grammar-by-diagram-understanding-english-grammar


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grammar
second edition
grammar
understanding english grammar through
traditional sentence diagraming
second edition
Cindy L.Vitto
broadview press
All rights reserved. The use of any part of this
publication reproduced, transmitted in any
form or by any means,
electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, or
1The Eight Parts of Speech
2Basic Sentence Patterns for
3Basic Sentence Patterns for Intransitive and Transitive
4Usage Problems Associated with Adjectives and
5Combining and Expanding Patterns: Compound
6Combining and Expanding Patterns: Complex
7Combining and Expanding Patterns: Complex
145
8Usage Problems of Case, Agreement, and
9Verbs
10Verbals
11Usage Problems Associated with Verbs and Verbals
12Punctuation and Capitalization
13Sentence Transformations
Appendix 1Additional Exercises (no answers provided)
Appendix 2Verb Conjugations (
Appendix 3Irregular and Troublesome Verb Forms
Appendix 4Summary of Clauses and Verbals
Appendix 5Diagraming Summary
Appendix 6Commonly Confused Words
Grammar by Diagram
became available, that I would be
hearing from people in various parts of the world who had questions, comments, and sugges-
tions about the text. I owe a special thanks to many of those readers, especially Becky Cargile
all perspective plus definitions for several key terms. The overarching principle is that grammar,
guage derived from what scholars call Indo-European, an ancient language whose existence we
postulate from similarities among certain words found in several modern languages. The Celts
ning in 43
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
INTRODUCTION
cholinguistics), the historical evolution of a language, the process by which native speakers of
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
change that has created some controversy, at least as it has filtered into the popular press and
INTRODUCTION
of visualizing the way that all the words in a sentence relate to one another. Although various
systems of sentence diagraming have been developed, this text uses the Reed-Kellogg format,
Higher Lessons in English
, first pub-
lished in 1877. The Reed-Kellogg system is the one public schools are most likely to adopt.
As you begin working your way through this book, however, you may question what ben-
efits traditional sentence diagraming can offer you. WouldnÕt it be simpler to drop it alto-
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
thought of before. You may even find yourself diagraming sentences in your sleep. This phase
Allow me to issue one caution about using this book: refer to the answer key in the back of
the book with care. If you check your answers at each step, sentence by sentence, you may be
INTRODUCTION
3.Use the text as a whole, progressing in whatever order best suits your needs.
4.Because this is unabashedly a traditional approach to grammar, using traditional
MLA Handbook
, and substantial changes
in the appendices. The first appendix provides additional exercises for Chapters 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, and
see
and
be
, should help flesh out the range of possible verb forms. I have dropped appendices from the
first edition that seemed redundant in order to add more helpful material, but I have also
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
17
|
The Eight Parts of Speech
water
in the birdbath was filthy. (water = noun)
The children
water
the sunflowers every day. (water = verb)
The
water
sign is Aquarius. (water = adjective)
In addition, linguists certainly do not agree that using the traditional eight parts of speechÑ
based on Latin instruction from earlier centuriesÑis suitable for describing the English language.
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
regular
irregular
countable
uncountable
ONE
THE EIGHT PARTS OF SPEECH
PRONOUN
Definition of a Pronoun
Categories of Pronouns
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
\f\n\t\t\n
Iwe
youyou
he, she, itthey
\f\n\t\t\n
meus
youyou
him, her, itthem
\f\n\t\t\n
myselfourselves
yourselfyourselves
himself, herself, itselfthemselves
Possessive pronouns
\f\n\t\t\n
mineours
yoursyours
his, hers, itstheirs
myour
youryour
his, her, itstheir
ONE
THE EIGHT PARTS OF SPEECH
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
ONE
THE EIGHT PARTS OF SPEECH
Identifying a Pronoun
Subjective Pronoun:
Objective Pronoun:
Reflexive or Intensive Pronoun:
Possessive Pronoun:
JennaÕs
Indefinite Pronoun:
George
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
1.____________________________2. ______________________________
3.____________________________4. ______________________________
5.____________________________6. ______________________________
7.____________________________8.______________________________
9.____________________________10.______________________________
11.____________________________12. ______________________________
13.____________________________14. ______________________________
15.____________________________16. ______________________________
17.____________________________18.______________________________
19.____________________________
VERB
ONE
THE EIGHT PARTS OF SPEECH
Definition of a Verb
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
action verbsstate of being (existence) verbs
dada
Transitive VerbsIntransitive Verbs
VerbsLinking Verbs
I have / had beenwe have / had been
you have / had beenyou have / had been
he, she, it has / had beenthey have / had been
I am / was beingwe are / were being
\t\f‡\n
you are / were beingyou are / were being
he, she, it is / was being they are / were being
Linking verbs can be replaced by a form of
without substantially changing the mean-
ing of the sentence.
ONE
THE EIGHT PARTS OF SPEECH
Carla is a lifeguard.(The noun ÒlifeguardÓ renames Carla.)
Carla is here.(The adverb ÒhereÓ specifies where Carla is.)
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
1.Are there auxiliary or helping verbsÑa modal, a form of
2.Does the main verb show a state of being or existence? If so, is the main verb a
3.If the main verb is not a
ONE
THE EIGHT PARTS OF SPEECH
Identifying a Verb
EXERCISE 1.3
\n]State of being verbÑ
\b]State of being verbÑlinking verb
]Action verbÑintransitive (no object)
\r]Action verbÑtransitive (object follows verb)
_____1.I
_____2.I
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
EXERCISE 1.4
ONE
THE EIGHT PARTS OF SPEECH
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
EXERCISE 1.5
ONE
THE EIGHT PARTS OF SPEECH
Òwhy?Ó
Òfor what purpose?Ó
Identifying an Adverb
test of movability
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
PREPOSITION
Definition of a Preposition
object of the preposition.
ONE
THE EIGHT PARTS OF SPEECH
where
the picture was hung,
not
which
picture. Notice that the prepositional phrase could also appear at the beginning of the
sentence without changing meaning; remember that adverbs are usually movable but adjectives
are not.
The boys drew the graffiti
on the wall
.
In this sentence, the prepositional phrase could be either an adjective, specifying which graf-
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
behind
Placement of Prepositions
2.Animal rights is an issue I care deeply about.
ONE
THE EIGHT PARTS OF SPEECH
3.Which flavor of ice cream are you going to ask for?
4.Rochester is the man Jane Eyre fell in love with.
CONJUNCTION
Definition of a Conjunction
Categories of Conjunctions
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
of common prepositions. When followed by a noun as object, the word is a preposition; when
followed by a subject and verb, the word is a subordinating conjunction. Occasionally the
Before the game
ONE
THE EIGHT PARTS OF SPEECH
EXERCISE 1.9
1.____________________________3._______________________________
2.____________________________4._______________________________
INTERJECTION
Definition of an Interjection
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
SUMMARY OF KEY CONCEPTS IN CHAPTER 1
:can be made plural or possessive
Pronoun
:personal (nominative or subjective,
Verb
ONE
THE EIGHT PARTS OF SPEECH
CHAPTER 1 EXERCISE
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
2.We asked the travel agent if she could
3.The
4.We looked
5.Please do not
6.We saw the flashing lights of an ambulance
7.The town has been steadily growing
8.The town has been steadily growing
ONE
THE EIGHT PARTS OF SPEECH
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
you live in a short paragraph of five to seven sentences without including any prepositions?
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
SENTENCE
Theactorenjoyedhisrole
determinernoun
verb phrase
noun phrase
articlenounverbnoun phrase
possessive pronoun
verb Ð predicate noun (subjective complement)
subject Ð linking verb Ð predicate adjective (subjective complement)
subject Ð linking verb Ð predicate noun (subjective complement)
subject Ð intransitive verb
subject Ð transitive verb Ð direct object
subject Ð transitive verb Ð indirect object Ð direct object
subject Ð transitive verb Ð direct object Ð adjective (objective complement)
subject Ð transitive verb Ð direct object Ð noun (objective complement)
TWO
BASIC SENTENCE PATTERNS FOR
AND LINKING VERBS
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
PATTERNS 1,2,AND 3
THE BEŽ PATTERNS
:s -
The most important feature of the first three patterns is that they all contain the
verb
Remember that any sentence with
as its main verb must have some element to
TWO
BASIC SENTENCE PATTERNS FOR
AND LINKING VERBS
EXERCISE 2.2
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
subjectverb
subject
king
adverb
here
The
Pattern 2
subject …
verb … subjective complement: predicate adjective
TWO
BASIC SENTENCE PATTERNS FOR
AND LINKING VERBS
subject
predicate adjective
The
kingis
generous
subject
predicate noun
The
kingis
friend
2. My cat is a lover of tuna.
3. The music is extremely loud.
4. The graduation party is today.
5. That child is being unreasonable.
6. Her favorite picture from the vacation in Florida is a snapshot of a playful dolphin.
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
tuna
catis lover
The
extremely
musicis loud
The
today
graduation
partyis
That
childis being unreasonable
favorite
the
from
pictureis
vacation
playful
dolphin
Florida
snapshot
desk
The
the
stapleris
TWO
BASIC SENTENCE PATTERNS FOR
AND LINKING VERBS
The
kingis
happy
The
good
kingis
The
the
throne
kingis
the
from
photosare
vacation
her
wallet
Florida
EXERCISE 2.3
1.The bread on the table is stale.
