)50.602013UNESCO9.032013UNESCO5.12015UNDP (HDI)
Tajikistan0.700299.82015UNDP (HDI)69.732012UNESCO11.32015UNDP (HDI)10.42015UNDP (HDI)
Thailand0.790396.72015UNDP (HDI)95.352015UNESCO16.032015
hdr.undp.
reports/14/
DATA TABLES
Data Tables
Table 15. Human Capital Index (HCI) and its components (continued)
CountryHCI
Adult Literacy (%) Gross Enrollment RatioExpected Year of SchoolingMean Year of Schooling
ValueYearSource
ValueYearSource
ValueYearSource
ValueYearSource
United States of America0.888399.002014UNESCO96.392014UNESCO16.542014UNESCO13.22015UNDP (HDI)
Uruguay0.771998.42015UNDP (HDI)87.912014UNESCO15.002014UNESCO8.62015UNDP (HDI)
Uzbekistan0.739699.62015UNDP (HDI)70.242016UNESCO12.292016UNESCO122015UNDP (HDI)
Vanuatu0.567585.22015UNDP (HDI)63.512004UNESCO10.82015UNDP (HDI)6.82015UNDP (HDI)
Venuzuela (Bolivian Republic of)0.761595.42015
87.782009UNESCO14.32015UNESCO9.42015
Sources:
http://hdr.undp.org/en/data
Data Tables
CountryRegionSub-RegionEGDI LevelLevel of Income
AfghanistanAsiaSouthern AsiaMiddle EGDILow Income1970
AlbaniaEuropeSouthern EuropeHigh EGDIUpper Middle Income11350
AlgeriaAfricaNorthern AfricaMiddle EGDIUpper Middle Income14390
AndorraEuropeSouthern EuropeHigh EGDIHigh Income43270***
AngolaAfricaMiddle AfricaMiddle EGDIUpper Middle Income6090
Antigua and BarbudaAmericasCaribbeanHigh EGDIHigh Income22090
ArgentinaAmericasSouth AmericaHigh EGDIHigh Income19500
ArmeniaAsiaWestern AsiaHigh EGDILower Middle Income9020
AustraliaOceaniaAustralia and New ZealandVery High EGDIHigh Income45210
AustriaEuropeWestern EuropeVery High EGDIHigh Income50530
AzerbaijanAsiaWestern AsiaHigh EGDIUpper Middle Income16130
BahamasAmericasCaribbeanHigh EGDIHigh Income21640
BahrainAsiaWestern AsiaVery High EGDIHigh Income44170*
BangladeshAsiaSouthern AsiaMiddle EGDILower Middle Income3790
BarbadosAmericasCaribbeanHigh EGDIHigh Income17180
BelarusEuropeEastern EuropeVery High EGDIUpper Middle Income17220
BelgiumEuropeWestern EuropeVery High EGDIHigh Income45900
BelizeAmericasCentral AmericaMiddle EGDIUpper Middle Income7930
BeninAfricaWestern AfricaMiddle EGDILow Income2170
BhutanAsiaSouthern AsiaMiddle EGDILower Middle Income8160
AmericasSouth AmericaHigh EGDILower Middle Income7100
Bosnia and HerzegovinaEuropeSouthern EuropeHigh EGDIUpper Middle Income12190
BotswanaAfricaSouthern AfricaMiddle EGDIUpper Middle Income16680
BrazilAmericasSouth AmericaHigh EGDIUpper Middle Income14810
Brunei DarussalamAsiaSouth-Eastern AsiaHigh EGDIHigh Income83010
BulgariaEuropeEastern EuropeHigh EGDIUpper Middle Income19190
Burkina FasoAfricaWestern AfricaMiddle EGDILow Income1730
BurundiAfricaEastern AfricaMiddle EGDILow Income770
CambodiaAsiaSouth-Eastern AsiaMiddle EGDILow Income3510
CameroonAfricaMiddle AfricaVery High EGDILower Middle Income3540
CanadaAmericasNorthern AmericaMiddle EGDIHigh Income44020
Cabo VerdeAfricaWestern AfricaMiddle EGDILower Middle Income6220
Central African RepublicAfricaMiddle AfricaLow EGDILow Income700
ChadAfricaMiddle AfricaLow EGDILow Income1950
ChileAmericasSouth AmericaHigh EGDIHigh Income22540
ChinaAsiaEastern AsiaHigh EGDIUpper Middle Income15470
ColombiaAmericasSouth AmericaHigh EGDIUpper Middle Income13900
ComorosAfricaEastern AfricaLow EGDILow Income1540
