2018_human_development_statistical_update


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Human Development Indices and Indicators | 2018 Statistical Update
1 UN Plaza, New York, NY 10017 USA
The cover reects human development progress over 1990–2017 in terms of Human Development Index (HDI) values
and the number of people in the four human development categories. In the gure each slice’s innermost band
represents the population in that human development category, and the height of the slice reects its HDI value.
The cover reects that even though the global population increased from 5 billion to 7.5 billion between 1990 and
2017, the number of people in low human development fell from 3 billion to 926 million—or from 60 percent of the
global population to 12 percent—and that the number of people in high and very high human development more than
tripled, from 1.2 billion to 3.8 billion—or from 24 percent of the global population to 51 percent.
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Published for the
United Nations
Development
Programme
(UNDP)
Human Development Indicators
and Indices: 2018 Statistical Update
Team
Milorad Kovacevic (Chief Statistician), Jacob Assa, Astra Bonini, Cecilia Calderon, Yu-Chieh Hsu, Christina Lengfelder,
Tanni Mukhopadhyay, Shivani Nayyar, Carolina Rivera and Heriberto Tapia
Jon Hall, Anna Ortubia and Elodie Turchi
ii |
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDICES AND INDICATORS
We are living in a complex world. People,
nations and economies are more connected
than ever, and so are the global development
issues we are facing. ese issues span borders,
straddle social, economic and environmental
realms, and can be persisting or recurring.
From urbanization to the creation of jobs for
millions of people, the world’s challenges will
only be solved using approaches that take both
complexity and local context into account. For
almost thirty years, UNDP’s human develop
ment approach—with its emphasis on enlarging
people’s freedoms and opportunities rather than
economic growth—has inspired and informed
solutions and policies across the world.
I am pleased to present
Human Development
Indices and Indicators: 2018 Statistical Update.
With its comprehensive statistical annex,
our data gives an overview of the state of
development across the world, looking at
long-term trends in human development in
dicators across multiple dimensions and for
every nation.
Human development data, analysis and
reporting have been at the heart of that para
digm. UNDP’s Human Development Index
(HDI) has captured human progress, combin
ing information on people’s health, education
and income in just one number. Over the
years, the HDI has served as a comparative
tool of excellence, and as a reliable platform for
vigorous public debates on national priorities.
Still, the Sustainable Development Goals
(SDGs) require new indicators for assessing
the many faces of inequality, the impact of the
global environmental crisis on people now and
tomorrow, the importance of voice, and the
ways in which communities rather than indi
viduals are progressing.
These and many other topics should be
reexamined with a human development lens,
resulting in a new generation of Human
Development Reports. As we work to embrace
new data, new ideas and new partners, we will
continue to ensure human progress is mon
itored continuously, analyzed regularly and
presented globally.
Administrator
United Nations Development Programme
iv |
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDICES AND INDICATORS
Human Development Indices and Indicators:
2018 Statistical Update
is the product of
the Human Development Report Office
(HDRO) at the United Nations Development
Programme (UNDP).
The composite indices, indicators and
data of the Update are those of the HDRO
alone and cannot be attributed to UNDP
or to its Executive Board. e UN General
Assembly has ocially recognized the
Human
Development Report
as “an independent intel
lectual exercise” that has become “an impor
tant tool for raising awareness about human
development around the world.”
e Update’s composite indices and other
statistical resources rely on the expertise of the
leading international data providers in their
specialized elds, and we express our gratitude
for their continued collegial collaboration
with the HDRO.
A group of talented young people con
tributed to the Update as interns and
deserve recognition for their dedication
and contributions: Grace Chen, Rashik
Alam Chowdhury, Drilona Emrullahu and
Shangchao Liu.
We are grateful for the highly profes
sional work of our editors and layout
artists at Communications Development
Incorporated—led by Bruce Ross-Larson, with
Joe Caponio, Nick Moschovakis, Christopher
Trott and Elaine Wilson.
Most of all, on a personal note, I am pro
foundly grateful to UNDP Administrator
Achim Steiner for his leadership and vision as
well as his commitment to the cause of human
development. My thanks also go to all my
HDRO colleagues, particularly the statistical
team, for their dedication in producing sta
tistical updates that strive to advance human
development.
Director
Human Development Report Oce
2018 STATISTICAL UPDATE
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDICES AND INDICATORS:
2018 STATISTICAL UPDATE
Trends in the Human Development Index and its key components—
progress not linear, and still far togo
Inequalities in human development—a grave challenge to progress
Gender inequality—close the gaps to empower half the world’s people
Human deprivations high despite overall progress
Moving beyond quantity to the quality of human development
Environmental degradation puts human development gains at risk
Conclusion
Notes
References
STATISTICAL ANNEX
Statistical tables
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
8.
9.
10.
11.
Work and employment
12.