2.The officers at the academy should be strict.
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
The
kingis
breath
out of
The
the
throne
kingis Henry
viii
3.The officers at the academy should be strict disciplinarians.
4.Our professor must have been a genius in her youth.
5.The car is in the garage.
6.The car is in good condition.
TWO
BASIC SENTENCE PATTERNS FOR
AND LINKING VERBS
PATTERNS 4 AND 5
THE LINKING VERBŽ PATTERNS
A linking verb is a verb that can be replaced by a
verb.
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
subject
or linking verb
subjective complement
(either a pr
edicate adjective or predicate noun)
The
kingseems
unhappy
out of sorts
. (The prepositional phrase must be diagramed on a
TWO
BASIC SENTENCE PATTERNS FOR
AND LINKING VERBS
The
kingseems
sorts
out of
The
kingbecame
tyrant
SUMMARY OF KEY CONCEPTS IN CHAPTER 2
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
CHAPTER 2 EXERCISE
\n]Circle all prepositional phrases.
\b]Underline the simple subject once and the verb twice.
]Identify the verb as a
TWO
BASIC SENTENCE PATTERNS FOR
AND LINKING VERBS
4.The farewell present should have been JohnÕs idea.
5.The new perfume smelled delightful.
6.Flies are a nuisance during a picnic.
7.Candy can be harmful in large quantities.
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
8.Our business venture gradually became an embarrassment.
9.The pink slipper was under the bed.
10.After ten minutes, TheresaÕs face grew red with impatience.
TWO
BASIC SENTENCE PATTERNS FOR
AND LINKING VERBS
c.What does the back slash mark in Patterns 2 through 5 indicate in the sentence
e.How can you test for a linking verb?
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
containing either a
be
or a linking verb. In this chapter we will examine the remaining five basic
sentence patterns: those built around action verbs, both intransitive and transitive. Remember
not
followed by an object (noun or pronoun) that ÒreceivesÓ the action
of the subject. A transitive verb, on the other hand,
is
followed by an object. Observe the dif-
ference in the sentences below:
The baby
kicked
. (intransitive verb)
The baby
kicked
sitv
king
The
coughed
PATTERNS 7,8,9,AND 10
THE TRANSITIVE VERB PATTERNS
Pattern 7
subject … transitive verb … direct object (s … tv … do)
direct object
answers the question ÒwhomÓor ÒwhatÓafter the verb.
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
king
the
the
the
discreetly
first
coughed
mention
scandal
signal
councilors
stvdo
king
The
the
his
proclaimednews
divorce
Henry
viii
becameenemy
In the first sentence, ÒbecameÓ is a linking verb (it can be replaced by ÒwasÓ), leading to the
predicate nominative Òenemy.Ó Since ÒHenry
the same person, we can visualize their relationship as a circular one. On the other hand, in the
second sentence ÒbanishedÓ is an action verb because it cannot be replaced by Òwas.Ó When
Òcircle testÓ as in the previous sentence, we find that it will not work here. ÒHenry
THREE
BASIC SENTENCE PATTERNS FOR INTRANSITIVE AND TRANSITIVE VERBS
Henry
viii
banishedCatholicism
Henry
viii
Catholicism
stvdo
king
The
gavelove
Anne Boleyn
Anne Boleyn
his love. (
The king gave his love
to Anne Boleyn
. (
Many grammar texts would identify both sentences above as Pattern 8. This is a logical, accu-
rate way of indicating that the sentences are identical in every way except for structure; the only
the other (
fore functions also as the object of the preposition. Not every prepositional phrase that begins
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
king
The
to
gavelove
Anne Boleyn
king
The
gavelove
Anne Boleyn
THREE
BASIC SENTENCE PATTERNS FOR INTRANSITIVE AND TRANSITIVE VERBS
7.No one in that family can sit still for five minutes.
8.The reporter asked the politician many intrusive questions about her personal habits.
EXERCISE 3.2
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
2.Our walk on the beach was short.
3.Our walk on the beach was an interesting experience.
4.Our walk on the beach seemed interminable.
5.Our walk on the beach became a comedy of errors.
THREE
BASIC SENTENCE PATTERNS FOR INTRANSITIVE AND TRANSITIVE VERBS
7.Our walk on the beach saved us from boredom.
8.Our walk on the beach gave us a new sense of freedom.
1.Since the first three sentences contain the same simple subject and the same
2.What does the slanted line in the diagrams for Patterns 2, 3, 4, and 5 indicate?
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
6.What is the test for a linking verb?
7.What are the two possible categories of action verbs?
THREE
BASIC SENTENCE PATTERNS FOR INTRANSITIVE AND TRANSITIVE VERBS
10.What question is answered by a direct object? What question is answered by an
12.Where is the indirect object always diagramed?
13.In English sentences that contain both a direct and an indirect object, which
14.From Patterns 1-8, which two sentence patterns could possibly include a preposi-
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
EXERCISE 3.3
THREE
BASIC SENTENCE PATTERNS FOR INTRANSITIVE AND TRANSITIVE VERBS
5.A ferocious dog was in the yard.
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
10.Despite her misery, Santina maintained the appearance of a contented life.
Patterns 9 and 10
objective complementÑan adjective or a noun that modifies or renames,respec-
tively,the direct object.
THREE
BASIC SENTENCE PATTERNS FOR INTRANSITIVE AND TRANSITIVE VERBS
stvdoadjking
The
consideredAnnebeautiful
kingAnnebeautiful
Pattern 10: subject … transitive verb … direct object … objective complement:
noun (s … tv … do … n)
Pattern 10,s - tv - do - n,is identical to Pattern 9 except that the objective complement
is a noun that renames the direct object rather than an adjective as in Pattern 9
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
stvdon
king
The
consideredAnne
SPECIAL STRUCTURES
THREE
BASIC SENTENCE PATTERNS FOR INTRANSITIVE AND TRANSITIVE VERBS
the
foundking
merry
king
The
offered
Anne Boleyn
crown
king
The
madeAnne Boelynqueen
the
Shefoundking
humor
good
as an objective complement (Pattern 9) when the information in the prepositional phrase is nec-
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
citizenselected
Shannonmayor
The
our
citizensaccepted
Shannonmayor
The
our
EXERCISE 3.4
THREE
BASIC SENTENCE PATTERNS FOR INTRANSITIVE AND TRANSITIVE VERBS
citizensthought
Shannoncandidate
The
our
mayor
excellent
for
4.My family has always welcomed strangers.
5.Reporters consider accuracy essential.
6.Before her trip to the zoo, Paige had never seen a giraffe.
7.We found the bakery out of food.
8.The companyÕs statistician blasted the report as faulty.
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
THREE
BASIC SENTENCE PATTERNS FOR INTRANSITIVE AND TRANSITIVE VERBS
passed out
our papers. (phrasal verb; Òpassed outÓ = ÒdistributedÓ; sen-
tence can be rephrased to ÒThe teacher passed our papers out.Ó)
The teacher
passed out
. (phrasal verb; Òpassed outÓ = ÒfaintedÓ)
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
Helooked
alley
the
Helooked upword
the
3.The antique car drove up the alley.
THREE
BASIC SENTENCE PATTERNS FOR INTRANSITIVE AND TRANSITIVE VERBS
kingsawhimself
The
objectÑbut the direct object refers back to the subject, as a subjective complement would do.
be
verb (and since, if you con-
sidered it a linking verb and tried to replace it with
be
, the meaning of the sentence would change),
ÒhimselfÓ is a direct object. Reflexive pronouns that serve as objects might confuse you because
be
verb or a linking verb. Thus the sentence would be diagramed as a Pattern
7, despite the fact that ÒkingÓ and ÒhimselfÓ refer to the same individual.
For reflexive pronouns, then, we make an exception to the general rule that an object cannot
refer back to the subject. The following two sentences illustrate that it is the category of the
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
Shelikesherself
now
Sheseemsherself
now
3.Michael is not himself in the morning.