CongoAfricaMiddle AfricaMiddle EGDILower Middle Income5380
Costa RicaAmericasCentral AmericaHigh EGDIUpper Middle Income15750
Cte d'IvoireAfricaWestern AfricaMiddle EGDILower Middle Income3590
CroatiaEuropeSouthern EuropeHigh EGDIHigh Income22630
Table 16. Regional and Economic grouping for E-Government Development Index (EGDI)
DATA TABLES
Data Tables
Table 16. Regional and Economic grouping for E-Government Development Index (EGDI) (continued)
CountryRegionSub-RegionEGDI LevelLevel of Income
CubaAmericasCaribbeanMiddle EGDIUpper Middle Income5880^
CyprusAsiaWestern AsiaVery High EGDIHigh Income32200
EuropeEastern EuropeHigh EGDIHigh Income32350
Republic of Korea
AsiaEastern AsiaLow EGDILow Income506~
AfricaMiddle AfricaMiddle EGDILow Income780
DenmarkEuropeNorthern EuropeVery High EGDIHigh Income50290
DjiboutiAfricaEastern AfricaLow EGDILower Middle Income2200&&
DominicaAmericasCaribbeanHigh EGDIUpper Middle Income10620
Dominican RepublicAmericasCaribbeanHigh EGDIUpper Middle Income14480
EcuadorAmericasSouth AmericaHigh EGDIUpper Middle Income11030
EgyptAfricaNorthern AfricaMiddle EGDILower Middle Income10980
El SalvadorAmericasCentral AmericaHigh EGDILower Middle Income8220
Equatioral GuineaAfricaMiddle AfricaLow EGDIHigh Income18290
EritreaAfricaEastern AfricaLow EGDILow Income1500^
EstoniaEuropeNorthern EuropeVery High EGDIHigh Income29040
EswatiniAfricaSouthern AfricaMiddle EGDILower Middle Income8310
Data Tables
CountryRegionSub-RegionEGDI LevelLevel of Income
ItalyEuropeSouthern EuropeVery High EGDIHigh Income38460
JamaicaAmericasCaribbeanVery High EGDIUpper Middle Income8450
JapanAsiaEastern AsiaMiddle EGDIHigh Income43540
JordanAsiaWestern AsiaVery High EGDIUpper Middle Income8980
KazakhistanAsiaCentral AsiaHigh EGDIUpper Middle Income22930
KenyaAfricaEastern AfricaVery High EGDILower Middle Income3120
KiribatiOceaniaMicronesiaMiddle EGDILower Middle Income3050
KuwaitAsiaWestern AsiaMiddle EGDIHigh Income83150
KyrgizistanAsiaCentral AsiaHigh EGDILower Middle income3410
AsiaSouth-Eastern AsiaHigh EGDILower Middle Income6270
LatviaEuropeNorthern EuropeMiddle EGDIHigh Income25530
LebanonAsiaWestern AsiaHigh EGDIUpper Middle Income14070
LesothoAfricaSouthern AfricaHigh EGDILower Middle Income3340
LiberiaAfricaWestern AfricaMiddle EGDILow Income700
LibyaAfricaNorthern AfricaMiddle EGDIUpper Middle Income11210
LiechtensteinEuropeWestern EuropeMiddle EGDIHigh Income115530
LithuaniaEuropeNorthern EuropeVery High EGDIHigh Income28680
LuxembourgEuropeWestern EuropeVery High EGDIHigh Income69640
MadagascarAfricaEastern AfricaVery High EGDILow Income1440
MalawiAfricaEastern AfricaMiddle EGDILow Income1140
MalaysiaAsiaSouth-Eastern AsiaMiddle EGDIUpper Middle Income26900
MaldivesAsiaSouthern AsiaHigh EGDIUpper Middle Income16710
MaliAfricaWestern AfricaHigh EGDILow Income2050
MaltaEuropeSouthern EuropeLow EGDIHigh Income35710
Marshall IslandsOceaniaMicronesiaVery High EGDIUpper Middle Income5370
MauritaniaAfricaWestern AfricaMiddle EGDILower Middle Income3760
MauritiusAfricaEastern AfricaLow EGDIUpper Middle Income20990
MexicoAmericasCentral AmericaHigh EGDIUpper Middle Income17160
MicronesiaOceaniaMicronesiaHigh EGDILower Middle Income4090
MonacoEuropeWestern EuropeMiddle EGDIHigh Income186710^^^