13.
14.
15.
Human development dashboards
2.
3.
Women’
4.
5.
Index to Sustainable Development Goal indicators
Statistical references
BOXES
2
3
2
3
4
2012–2017
5
Loss in Human Development Index value due to inequality, by human
6
7
8
Human Development Index by gender, gender gap and Gender Development
9
10
11
Healthy life expectancy and overall life expectancy, by human development
12
Impressive progress in expected years of schooling and mean years of
13
Number of primary school pupils per teacher, by human development group,
14
Carbon dioxide emissions per capita, by human development group,
15
Human development is about human freedoms. It is about building human capabilities—not just for a few, not even for
e greatest innovations of the HDRs have
been new measurement tools—notably the
Human Development Index (HDI), launched
in the rst HDR (box1). e underlying prin
ciple of the HDI, considered pathbreaking in
1990, was elegantly simple: National develop
ment should be measured not only by income
per capita, as had long been the practice, but
also by health and education achievements.
Ranking countries by their HDI value trans
formed the development discourse and de
throned income per capita as the sole indicator
of development progress.
Over the years additional indices have been
developed to capture other dimensions of
human development to identify groups falling
behind in human progress and to monitor the
distribution of human development (gure1).
In 2010 three indices were launched to mon
itor poverty, inequality and gender empow
erment across multiple human development
dimensions: the Multidimensional Poverty
Index (MPI), the Inequality-adjusted Human
Development Index (IHDI) and the Gender
Inequality Index (GII). In 2014 the Gender
Development Index (GDI) was introduced.
It is 28 years since the launch of the rst
HDR, and new challenges to human develop
ment, especially inequality and sustainability,
require concerted measurement and analyt
ical attention. Data availability is expanding
with new opportunities for measurement
innovation and disaggregation and possibil
ities for new partnerships growing out of the
2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
Technologies are introducing new ways of
communicating key report messages. ese are
all opportunities to strengthen the analysis,
insights, relevance and reach of future HDRs.
Reecting on the next generation of HDRs
that give full consideration to new challenges
and opportunities for analysis and innovation
takes time.
Human Development Indices and
Indicators: 2018 Statistical Update
is being
Evolution of human
Development
Index
(HDI)
adjusted Human
Development
Index
(IHDI)
Inequality
Index
(GII)
Poverty Index
(MPI)
Development
Index
(GDI)
Source:
quire knowledge, measured by mean years of school
To measure human development more comprehen
sively, the Human Development Report presents four
counts the HDI according to the extent of inequality. The
Gender Development Index compares female and male
en’s empowerment. And the Multidimensional Poverty
Index measures nonincome dimensions of poverty.
Source:
2018 STATISTICAL UPDATE
released to ensure consistency in reporting on
key human development indices and statistics. It
provides a brief overview of the state of human
development—snapshots of current conditions
as well as long-term trends in human develop
ment indicators. And it includes a full statistical
annex of human development composite indices
and indicators across their various dimensions.
is update includes the 2017 values for the
HDI and other composite indices as well as
current statistics in key areas of human develop
ment for use by policymakers, researchers and
others in their analytical, planning and policy
work. In addition to the standard HDR tables,
statistical dashboards are included to draw
well-being and ve topics: quality of human
development, life-course gender gaps, women’s
empowerment, environmental sustainability
and socioeconomic sustainability (gure2).
Accompanying the statistical annex is an over
view of trends in human development, high
lighting the considerable progress, but also the
persistent deprivations and disparities.
Trends in the Human Development
Index and its key components—
progress not linear, and still far
togo
e 2018 Update presents HDI values for 189
countries and territories with the most recent
data for 2017.
Of these countries, 59 are in the
very high human development group, 53 in the
high, 39 in the medium and only 38 in the low.
In 2010, 49 countries were in the low human
development group.
e top ve countries in the global HDI
ranking are Norway (0.953), Switzerland
(0.944), Australia (0.939), Ireland (0.938)
and Germany (0.936) (see statistical table1).
e bottom ve are Burundi (0.417), Chad
(0.404), South Sudan (0.388), the Central
African Republic (0.367) and Niger (0.354).
2012 and 2017 were for Ireland, which moved
up 13 places, and for Botswana, the Dominican
Republic and Turkey, which each moved up
8. The largest declines were for the Syrian
Arab Republic (down 27), Libya (26) and
Yemen (20).
Looking back over almost three decades, all
regions and human development groups have
made substantial progress. e global HDI
value in 2017 was 0.728, up about 21.7per
cent from 0.598 in 1990. Across the world,
people are living longer, are more educated
and have greater livelihood opportunities.
The average lifespan is seven years longer
than it was in 1990, and more than 130
countries have universal enrolment in primary
education.
Although HDI values have been rising across
all regions and human development groups, the
rates vary signicantly (see statistical table2).