THREE
BASIC SENTENCE PATTERNS FOR INTRANSITIVE AND TRANSITIVE VERBS
Iam going
zoo
the
Friday
Corinneworked
hours
three
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
out
Wewalked
home
Wewalked
door
the
out
Wewalked
the
same
morning
The
turtleswam
miles
five
Today
wemailedpackage
the
class
first
EXERCISE 3.7
THREE
BASIC SENTENCE PATTERNS FOR INTRANSITIVE AND TRANSITIVE VERBS
attached to another modifier, both diagramed below the base line on diagonal lines. This situ-
ation occurs when the second modifier is preceded by a possessive or by a qualifier, an adverb
somewhat
slowÓ or Ò
rather
quicklyÓ) or
intensifies it (as in Ò
extremely
thinÓ or Ò
very
smoothlyÓ). We use a ÒhookÓ in the diagram to show
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
uncles
bookmadehimcelebrity
The
teamplayed
The
the
surgeonperformedoperation
delicate
extremely
EXERCISE 3.8
1.Last night Sheena walked home quite rapidly in the rain.
2.A profusion of intensely bright flowers surrounds the cottage each spring.
3.A bad movie can seem excruciatingly slow.
4.His keenly insightful comments will influence our decisions next year.
THREE
BASIC SENTENCE PATTERNS FOR INTRANSITIVE AND TRANSITIVE VERBS
SUMMARY OF KEY CONCEPTS IN CHAPTER 3
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
phrase structure.
5. We have learned several specialized structures:
THREE
BASIC SENTENCE PATTERNS FOR INTRANSITIVE AND TRANSITIVE VERBS
CHAPTER 3 EXERCISE
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
THREE
BASIC SENTENCE PATTERNS FOR INTRANSITIVE AND TRANSITIVE VERBS
3.Biographers find his relationship with Anne Hathaway especially intriguing.
4.Shakespeare married Anne Hathaway in 1582.
5.Their first child arrived within six months.
6.Later Anne bore twins.
7.Anne never abandoned her domestic duties in Stratford.
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
8.Shakespeare spent most of his adult life in the theater world of London.
9.His contemporaries appreciated him as a brilliant playwright.
10.He probably considered himself a shrewd businessman.
11.ShakespeareÕs will left Anne nothing except their second-best bed.
THREE
BASIC SENTENCE PATTERNS FOR INTRANSITIVE AND TRANSITIVE VERBS
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
plements, indirect objects, reflexive pronouns, phrasal verbs, adverbial objectives, and qualifiers.
THREE
BASIC SENTENCE PATTERNS FOR INTRANSITIVE AND TRANSITIVE VERBS
5.Her dogÕs dish is under the table.
6.We finally broke down the complex code this afternoon.
7.You should never give up.
8.With the arrival of our sales materials, we were finally in business.
9.New clues turned up every hour.
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
10.The majestically tall willow attracted many photographers.
THREE
BASIC SENTENCE PATTERNS FOR INTRANSITIVE AND TRANSITIVE VERBS
WHAT IS USAGE?
descriptive grammar
DISTINGUISHING ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
ÒgoodÓand Òwell,ÓÒbadÓand Òbadly.Ó
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
good
in the tent.
(ÒSleptÓ is an action verb, not a
be
or linking verb, and
so the adjective ÒgoodÓ is incorrect.)
well
in the tent.
(The adverb ÒwellÓ modifies the intransitive verb ÒsleptÓ
in this Pattern 6 sentence.)
good
.
(ÒPlayÓ is an action verb, and so the adjective ÒgoodÓ is
(ÒGoodÓ serves as a predicate adjective in this Pattern 2
The same confusion reigns with ÒbadÓ and Òbadly.Ó Although the adjective form is Òbad,Ó many
feel
.
badly
FOUR
USAGE PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
4.The news from the site of battle sounded (
5.JoAnne has always fared (
FOUR
USAGE PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
narrownarrowernarrowest
tendertenderertenderest
gorgeousmore gorgeousmost gorgeous
quicklymore quicklymost quickly
coldlymore coldlymost coldly
happilymore happilymost happily
FOUR
USAGE PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
be careful not to be redundant by using both ÒmoreÓand Ò-erÓor ÒmostÓ
and Ò-est.Ó
EXERCISE 4.2
1.All of the students felt badly after learning of the professorÕs illness.
2.Which of these two books did you enjoy most?
3.Patricia is the most youngest student in kindergarten.
4.Brenda always studied hard so that she could do good on the tests in her grammar class.
5.After my bout with the flu, I finally feel good again.
6.Who is more irresponsibleÑNed, Tad, or Jason?
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
MISPLACING ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
cially important to place the word ÒonlyÓ(and such cousins as ÒjustÓand ÒevenÓ) in
the exact spot where needed,before the word being modified.
FOUR
USAGE PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
Misplaced ÒEvenÓ:I was even included.
Corrected Version:Even I was included.
Phrase:DonÕt give the medicine to the baby
Corrected Version:DonÕt give the medicine
Adjective:The diploma
as Adverb:The diploma was
EXERCISE 4.3
1.The union negotiators are only asking for a small increase in salary.
2.Feed the fish to the cat with small bones in it.
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
3.The noise was tremendous from the planes overhead.
4.The child almost was in tears by the end of the first day of camp.
5.Good parents only want what is best for their children.
6.Just tell us the facts of this situation, not your opinion.
7.The picture caught everyoneÕs attention above the fireplace.
8.The magician even has one more trick up his sleeve.
9.All items are not on sale.
10.We only have seven days left before graduation.
FOUR
USAGE PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
MODIFYING ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
SUMMARY OF KEY CONCEPTS IN CHAPTER 4
good(We found a
well(She looks
bad(Everyone feels
sure(No one can be
well(James swims
badly(Nola handled the situation
really(The
FOUR
USAGE PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
CHAPTER 4 EXERCISE
1.Which one of the twins is the smartest?
2.Sarah only broke one of the rules, but it just was too much to forgive.
4.The circumstances were worser than we had imagined.
6.The news about the flooding in Texas left us real worried about our friends there.
7.The piano sounded good even after it had been moved upstairs.
9.The technician explained that a computer mouse can perform badly if its inner
10.Kittens sure can be curious.
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
11.Once she felt well, the elderly widow resumed living in the mansion with her
12.The artistÕs talent was quite unique, as recognized almost by all the spectators.
1.Write a sentence that contains ÒgoodÓ used as a predicate adjective.
2.Write a sentence that contains Òbadly.Ó
3.Write a sentence that contains both ÒsurelyÓ and Òunique.Ó
4.Write a sentence that contains both ÒrealÓ and Òonly.Ó
5.Write a sentence that correctly uses either the comparative or the superlative
FOUR
USAGE PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
boring. The next few chapters will explain how we combine, expand, and transform the basic
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
Mr. Brown
son
ownbookstore
Mr. Brown
son
manage
bookstore
his
Mr. Brown
son
manage
bookstore
coffee shop
his
Mr. Brown
son
manage
bookstores
coffee shops
Philadelphia
outside
New York City
COMPOUND SENTENCES
A compound sentence is two (or more) independent clauses joined by a coor-
dinating conjunction,by a semicolon,or by a semicolon and a conjunctive adverb.
FIVE
COMPOUND STRUCTURES
his
large
Mr. Brown
son
manage
Philadelphia
popular
New York City
bookstore
coffee shop
for
she is not the typical medieval
woman. (Here ÒforÓ is a coordinating conjunction.)
The pilgrims traveled
for
several days. (Here ÒforÓ is a preposition.)
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
EXERCISE 5.1
1.Chaucer was not a nobleman nor was he a commoner.
2.Solitary travel was not safe in the fourteenth century so the pilgrims traveled
FIVE
COMPOUND STRUCTURES
Almost always,the conjunctive adverb is followed by a comma.
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
FIVE
COMPOUND STRUCTURES
The
Miller
tipsy
bawdy
hetellstale
The
Milleris
tipsy
bawdy
hetellstale
The
Miller
tipsy
bawdy
hetellstale
The
Miller
tipsy
bawdy
therefore
therefore
hetellstale
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
FIVE
COMPOUND STRUCTURES
SUMMARY OF KEY CONCEPTS IN CHAPTER 5
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
CHAPTER 5 EXERCISE
1.The young journalist turned on her computer and immediately experienced
2.She had faith in the power of the unconscious, so she took a nap.
3.She dreamed images of dragons, mice, and castles.
4.After her nap, she wrote a short childrenÕs story; she illustrated the story with
FIVE
COMPOUND STRUCTURES
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
5.The news editor did not appreciate her efforts, but in her childrenÕs stories the
1.Natasha was frightened of flying for she had once seen a plane crash.