MongoliaAsiaEastern AsiaVery High EGDIUpper Middle Income11420
MontenegroEuropeSouthern EuropeHigh EGDIUpper Middle Income17870
MoroccoAfricaNorthern AfricaHigh EGDILower Middle Income7710
MozambiqueAfricaEastern AfricaHigh EGDILow Income1190
MyanmarAsiaSouth-Eastern AsiaMiddle EGDILower Middle Income5530
NamibiaAfricaSouthern AfricaMiddle EGDIUpper Middle Income10380
NauruOceaniaMicronesiaMiddle EGDIUpper Middle Income17510
NepalAsiaSouthern AsiaMiddle EGDILow Income2520
Table 16. Regional and Economic grouping for E-Government Development Index (EGDI) (continued)
DATA TABLES
Data Tables
CountryRegionSub-RegionEGDI LevelLevel of Income
NigeriaAfricaWestern AfricaLow EGDILower Middle Income5740
NorwayEuropeNorthern EuropeMiddle EGDIHigh Income61920
OmanAsiaWestern AsiaVery High EGDIHigh Income0
PakistanAsiaSouthern AsiaHigh EGDILower Middle Income5560
PalauOceaniaMicronesiaMiddle EGDIUpper Middle Income14840
PanamaAmericasCentral AmericaHigh EGDIUpper Middle Income20980
Papua New GuineaOceaniaMelanesiaHigh EGDILower Middle Income4140
ParaguayAmericasSouth AmericaMiddle EGDIUpper Middle Income9050
PeruAmericasSouth AmericaHigh EGDIUpper Middle Income12480
PhilippinesAsiaSouth-Eastern AsiaHigh EGDILower Middle Income9390
PolandEuropeEastern EuropeHigh EGDIHigh Income26300
PortugalEuropeSouthern EuropeVery High EGDIHigh Income29940
QatarAsiaWestern AsiaVery High EGDIHigh Income124760*
Republic of KoreaAsiaEastern AsiaHigh EGDIHigh Income36570
Republic of MoldovaEuropeEastern EuropeVery High EGDILower Middle Income5670
RomaniaEuropeEastern EuropeHigh EGDIUpper Middle Income22370
Russian FederationEuropeEastern EuropeHigh EGDIHigh Income24120
RwandaAfricaEastern AfricaVery High EGDILow Income1860
Saint Kittis and NevisAmericasCaribbeanMiddle EGDIHigh Income25640
Saint LuciaAmericasCaribbeanHigh EGDIUpper Middle Income12030
Saint Vincent and the
Grenadines
AmericasCaribbeanMiddle EGDIUpper Middle Income11380
SamoaOceaniaPolynesiaHigh EGDILower Middle Income6230
San MarinoEuropeSouthern EuropeMiddle EGDIHigh Income52140^^^
Sao Tome and PrincipeAfricaMiddle AfricaHigh EGDILower Middle Income3250
Saudi ArabiaAsiaWestern AsiaMiddle EGDIHigh Income55750
SenegalAfricaWestern AfricaHigh EGDILower Middle Income2480
SerbiaEuropeSouthern EuropeMiddle EGDIUpper Middle Income13700
SeychellesAfricaEastern AfricaHigh EGDIHigh Income28380
Sierra LeoneAfricaWestern AfricaHigh EGDILow Income1320
SingaporeAsiaSouth-Eastern AsiaMiddle EGDIHigh Income85020
SlovakiaEuropeEastern EuropeVery High EGDIHigh Income29670
SloveniaEuropeSouthern EuropeHigh EGDIHigh Income31690
Solomon IslandsOceaniaMelanesiaVery High EGDILower Middle Income2140
SomaliaAfricaEastern AfricaMiddle EGDILow Income107~
South AfricaAfricaSouthern AfricaLow EGDIUpper Middle Income12830
South SudanAfricaEastern AfricaHigh EGDILow Income1700
SpainEuropeSouthern EuropeLow EGDIHigh Income36300
Sri LankaAsiaSouthern AsiaVery High EGDILower Middle Income12200
SudanAfricaNorthern AfricaHigh EGDILower Middle Income4290
SurinameAmericasSouth AmericaLow EGDIUpper Middle Income14460
SwedenEuropeNorthern EuropeVery High EGDIHigh Income49420
EuropeWestern EuropeVery High EGDIHigh Income63810
Table 16. Regional and Economic grouping for E-Government Development Index (EGDI) (continued)