South Asia was the fastest growing region over
1990–2017, at 45.3percent, followed by East
Asia and the Pacic at 41.8percent and Sub-
Saharan Africa at 34.9percent (gure3). e
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and
Development (OECD) countries, by contrast,
grew 14.0percent. e trends hold promise for
reducing gaps in human development across
regions.
But HDI growth has also slowed in all
regions, particularly in the last decade. Part
of the reason lies in the 2008–2009 global
food, nancial and economic crises. But part
is simply that as human progress advances,
slower HDI growth is inevitable, given the
growth ceilings of dierent components of the
HDI—as seen with OECD countries. ere is
a biological limit to life expectancy, and years
of schooling and rates of enrolment cannot
grow indenitely. Income is the only compo
nent of the HDI that could continue to grow;
but even income growth slows as economies
mature.
As more countries reach the upper
limits of HDI dimensions, measures of the
quality of human development become more
central.
Progress since 1990 has not always been
steady. Some countries suered reversals due
to conicts, epidemics or economic crises. For
example, many countries in Eastern Europe
and Central Asia saw their HDI values fall
Union and to military conict, hyperination
and a painful introduction (or expansion) of
had losses in the 1990s, when conict and the
HIV/AIDS epidemic caused life expectancy
to drop dramatically. Despite these challenges,
Human development
of human
development
gender gap
Women’s
sustainability
sustainability
Source:
2 |
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDICES AND INDICATORS
always been steady.
countries in these regions recovered their losses
on the HDI and grew over the last two decades.
For example, Sub-Saharan Africa went from
the second slowest growing region on the HDI
Human Development Index values, by country grouping, 1990–2017
East Asia & the Pacic
Europe & Central Asia
Latin America & the Caribbean
South Asia
Sub-Saharan Africa
2000
2010
2017
Human development classication
(Human Development Index value)
Low
(Less than
0.550)
Medium
(0.550–0.699)
High
(0.700–0.799)
Very high
(0.800 or greater)
OECD
0.550
0.700
0.800
Source:
Change in Human Development Index rank in
Yemen
(from 82 in 2012 to 108 in 2017)
(from 128 in 2012 to 155 in 2017)
Source:
2018 STATISTICAL UPDATE
the global HDI value
due to inequality is
about 20percent
countries, up 46.6percent on the HDI since
1990. But some countries have suered serious
Much of the recent debate on income inequality within
richest 1percent of the population and even the rich
est 0.1percent relative to the rest. Recent Oxfam
“82percent of all global wealth in the last year went
to the top 1percent, while the bottom half of humanity
of the richest 1percent and 0.1percent is eye catching,
Source:
4 |
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDICES AND INDICATORS
Worldwide, the
Gender inequality—close the gaps
to empower half the world’s people
e disadvantages facing women and girls are
a major source of inequality and one of the
greatest barriers to human development pro
gress. Two composite indices and two statisti
Loss in Human Development Index value due to inequality, by human development group, 2017
Very high
IHDI
0.799
0.636
0.757
0.483
0.645
0.504
Source:
Hong Kong,
China (SAR)
Sierra
Leone
Australia
South
Sudan
Burkina
Faso
1.5
Qatar
116,818
Source:
2018 STATISTICAL UPDATE
the average HDI value is 13.8percent lower
for women than for men. Among developing
regions the gender gap is narrowest in Latin
America and the Caribbean (2.3percent) and
widest in South Asia (16.3percent) and the
Arab States (14.5percent) (gure8).
The second composite index to measure
gender inequalities is the GII, which captures
the inequalities women face in reproductive
health, education, political representation and
Life expectancy at birth, by human development group, 2017
Source:
6 |
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDICES AND INDICATORS
development countries
47.5 percent of adults
are illiterate, and only
17.1 percent of the
population has access
1,000 women ages 15–19 and highest in Sub-
Saharan Africa, at 101.3.
Human deprivations high despite
overall progress
e MPI, calculated primarily for developing
countries since 2010, captures some human
deprivations, lingering in all countries. It meas
ures nonincome dimensions of poverty and
shows how human deprivations overlap.
The most recent global estimates will be
published in due course in a separate publi
cation with the Oxford Poverty and Human
Development Initiative, based on a new joint
Human Development Index by gender, gender gap and Gender Development Index, by developing region, 2017
East Asia and the Pacic
Europe and Central Asia
Sub-Saharan Africa
Arab States
South Asia
0.500
1.000
Male HDI: 0.765
0.500
1.000
0.750
0.785
0.567
0.736
0.682
4.3%
4.4%
10.7%
14.5%
16.3%
Source:
2018 STATISTICAL UPDATE
development
viewpoint, true
progress can be
achieved only by
ensuring quality—in
education, health
and beyond
Moving beyond quantity to the
quality of human development
Achievements in human development should
be expressed not only in terms of quantity, such
as life expectancy or years of schooling, but also
in terms of quality. Were the years lived really
enjoyable or plagued by illness? Have children
merely attended school, or did they gain the
skills and knowledge that will equip them to
lead a meaningful life? Is work allowing people
to thrive, or are most people toiling in insecure
and unsafe work? Are people shaping things
that influence their lives or excluded from
participating? From a human development
viewpoint, true progress can be achieved only
by ensuring quality—in education, health and
beyond.