2.Her entire family was planning a trip overseas Natasha however was reluctant
3.Her mother arranged for her to see a special counselor so Natasha began working
4.After a few months of therapy, Natasha thought that she had overcome her fear
5.She even sat on an empty plane and imagined herself feeling relaxed in the sky.
dinating conjunctions or conjunctive adverbs as necessary, with correct punctuation.
2.Daisy had saved her allowance for months. She bought the bicycle she wanted.
3.The restaurant has an excellent reputation. Our meals were not quite as good as
4.Nicole was certain that she had seen a ghost. Her roommate agreed with her.
5.Most people believe that wealth will bring them happiness. The story of Midas
FIVE
COMPOUND STRUCTURES
1.Combine two Pattern 7 sentences into one compound sentence joined by a semi-
2.Combine a Pattern 2 sentence and a Pattern 6 sentence into one compound sen-
3.Combine two Pattern 1 sentences into one compound sentence joined by a coor-
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
independent clause plus one or more dependent clauses.There are three types of depend-
adverb clause
relative clause (or adjective clause)
combining and expanding patterns
Complex Sentences with Noun Clauses
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
appositive phraseMax,
appositive (noun) clauseThe answer to her question,
only when the noun clause is used as an appositive does it need punctua-
EXERCISE 6.1
1.What is unusual about the Navajo culture is its respect for all living things.
2.Navajos see how all inhabitants of the natural world are related.
3.They offer whoever can grasp this concept a sense of unity and connection.
4.Their explanation of this unity is that the same Supreme Being created all
COMPLEX SENTENCES WITH NOUN CLAUSES
from
cat(Max)suffers
arthritis
from
Max(cat)suffers
arthritis
5.One of their beliefs, that the Navajo were once victims of a great flood, appears
6.They also believe that the number four is sacred.
7.With four seasons, four directions, four winds, four sacred mountains, and four
8.They find progress through four worlds as what is necessary for spiritual growth.
9.I often wonder when other cultures will discover the wisdom of the Navajo.
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
has disappeared.
COMPLEX SENTENCES WITH NOUN CLAUSES
the
Whoeverrang
has disappeared
doorbell
The
questionwas
should
from
for
help
Iasked
whoevercould afforddonation
Noun Clause as Direct Object
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
Wewondered
train
had
arrived
the
the
Youshould give
whoeverbuyspainting
certificate
value
Sherryconsideredbribe
the
whatwasnecessary
Noun Clause as Appositive
COMPLEX SENTENCES WITH NOUN CLAUSES
graduate
Your
important
when
school
you
decisionis
one
should apply
professorindicated
she
was
[that]
pleased
progress
with
the
classs
The
EXERCISE 6.2
\n]Underline the noun clause.
\b]Label the noun function of each noun clause and double-check your accuracy by
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
professorasked
students
preferred
text
which
the
The
3.Jay wondered whose advice he should accept.
4.Last week the students in the advanced class debated which novel they should read.
COMPLEX SENTENCES WITH NOUN CLAUSES
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
SUMMARY OF KEY CONCEPTS IN CHAPTER 6
COMPLEX SENTENCES WITH NOUN CLAUSES
CHAPTER 6 EXERCISE
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
5.The children discovered where their parents had been hiding the presents.
COMPLEX SENTENCES WITH NOUN CLAUSES
b.noun clause functioning as a subject and beginning with ÒwhyÓ
c.noun clause functioning as a subjective complement
d.noun clause functioning as the object of a preposition
e.noun clause beginning with ÒwhoseÓ
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
Punctuating an Adverb Clause
SEVEN
COMPLEX SENTENCES WITH ADVERB & RELATIVE CLAUSES,& THE COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCE
be
- pa)
Because she was sleepy
, she drank coffee.
(Despite the reversal in order, the independent clause and dependent clause
remain exactly the same.)
Because the independent clause is always diagramed first, no matter where it appears in the sen-
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
Shedrankcoffee
shewas
because
sleepy
shedrankcoffee
shewas
Because
sleepy
1.After the party ended we could not find the keys to our hotel room.
2.BonnieÕs father bought her a new car for graduation even though she could not drive.
3.The children held their complaints about the school until the new principal arrived.
4.Dogs are sociable creatures whereas cats are usually solitary.
SEVEN
COMPLEX SENTENCES WITH ADVERB & RELATIVE CLAUSES,& THE COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCE
5.Wanda will ask me twenty questions unless I can avoid her.
6.Wherever Lucy goes Charlie Brown follows her.
7.Everyone will suffer if civility vanishes from our social interactions.
8.If civility vanishes from our social interactions everyone will suffer.
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
EXERCISE 7.2
\n]Underline the adverb clauses and circle the noun clauses.
\b]Punctuate each sentence as necessary.
SEVEN
COMPLEX SENTENCES WITH ADVERB & RELATIVE CLAUSES,& THE COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCE
4.BobÕs dilemma where he should invest his inheritance is an enviable one.
5.Bob asked where he should invest his inheritance.
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
8.People learn lessons about life from whomever they admire during their child-
10.Once we reconcile ourselves to DeanÕs resignation we will give assistance to
RELATIVE OR ADJECTIVE CLAUSE
SEVEN
COMPLEX SENTENCES WITH ADVERB & RELATIVE CLAUSES,& THE COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCE
A relative clause is an adjective clause that relates to,or modifies,the noun that it fol-
lows.
A relative clause can be introduced by a relative pronoun (who,whom,whose,which,
that) or a relative adverb (when,where,why).
a.Use a form of ÒwhoÓ when referring to people.
b.Use ÒwhichÓ when referring to things.
c.Use ÒthatÓ when referring to things or people, although careful writers tend to
d.As the possessive form, ÒwhoseÓ can refer to people or things, although many
e.As a relative adverb, ÒwhenÓ will always follow a unit of time. Remember,
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
tive pronouns and relative adverbs, you may find yourself faced with a relative clause that
The guide
SEVEN
COMPLEX SENTENCES WITH ADVERB & RELATIVE CLAUSES,& THE COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCE
Punctuating Relative Clauses
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
clauses (with commas) describing a thing and use ÒthatÓ as the relative pronoun for restrictive
relative clauses (without commas) describing a thing. (To help you remember the distinction,
SEVEN
COMPLEX SENTENCES WITH ADVERB & RELATIVE CLAUSES,& THE COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCE
EXERCISE 7.4
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
4.Many elderly people nostalgically recall their youth as a time when life was sim-
5.The children who were playing at the end of the block could not hear the shouts
6.Stamp collecting which can consume much time and money is an educational
7.The fugitive concealed the reason why he had no identification.
SEVEN
COMPLEX SENTENCES WITH ADVERB & RELATIVE CLAUSES,& THE COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCE
Diagraming the Relative Clause
place the relative clause on a second tier below the independent clause
for the relative pronoun: ÒThe person bought the chair.Ó This confirms your accuracy.
The chair
that he bought
was an antique.
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
The
the
personpaid
check
whoboughtchair
The
chairwasantique
heboughtthat
ing to make sure you are right is to substitute the relative pronoun with the noun it modifies.
The day
when he bought the chair
was his birthday.
The relative clause, Òwhen he bought the chair,Ó begins with a relative adverb. We cannot per-
form the same test here, since we cannot replace an adverb with a noun. It should be clear, though,
The computer Mike bought yesterday has already crashed.
In this sentence the relative clause begins with an understood relative pronoun: The computer
that
] Mike bought yesterday has already crashed.
SEVEN
COMPLEX SENTENCES WITH ADVERB & RELATIVE CLAUSES,& THE COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCE
The
the
when
daywasbirthday
heboughtchair
The
already
yesterday
computerhas crashed
Mikebought[that]
EXERCISE 7.5
a.Underline the relative clauses in the sentences below.
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
SEVEN
COMPLEX SENTENCES WITH ADVERB & RELATIVE CLAUSES,& THE COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCE
my first English teacher
, is my mentor. (appositive)
Notice that in the first sentence the italicized portion begins with the relative pronoun Òwho,Ó
whereas in the second sentence we have a noun, Òteacher,Ó preceded by modifiers. The final
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
4.Brad is dating Merissa,
5.Toby,
SEVEN
COMPLEX SENTENCES WITH ADVERB & RELATIVE CLAUSES,& THE COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCE
independent clauses:
we huddled in our makeshift shelter
our fire went out
dependent (adverb) clause:
as the wind howled
Because the independent clauses are joined by a semicolon and a conjunctive adverb, we have
a compound structure; the adverb clause adds the element of complex structure. Overall, then,
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
her
Annaworks
Philadelphia
Denver
husbandworks
whoisneighbor
but
the
our
our
makeshift
wehuddled
shelter
then
firewent out
windhowled
COMPLETE SENTENCES
SEVEN
COMPLEX SENTENCES WITH ADVERB & RELATIVE CLAUSES,& THE COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCE
Sentence Options
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
forbut
andor
accordinglyinstead
additionallylikewise
alsomeanwhile
consequentlymoreover
finallynevertheless
which (to refer to things)
Use extra commas for extra information
Mary,
who is a child
, is wise.