Data Tables
CountryRegionSub-RegionEGDI LevelLevel of Income
Syrian Arab RepublicAsiaWestern AsiaMiddle EGDILower Middle Income1860&
TajikistanAsiaCentral AsiaMiddle EGDILower Middle Income3500
ThailandAsiaSouth-Eastern AsiaHigh EGDIUpper Middle Income16070
The former Yugoslav
EuropeSouthern EuropeHigh EGDIUpper Middle Income14310
Timor-LesteAsiaSouth-Eastern AsiaMiddle EGDILower Middle Income3380
TogoAfricaWestern AfricaMiddle EGDILow Income1370
TongaOceaniaPolynesiaHigh EGDIUpper Middle Income5780
Trinidad and TobagoAmericasCaribbeanHigh EGDIHigh Income31770
TunisiaAfricaNorthern AfricaHigh EGDIUpper Middle Income11150
TurkeyAsiaWestern AsiaHigh EGDIUpper Middle Income24980
TurkmenistanAsiaCentral AsiaMiddle EGDIUpper Middle Income16060
TuvaluOceaniaPolynesiaMiddle EGDIUpper Middle Income5920
UgandaAfricaEastern AfricaMiddle EGDILow Income1790
UkraineEuropeEastern EuropeHigh EGDILower Middle Income8190
United Arab EmiratesAsiaWestern AsiaVery High EGDIHigh Income72830
United Kingoom of Great
Britain and Northern
Ireland
EuropeNorthern EuropeVery High EGDIHigh Income41640
Tanzania
AfricaEastern AfricaMiddle EGDILow Income2740
United States of AmericaAmericasNorthern AmericaVery High EGDIHigh Income58700
UruguayAmericasSouth AmericaVery High EGDIHigh Income21090
UzbekistanAsiaCentral AsiaHigh EGDILower Middle Income6640
VanuatuOceaniaMelanesiaMiddle EGDILower Middle Income3040**
Venuzuela (Bolivian
AmericasSouth AmericaHigh EGDIHigh Income17410**
Table 16. Regional and Economic grouping for E-Government Development Index (EGDI) (continued)
References
1 ITU (2014) Manual for Measuring ICT Access and Use by Households and Individuals. Available at: http://www.itu.int/dms_pub/
Data Tables
he United Nations E-Government Survey
presents a systematic assessment of the
use of information and communication
technologies (ICTs) to transform the public
sector by enhancing its efciency, effectiveness,
accountability, inclusiveness, trustworthiness
and supporting peoples participation and
engagement. The Survey examines emerging
e-government issues and trends, and innovative
practices that are relevant to the international
community.
By studying broad patterns of e-government around
the world, the Survey assesses the e-government
development status of the 193 United Nations
Member States. It serves as a tool for decision-
makers to identify their areas of strength and
challenges in e-government to inform policies and
strategies. It supports countries efforts to provide
responsive and equitable digital services to all and
bridge the digital divide in fullling the principle of
leaving no one behind.
The Department of Economic and Social Affairs,
through its Division for Public Institutions and
Digital Government, has published this global
report on e-government since 2003 and is regularly
called upon to advise national administrations in
all regions of the world on digital government in
advancing the Sustainable Development Goals.
This particular edition of the Survey examines
how governments can use e-government and
information technologies to build sustainable and
resilient societies.
GEA
-GO
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SUP
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