A child
who is wise
commands attention.
afterso that
although, thoughunless
asuntil
becausewhen, whenever
beforewhere, wherever
even thoughwhereas
SUMMARY OF KEY CONCEPTS IN CHAPTER 7
a.The noun clause takes the place of a noun (acts as subject, object, complement,
SEVEN
COMPLEX SENTENCES WITH ADVERB & RELATIVE CLAUSES,& THE COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCE
CHAPTER 7 EXERCISE
\n]Underline each dependent clause and label it as an adverb clause (
\b]Punctuate each sentence.
]Diagram each sentence.
1.After we found the puppy we took it to the animal shelter.
2.The puppy that we found was friendly and playful.
3.HelenÕs computer which was quite old remained reliable.
4.HelenÕs computer remained reliable although it was quite old.
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
5.Everyone who was on the team appreciated Coach Tina.
SEVEN
COMPLEX SENTENCES WITH ADVERB & RELATIVE CLAUSES,& THE COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCE
2.The evil fairy whom the queen had employed as a guardian had finally died.
3.The princess thought that she had slept for a short time.
4.The first conversation that she held confused her.
5.When she heard an unfamiliar language she grew frightened.
6.She grew even more frightened until she looked in a mirror.
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
7.The sight of her own face reassured her at the moment when she needed a friend.
8.Although most princesses depend on handsome princes Lila took matters into her
9.She took responsibility for what happened from that moment.
SEVEN
COMPLEX SENTENCES WITH ADVERB & RELATIVE CLAUSES,& THE COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCE
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
4.Idealistic people who fight for their dreams usually receive several disappoint-
5.While he was researching the history of a particularly obscure word the scholar
6.As she efficiently handled her duties the waitress demanded an apology from the
7.The note the child handed to his mother brought tears to her eyes after she read it.
SEVEN
COMPLEX SENTENCES WITH ADVERB & RELATIVE CLAUSES,& THE COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCE
8.Whatever you decide will be acceptable to the people who support you because
The governess frightened the children.
a.Write a compound sentence using a coordinating conjunction.
b.Write a compound sentence using a semicolon and a conjunctive adverb.
c.Write a complex sentence containing a noun clause.
d.Write a complex sentence containing an adverb clause.
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
e.Write a complex sentence containing a nonrestrictive (extra information) relative
f.Write a complex sentence containing a restrictive (necessary information) relative
g.Write a simple sentence containing an appositive.
h.Write a compound-complex sentence.
by incorporating compound structures, appositives, and compound and complex sentences. Make
SEVEN
COMPLEX SENTENCES WITH ADVERB & RELATIVE CLAUSES,& THE COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCE
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
Compound Structures
1.The words and the music of that song (
2.Either the words or the music (
3.Neither the music nor the words (
4.The words, as well as the music, (
5.The words, in addition to the music, (
6.The music, along with the words, (
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
Indefinite Pronouns
EIGHT
USAGE PROBLEMS OF CASE,AGREEMENT,AND CONSISTENCY
Relative Clauses
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
Collective Nouns
EIGHT
USAGE PROBLEMS OF CASE,AGREEMENT,AND CONSISTENCY
the
facewas
mirror
was a face in the mirror. (
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
the
facewas
mirror
There
there
facewas
:ThereÕs three reasons to work hard.
:There are three reasons to work hard.
:Three reasons to work hard are . . . .
:ThereÕs a man and a woman in the driveway.
:There are a man and a woman in the driveway.
:A man and a woman are in the driveway.
EIGHT
USAGE PROBLEMS OF CASE,AGREEMENT,AND CONSISTENCY
7.This breed of cat is the only one that (
8.New Orleans is one of those cities that (
9.(
10.A box of apples, oranges, and pears (
11.Everyone in both classes (
12.None of the answers in the teacherÕs manual (
13.There (
14.Neither the books nor the movies in my childhood home (
15.A hamster, as well as a guinea pig, (
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
sexist language
EIGHT
USAGE PROBLEMS OF CASE,AGREEMENT,AND CONSISTENCY
Òshe,Ó or ÒtheyÓ cannot refer back to ÒoneÓ:
One
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
2.Each person who saw the film said that ______ disliked the ending.
3.The Spanish Club decided to revamp ______ constitution.
5.Anyone who lived through the 1960s can tell you about ______ memories of the era.
PRONOUN CASE
EIGHT
USAGE PROBLEMS OF CASE,AGREEMENT,AND CONSISTENCY
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
Since you need an object of a preposition, and since you could rewrite the sentence
EIGHT
USAGE PROBLEMS OF CASE,AGREEMENT,AND CONSISTENCY
Wereceivedsympathy
whoever
listened
from
Wereceivedsympathy
sawwhomever
from
A final area of difficulty with pronoun case arises in elliptical clauses of comparison,
clauses beginning with ÒthanÓor Òas.Ó
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
guest
waswho
asked
the
special
4.The shirts will be delivered by the person (
EIGHT
USAGE PROBLEMS OF CASE,AGREEMENT,AND CONSISTENCY
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
PRONOUN CONSISTENCY PROBLEMS
Pronouns should
be consistent in person and number.
first person singularI
second person singularyou
third person singularhe, she, it
first person pluralwe
second person pluralyou
third person pluralthey
EIGHT
USAGE PROBLEMS OF CASE,AGREEMENT,AND CONSISTENCY
EXERCISE 8.5
Another problem with pronoun consistency may arise with relative clauses beginning
with Òwhich.Ó
:We found a locked chest in the
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
2.All of my money was spent on graduate school, which depressed me.
3.He hated classical music, which made him incompatible with Rhonda.
EIGHT
USAGE PROBLEMS OF CASE,AGREEMENT,AND CONSISTENCY
SUMMARY OF KEY CONCEPTS IN CHAPTER 8
a.Rule of Òone -sÓ
b.Compound structures:subject
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
CHAPTER 8 EXERCISE
EIGHT
USAGE PROBLEMS OF CASE,AGREEMENT,AND CONSISTENCY
five main forms of English verbs
1.infinitive,root,or base (the dictionary form)
2.third person singular,present tense (always ends in -s)
3.simple past (the ÒyesterdayÓform)
4.past participle (the form that follows auxiliary
have
5.present participle (the form that follows auxiliary
and always ends in -ing)
English verbs fall into two categories:
1.weak or regular (simple past and past participle end in -ed)
2.strong or irregular (simple past and past participle do not end in -ed
fect verb uses a form of
have
(has, have, had) as an auxiliary, followed by the past participle form
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
form of the verb. Remember that the modals are limited in number: shall, should, will, would,
can, could, may, might, must, have to, had to, ought to. From this group, ÒshallÓ or ÒwillÓ can
VERBS
three-word verbsmodal + have + past participle (he
four-word verbsmodal + have + been + present participle (he
1.Modals do not change the form of the verb that follows.A modal is always
followed by the base form of a verb.
2.The auxiliary
have
(has,have,had) is followed by the past participle form
of a verb,forming the perfect aspect of the verb.
3.The auxiliary
(am,is,are,was,were,be,been) is followed by the present
participle form of a verb,forming the progressive aspect of the verb.
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
EXERCISE 9.1
1.had been going ___________________________
2.will have been ___________________________
3.is driving ___________________________
4.was ___________________________
5.has seen ___________________________
6.had been happening ___________________________
7.will be studying ___________________________
8.will have been studying ___________________________
EXERCISE 9.2
1.could + have + past participle of
find_____________________
2.am + present participle of
look_____________________
3.had + past participle of
skate_____________________
VERBS
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
English verbs have two voices,active
and passive.
Only sentences with transitive verbs can be transformed into passive
voice
VERBS
The
the
diamondswere left
safe
the
inept
burglar
Wewere givenmeals
free
the
the
owner
restaurant
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
The
teacherwas asked
for
grading
explanation
policy
EXERCISE 9.3
1.had been speaking
2.had been spoken
3.was looking
4.will have been hurt
5.will be hurting
6.has found
7.was found
8.will have been eating
9.has been eating
10.has been eaten
VERBS
EXERCISE 9.4
1.may + be + present participle of
sell_________________________
2.may + be + past participle of
sell_________________________
3.will + have + been + past participle of
take_________________________
4.ought to + be + present participle of
go_________________________
5.should + have + past participle of
EXERCISE 9.5
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
3.Your medicine should be given to you by a nurse.
4.LolaÕs ears were damaged by the painfully loud noise of the machinery.
5.The newspaper omitted any mention of the violent incident on campus.
6.My research paper was finished in an hour.
7.The wreath on the door was made by my best friend.
VERBS
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
SUMMARY OF KEY CONCEPTS IN CHAPTER 9
a.infinitive, root, or base form
b.third person singular, present tense (ending in -s)
c.past (no auxiliary)
d.past participle (the form that follows auxiliary
e.present participle (the form that follows auxiliary
a.perfect (a form of
b.progressive (a form of
a.indicative (statement)
b.imperative (command, with ÒyouÓ usually serving as the understood subject)
c.conditional (signaled by the modals Òcould,Ó Òmay,Ó Òmight,Ó Òwould,Ó and
d.subjunctive (expressing a condition contrary to fact or making a demand in a
VERBS
active voice.
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
Present TensePast TenseFuture TenseVoice
He bites.He bit.He will bite.Active
He is bitten.He was bitten. He will be bitten.Passive
Progressive
He is biting.He was biting.He will be biting.Active
He is being bitten.He was being bitten.He will be being bitten.Passive
Perfect
He has bitten.He had bitten.He will have bitten.Active
He has been bitten.He had been bitten.He will have been bitten.Passive
Perfect
Progressive
He has been biting.He had been biting.He will have been biting.Active
He has been beingHe had been beingHe will have been
bitten.bitten.being bitten.Passive
CHAPTER 9 EXERCISE
1.present progressive___________________________________
2.past perfect___________________________________
3.future ___________________________________
4.future progressive___________________________________
1.passive voice
2.interrogative
3.conditional mood
1.present perfect aspect of
2.modal ÒshouldÓ
3.emphatic
VERBS
4.active voice, Pattern 7 sentence
5.transform your active voice, Pattern 7 sentence into passive voice
6.past perfect progressive aspect of
7.present progressive aspect of
8.modal ÒmayÓ
9.modal ÒcanÓ
10.past perfect aspect of
11.past tense of
12.subjunctive mood of
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
1.was seeing
2.was seen
3.will have been shopping
4.had been
5.is being
6.have found
7.have been found
VERBS
tosee
Infinitives as Nouns
It takes the
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
political
Waynes
issues
sound
was
goal
intelligent
to play the piano beautifully
. (The boy learned
TEN
VERBALS
The
beautifully
the
boylearned
playpiano
Sallytried
sprint
base
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
If you can insert the words Òin order toÓbefore the verb,the infini-
tive is definitely an adverb modifying the verb.
2.An infinitive used as an adverb to modify an adjective
TEN
VERBALS
Joe
summer
for
washedcars
makemoney
camp
Joe
in order to
summer
for
washedcars
makemoney
camp
EXERCISE 10.2
1.To be friendly, we invited our new neighbors to dinner.
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
puzzles
Crossword
can behard
Terry
tonight
will beable
visitus
behelpful
Phyllisis
eager
2.Sarah enrolled in a review course to increase her chances of a high score on the
3.The cat was ready to pounce on the unsuspecting mouse.
4.To find your soulmate, you must be open to all possibilities.
5.Some people are unable to smile at adversity.
TEN
VERBALS
EXERCISE 10.3
1.To learn his multiplication tables, Mark decided to construct a math game.
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
Infinitives as Adjectives
EXERCISE 10.4
1.The best coffee to drink is this blend of two flavors.
TEN
VERBALS
besuccessful
Wemust findway
The
the
nameis
your
passport
one
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
going to + verb = future tense
has to,have to,or had to + verb = obli-
gation;the forms of
have to
act as a modal,a synonym for the modal ÒmustÓ
+ infinitive = imminent future action,
ought to + verb acts as a modal,a synonym for the
TEN
VERBALS
minutes
The
partyis going to start
minutes
The
partyhas to start
minutes
The
partyis to start
The
partyought to befun
midnight
The
partyused to begin
EXERCISE 10.5
1.No one was going to ask for a favor.
2.No one was going to the concert.
3.Your attitude has to change.
4.Their goal is to increase sales by the end of the month.
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
5.The salespeople are to increase their quotas in order to receive a bonus.
EXERCISE 10.6
1.Many executives would like to have more free time.
2.Josh wears boots to appear taller.
3.The best time to study is now.
TEN
VERBALS
4.Will was happy to find his sister.
5.The best way to eat pancakes is to smother them with syrup.
6.To stay young, you have to maintain an optimistic outlook.
EXERCISE 10.7
1.To escape from the maze, Tina decided to mark her path with bits of paper.
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
2.The last day to withdraw from this course is Friday.
3.When she arrived in the United States to help her sister, MariaÕs primary objec-
4.Whoever has to know this information must prove security clearance to see it.
5.A gardener who waters faithfully will be able to display beautiful flowers.
6.The refrigerator that Jim bought was too big to fit into the kitchen.
TEN
VERBALS
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
is disrespectful. (
It
is disrespectful.)
Here the gerund is Òshouting,Ó identifiable as a gerund because it ends in -ing and serves as the
subject of the sentence. You can also replace the entire gerund phrase, Òshouting at your
TEN
VERBALS
isdisrespectful
Shouting
teacher
your
Sheis playing
tennis
form
playing
exercise
tennis
favorite
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
form
being
exercise
lazy
favorite
EXERCISE 10.9
1.Giving her parents headaches is AlisonÕs pastime.
2.His occupation, transcribing medical records, demands special skills.
3.The children were enthusiastic about experimenting with hydrogen.
4.The ancient Romans enjoyed building structures to improve the comforts of
5.Tony has been searching for help in tracing his ancestry.
TEN
VERBALS
PARTICIPLES (ADJECTIVES)
Present participlesPast participles
walkingwalked
eatingeaten
takingtaken
burningburnt
singingsung
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
TEN
VERBALS
dropping her suitcases
, ran toward us. (Extra commas indicate extra information
here, since ÒSusanÓ is a proper noun identifying a specific individual.)
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
ran
suitcases
Susan
Dropping
her
toward
hanging from his drawer
.
The puppy was a comic sight,
chasing its tail
.
TEN
VERBALS
Ralph
foundunderwear
his
from
drawer
hanging
puppy
comic
The
wassight
tail
chasing
Kristin
the
wateredsunflower
the
garden
standing
Kristin
the
wateredsunflower
the
garden
standing
chasing its tail
was a comic sight.
The puppy,
chasing its tail
, was a comic sight.
Occasionally a past participle will have a helping verb (a form of
have
or
be
) before it:
Having watered the sunflower
, Kristin drank a glass of lemonade.
Having been watered
, the sunflower blossomed.
(Notice the passive participle here; the sunflower is not performing the action of the
participial phrase, and the use of
be
+ past participle distinguishes passive form.)
Pre-noun participles are also common. These participles occur before the noun as single words,
running
leap, a
watering
can, a
broken
record,
burnt
toast.
The rabbit took a
running
leap toward the fence.
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
wassight
tail
puppy
The
comic
chasing
Kristin
drankglass
sunflower
Having watered
the
lemonade
sunflower
the
blossomed
Having been watered
The
tookleap
the
toward
fence
running
EXERCISE 10.10
1.Considering her options carefully, Theresa chose the safest course.
2.Everyone saving money at this bank will receive a bonus interest rate.
3.The children found the goat limping on a cracked hoof.
4.The children found the goat, having searched for hours.
5.In the nursery we saw twenty sleeping babies nestled in their cribs.
TEN
VERBALS
SENTENCE PATTERNS AND VERBALS
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
TEN
VERBALS
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
SUMMARY OF KEY CONCEPTS IN CHAPTER 10
1.Verbals as nouns:infinitive (to + verb)
gerund (ends in -ing)
TEN
VERBALS
CHAPTER 10 EXERCISE
1.Ignoring the legal drinking age, Rose began to enjoy two glasses of wine with
2.Drinking wine with breakfast led to arguments with her protesting parents.
3.After a month, Rose stopped causing everyone concern, dropping wine entirely
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
5.Rose, refusing to explain anything, was already experimenting with her next
TEN
VERBALS
EXERCISES TO REVIEW CLAUSES AND VERBALS
1.Aristotle, who established the basic theory of tragedy, used Greek plays to illus-
2.Aristotle considered tragedy a series of events leading to misery in the life of a
3.When members of an audience see a tragedy performed on stage, they experience
4.These compelling sensations produce a catharsis that cleanses the emotions of the
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
5.Although no perfect tragedy exists, Aristotle chose
6.Governing a land filled with sorrow, Oedipus is ignorant of the deed that has
7.Once he learns the truth, he realizes that he has unknowingly married his own mother.
8.Having offended the gods, he has to purify the land.
TEN
VERBALS
9.A turning point of the play occurs at the moment when he realizes his crime of
10.Compensating for his actions, which have broken cultural norms, is essential.
11.He becomes an isolated figure who must blindly grope his way from the city that
12.The most difficult aspect of his exile is abandoning his two young daughters.
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
1.Write a sentence using ÒescapingÓ as a gerund.
2.Write a sentence using ÒescapingÓ as a participle.
3.Write a sentence using Òto escapeÓ as a noun.
4.Write a sentence using Òto escapeÓ as an adverb.
5.Write a sentence using Òto escapeÓ as an adjective.
6.Write a sentence that begins with an adverb clause. Underline the adverb clause.
7.Write a sentence that contains a relative clause. Underline the relative clause.
8.Write a sentence that contains a noun clause. Underline the noun clause.
TEN
VERBALS
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
9.Write a sentence that contains an appositive. Underline the appositive.
10.Write a sentence that contains a complementary infinitive. Underline the com-
11.Write a sentence that contains both a participial phrase and an adverb clause.
12.Write a compound-complex sentence.
SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD
English verbs have four so-called ÒmoodsÓ
be
closed on hol-
idays. (demand or strong recommendation)
I wish the shop
were
open. (contrary to fact)
In the example sentences for the subjunctive mood, take a close look at the italicized verbs. You
will notice immediately that under ordinary circumstances, the rules of standard English would
be
closedÓ or Òthe shop
were
open.Ó What has happened here?
How and when do we use the subjunctive moodÑwhich calls for a subjunctive verb formÑ
If you have ever studied another language, you have probably encountered the subjunctive,
a mood that in most languages entails learning separate verb forms and understanding specific
for the subjunctive occurs when a strong suggestion, recommendation, or demand is made in
the form of a noun clause beginning with
that
. In this case, the subjunctive is always a one-word
verb, not a verb phrase. The second condition under which the subjunctive should be used, when
Most of the time, even if you do use the subjunctive form, you are blissfully unaware of it. Only
with the
be
verb or with the third person singular form of the verb can we even notice a distinc-
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
Present TensePresent Tense
Indicative MoodSubjunctive Mood
I gowe goI gowe go
you goyou goyou goyou go
he, she, it goesthey gohe, she, it gothey go
Notice that in a verb other than
,the only change you can see occurs in third person
singular.Although we must remember to add the ending Ò-sÓin the indicative mood,
we remove it to indicate subjunctive.
:I
:My job requires that I
:He
:His job requires that he
Present TensePresent Tense
Indicative MoodSubjunctive Mood
I waswe wereI werewe were
you wereyou wereyou wereyou were
he, she, it wasthey werehe, she, it werethey were
:I
:I wish I
ELEVEN
USAGE PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH VERBS AND VERBALS
EXERCISE 11.1
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
CONFUSING VERB PAIRS: LIE/LAY,SIT/SET,RAISE/RISE
ELEVEN
USAGE PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH VERBS AND VERBALS
sit/set
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
lielay(have) lain=to recline, to rest
sitsat(have) sat=to rest
riserose(have) risen=to ascend
ELEVEN
USAGE PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH VERBS AND VERBALS
DANGLING VERBALS
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
:By
:By
ELEVEN
USAGE PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH VERBS AND VERBALS
2.After administering a routine vaccination, the cat tried wildly to escape.
3.Clawing and hissing, a technician scooped up the animal.
4.To calm its nerves, a sedative was finally administered.
5.We all breathed a sigh of relief knowing that the situation was under control.
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
SPLIT INFINITIVES
2.All ten siblings in BrittniÕs family insist that they want to always stay close to one
ELEVEN
USAGE PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH VERBS AND VERBALS
3.To efficiently manage a restaurant, you need to constantly be on the premises.
POSSESSIVES WITH GERUNDS
JohnÕsbecoming
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
news
Johns
about
Wewereexcited
Wewereexcited
surgeon
Johns
brain
about
becoming
EXERCISE 11.5
1.(
ELEVEN
USAGE PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH VERBS AND VERBALS
Parallelism in a Series of Three or More
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
green
The
was
hadeyes
dancer
tall
blonde
The
tall
green-eyed
blonde
dancerwas
2.The dancer was tall and blonde and had green eyes. (A problem with this revision
ELEVEN
USAGE PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH VERBS AND VERBALS
When dealing with correlative conjunctions,you must make sure that whatever gram-
matical structure follows the first conjunction also follows the second.
: I will
:I will cook
ÒNot only / but alsoÓcan be a troublesome pair in terms of syntax. To separate independ-
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
3.Losing his wife to another man, his self-control to liquor, and the loss of his
5.The doctor not only located the diseased organ, but he removed it also.
6.The bus driver had to either decide to swerve into the ditch, or he could risk a
7.The project members drank coffee, smoked cigars, and all of the near-tragic
8.Follow three rules when studying for an exam: start early, study for a short time
ELEVEN
USAGE PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH VERBS AND VERBALS
11.No respectable zoo can be without a giraffe, elephant, and lion.
12.Not only did the fans cheer as the parading heroes went by, also they threw tons
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
SUMMARY OF KEY CONCEPTS IN CHAPTER 11
ELEVEN
USAGE PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH VERBS AND VERBALS
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
CHAPTER 11 EXERCISE
Use a comma after a conjunctive adverb that follows a semicolon
Use a comma after an introductory element
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
Use commas to separate items in a series of three or more
TWELVE
PUNCTUATION AND CAPITALIZATION
literatureÑthis comma does not appear. If you do insert it, though, you need to place
8.
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
TWELVE
PUNCTUATION AND CAPITALIZATION
:The manager asked us indignantly and at some length, if
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
7.George is never aware of what is happening around him while he is immersed in
8.We stayed on the beach until the sun went down.
comma after conjunctive adverb in a compound sentence (optional with
one-syllable conjunctive adverbs)
1.I donÕt know how to play chess; however I would like to learn.
2.My brother loves music; in fact he plays in a local band.
3.Ron is an effective manager; therefore he has been promoted.
4.I heard a strange howling outside the window; then I buried myself beneath the
TWELVE
PUNCTUATION AND CAPITALIZATION
9.Opening her umbrella she dashed into the rain.
10.Ignored by the policeman the town drunk always slept in the park.
commas to separate items in a series
1.Contemporary women often try to be wives mothers and career professionals.
2.Bill wants to go to the shore his wife wants to go to the mountains and their chil-
3.I enjoy biking and skating and swimming.
4.The salesman found a television a blender and a hair dryer in the used car.
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
TWELVE
PUNCTUATION AND CAPITALIZATION
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
12.Algebra
13.By Tuesday June 6 Norwood had already sold four vacuum cleaners.
14.A large man who was smoking a cigar sat down next to me although there was a
TWELVE
PUNCTUATION AND CAPITALIZATION
31.Because I have a fear of flying I seldom take vacations.
32.I have a fear of flying; therefore I seldom take vacations.
33.Mary Ellen who asked the question did not understand the teacherÕs answer
34.It is important to be polite but it is also important to be assertive.
35.Answering the telephone Clark carried on a conversation while he played a com-
Semicolon Rules
Use a semicolon in a compound sentence,to separate two independent clauses that
are not joined by a coordinating conjunction.
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
Use a semicolon to separate items in a series when the items themselves contain
EXERCISE 12.3
1.Negotiations have stopped we will strike at noon.
2.Orphan Annie endured a cruel childhood for a time then she was adopted by
3.StacyÕs childhood was enlivened by Nutty a friendly backyard squirrel Jake her
4.After buying flour sugar salt and butter I decided to go home and bake shortbread
5.At 3:00 on Monday afternoon Lisa quit her job at 6:00 the next morning she
TWELVE
PUNCTUATION AND CAPITALIZATION
6.The tour group will visit Edinburgh Scotland Dublin Ireland and London
7.Thinking creatively the youngster constructed a house out of cardboard although
Colon Rule
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
Chaucer, Shakespeare, and Milton. (Finally, here the colon introduces a list. Notice
TWELVE
PUNCTUATION AND CAPITALIZATION
the phrases Òthe followingÓand Òas followsÓalmost always signal the need for
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
Dash Rules
TWELVE
PUNCTUATION AND CAPITALIZATION
is used because the appositive provides extra information, a sort of interruption in thought as
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
EXERCISE 12.5
1.On my shopping list were four items that I simply had to buy soap toothpaste tis-
TWELVE
PUNCTUATION AND CAPITALIZATION
When the first modifier before a noun ends in -ly,no hyphen is necessary.
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
EXERCISE 12.6
TWELVE
PUNCTUATION AND CAPITALIZATION
inserted on each side of the slash mark in this case.
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
:We opened twenty cansÕ of soda.
:We opened twenty cans of soda.
TWELVE
PUNCTUATION AND CAPITALIZATION
ladyladyÕsladiesladiesÕ
childchildÕschildrenchildrenÕs
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
Singular NounMs. JonesMs. Jones
Singular Possessive NounMs. JonesÕsMs. JonesÕ
Plural Nounthe Jonesesthe Joneses
Plural Possessive Nounthe JonesesÕthe JonesesÕ
a family name (a surname) does not require an apostrophe unless you are
We decided to visit the Browns last night.(plural)
The BrownsÕ new house is a Victorian mansion.(plural possessive)
Both styles form the plural by adding -s to a name that does not already end in Òs.Ó
Likewise,both styles form the plural by adding -es to a name that ends in ÒsÓ(or in ÒxÓ
TWELVE
PUNCTUATION AND CAPITALIZATION
3.The fine china cup had lost its original handle.
4.Mr. Clarks geography class is intimidating for junior high students.
5.On my brothers twenty-first birthday, he gambled and drank for the first and last
6.My mother-in-laws recipe for homemade pasta is the best Ive ever had.
7.These boys grades are disgraceful!
8.In my doctors opinion Im overworked and must take a vacation.
9.My mothers job was in the childrens department.
10.If youre interested in going on the school trip, you must have both parents consent.
11.The Simpsons could not decide what to do with their free Saturday evening.
12.The girls locker room is directly across from the boys gym.
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
Short Works
EXERCISE 12.9
1.My favorite Hemingway novel is The Sun Also Rises.
2.During the holiday season many churches advertise productions of HandelÕs mas-
3.Chapter 12, Punctuation and Capitalization, is a very long one.
4.Perhaps the most famous plane at the Smithsonian is the Spirit of St. Louis.
5.Leonardo da VinciÕs Mona Lisa is always surrounded by admirers at the Louvre.
TWELVE
PUNCTUATION AND CAPITALIZATION
Other Uses of Underlining and Quotation Marks
Use underlining (or italics) to indicate a foreign word or phrase.
Use underlining (or italics) to indicate that you are using a word as a word,not for
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
TWELVE
PUNCTUATION AND CAPITALIZATION
b.What happens when, using
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
long quotations
Using the Ellipsis and Square Brackets
TWELVE
PUNCTUATION AND CAPITALIZATION
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
TWELVE
PUNCTUATION AND CAPITALIZATION
5.The eager reporter quoted the local official as saying I refuse to be intimidated by
6.The eager reporter misquoted the local official as saying the following I refuse to
7.I am a sensitive human the teenager told her friends I simply canÕt believe that
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
EXERCISE 12.11
1.ÒYou should schedule an annual physical,Ó said the doctor to the elderly patient.
2.HarryÕs wife shouted, ÒYou never pay attention to me!Ó
3.All of the officers agreed, ÒMembership in our club should be closed until further
EXERCISE 12.12
TWELVE
PUNCTUATION AND CAPITALIZATION
: These late eclipses in the sun and moon portend no good
CAPITALIZATION
In general,capitalize the pronoun ÒIÓand all nouns that refer to specifically named
persons,places,or things.
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
When dealing with titles,capitalize the first and last words.In accordance with MLA
style,capitalize all nouns,pronouns,verbs,adjectives (except articles),adverbs,subor-
dinating conjunctions,and interjections.
EXERCISE 12.13
1.my mother has always loved italian dressing, but i have always preferred russian.
2.dad and mom would like to sail to jamaica for valentineÕs day.
TWELVE
PUNCTUATION AND CAPITALIZATION
8.the names in the old testament of the bible can be very difficult to spell correctly.
9.my uncle worked in the summer as a district manager for pennsylvania bell.
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
SUMMARY OF KEY CONCEPTS IN CHAPTER 12
1.Use a comma before a coordinating conjunction (
2.Use a comma after an introductory adverb clause, and before a subordinating
3.Use a comma after a conjunctive adverb that follows a semicolon.
4.Use a comma after an introductory element in a sentence.
5.Use commas to separate items in a series of three or more.
6.Use a comma to separate two adjectives that modify a noun when
TWELVE
PUNCTUATION AND CAPITALIZATION
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
CHAPTER 12 EXERCISE
1.While we were at the little league game we bought some candy and soda how-
TWELVE
PUNCTUATION AND CAPITALIZATION
10.Throughout the years of childhood most of us develop a strong sure sense of
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
TWELVE
PUNCTUATION AND CAPITALIZATION
how to mold language to suit their purposes. The ten basic sentence patterns that we have already
iliary, even a modal indicating the imperative, we end up with a declarative sentence.
Close
the door. (ÒYou must close the doorÓ is declarative.)
You
leave
right now. (ÒYou must leave right nowÓ is declarative.)
When we diagram an imperative sentence, we can indicate the understood ÒyouÓ by placing
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
[You]
the
closedoor
EXERCISE 13.1
CLEFT SENTENCES
Noun clause beginning with What +
THIRTEEN
SENTENCE TRANSFORMATIONS
EXERCISE 13.2
PASSIVE SENTENCES
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
EXERCISE 13.3
2.Arthur was crowned king after he removed the sword from the stone.
3.The lone survivor of the plane crash was besieged by questions from media repre-
4.Someone stole the tooth hidden beneath AmeliaÕs pillow.
THIRTEEN
SENTENCE TRANSFORMATIONS
5.The delicate design was woven into the cloth with threads of gold.
justify your use of passive.
THEREŽ AS EXPLETIVE
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
pattern
There
epic
distinct
Dantes
2.There were good reasons for the decision.
3.No one was there when we knocked on the door.
THIRTEEN
SENTENCE TRANSFORMATIONS
epic
haspattern
Dantes
distinct
ANTICIPATORY APPOSITIVE
+ adjective + appositive for ÒitÓin the form of noun clause,gerund,
or infinitive
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
It( )isexciting
have met
that
again
It( )isexciting
again
meeting
you
It( )isexciting
again
you
meet
THIRTEEN
SENTENCE TRANSFORMATIONS
SENTENCE APPOSITIVE
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
atepound
day
candy
Every
habit
his
weight
that
contributed
problem
EXERCISE 13.6
1.No one in class remembered the teacherÕs birthdayÑan oversight that led to trouble.
2.All of the players memorized the coachÕs instructions, an action resulting in victory.
THIRTEEN
SENTENCE TRANSFORMATIONS
NOMINATIVE ABSOLUTE,OR ABSOLUTE PHRASE
nominative absolute
performs one of two functions.It either
explains a cause or condition that permitted or resulted in the action of the sentence,
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
car
Florida
drive
our
The
repaired
officerpaused
door
hand
police
the
revolver
her
The
her
EXERCISE 13.7
1.The ink spilling onto the table, the words on the document gradually disappeared.
THIRTEEN
SENTENCE TRANSFORMATIONS
EXERCISE 13.8
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
5.Its wings flapping wildly, the bird tried to escape from the catÑa reminder of
THIRTEEN
SENTENCE TRANSFORMATIONS
SUMMARY OF KEY CONCEPTS IN CHAPTER 13
a.Either we do not know the agent of the action of the sentence, or that informa-
b.We want to emphasize the helplessness, victimization, or suffering of the gram-
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
CHAPTER 13 EXERCISE
2.a compound sentence containing a conjunctive adverb
3.a complex sentence containing a noun clause
4.a complex sentence containing an adverb clause
5.a complex sentence containing a relative clause
THIRTEEN
SENTENCE TRANSFORMATIONS
6.a compound-complex sentence
7.a sentence containing a gerund
8.a sentence beginning with a participial phrase
9.a sentence containing an infinitive used as a noun
10.a sentence containing an infinitive used as an adverb
11.a sentence containing an infinitive used as an adjective
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM
12.an interrogative sentence
13.an exclamatory sentence
14.a passive sentence
15.a cleft sentence beginning with ÒitÓ
16.a cleft sentence beginning with ÒwhatÓ
17.a sentence containing an anticipatory appositive
THIRTEEN
SENTENCE TRANSFORMATIONS
18.a sentence containing a sentence appositive
19.a sentence beginning with a nominative absolute
20.a sentence ending with a nominative absolute
GRAMMAR BY DIAGRAM

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