Quality of health
Although life expectancy has increased sub
stantially in most countries over the past three
Gender Inequality Index, by developing region, 2017
Arab States
South Asia
Latin America and the Caribbean
East Asia and the Pacic
Europe and Central Asia
Source:
8 |
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDICES AND INDICATORS
Life-course gender gap, 2017
Total
Women
graduates in
STEM at tertiary
level
Source:
ite human development indices in 2010. This year, an
Source:
2018 STATISTICAL UPDATE
is 12percent lower
than overall life
expectancy
Healthy life expectancy and overall life expectancy, by human development group, 2017
Source:
10 |
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDICES AND INDICATORS
declines in biodiversity,
30percent of teachers are trained: Madagascar
(15percent), Kyrgyzstan (21percent), Sao
Tome and Principe (27percent) and Vanuatu
(28percent). e availability of communica
tions technologies also has implications for the
quality of education. But modernizing schools
requires substantial investments, a challenge in
most developing regions.
Environmental degradation puts
human development gains at risk
e degradation of the environment and at
mosphere, coupled with signicant declines
in biodiversity, is linked to other development
concerns ranging from declining food and
water supplies to losses of livelihood and to
losses of life from extreme weather events. is
profoundly serious crisis threatens the human
development of current and future generations.
Business-as-usual approaches must change,
with countries at dierent levels of human
development exposed to and contributing to
environmental degradation in dierent ways
(see dashboard4). Very high human develop
ment countries are the biggest contributors to
climate change, with average carbon dioxide
emissions per capita of 10.7 tonnes, compared
with 0.3 tonne in low human development
countries (figure14). These averages mask
considerable variation: Qatar had the highest
carbon dioxide emissions per capita in 2014,
releasing more than 45 tonnes per person,
while Uruguay, also a very high human devel
opment country, released only 2 tonnes per
person. Countries with lower levels of human
development, especially small island develop
ing states, generally have the lowest emissions
but are oen the most vulnerable to climate
change.
Impressive progress in expected years of schooling and mean years of schooling, 1990–2017
10
15
1990
1995
2000
2005
years of
schooling
Mean
years of
schooling
(years)
Source:
Number of primary school pupils per teacher, by
Very high
18
29
41
Source:
2018 STATISTICAL UPDATE
| 11
counts, and every
human life is equally
valuable. That
universalism is at the
core of the human
development concept
Linked to climate change and biodiversity loss,
deforestation also degrades land and reduces the
quantity and quality of freshwater. e overall
pace of forest loss has slowed in recent years,
Carbon dioxide emissions per capita, by human
Very high human development
4.6
10.7
Source:
Change in forest area, by human development
Very high human development
forest area (%)
Source:
12 |
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDICES AND INDICATORS
recent progress on the HDI has exacerbated.
For human development to become truly sus
tainable, the world needs to break with busi
ness-as-usual approaches and adopt sustainable
production and consumption patterns.
Every human being counts, and every human
life is equally valuable. at universalism is
at the core of the human development con
cept. With the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable
Development, the Sustainable Development
Goals and the promises to leave no one behind,
this universal perspective is more critical than
ever, particularly in a world that is increasingly
unequal, unstable and unsustainable.
Notes
The Marshall Islands was added this year.
http://www.unhcr.org/en-us/syria-emergency.html.
References
Paper. Oxford, UK.
———. 2018. “Reward Work, Not Wealth. Oxfam Brieng Paper.
2018 STATISTICAL UPDATE
| 13
Statistical annex
Work and employment
Women’s empowerment
Readers guide
e 20 statistical tables in this annex provide an overview of key
aspects of human development. e rst ve tables contain the
family of composite human development indices and their com
ponents estimated by the Human Development Report Oce
(HDRO). e sixth table is produced in partnership with the
Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI)
and will be added in due course. Remaining tables present a
broader set of indicators related to human development. e
ve dashboards use colour coding to visualize partial groupings
of countries according to performance on each indicator.
Unless otherwise noted, tables use data available to the HDRO
as of 15 July 2018. All indices and indicators, along with techni
cal notes on the calculation of composite indices and additional
source information, are available at
http://hdr.undp.org/en/data.
Countries and territories are ranked by 2017 Human Devel
opment Index (HDI) value. Robustness and reliability analysis
has shown that for most countries dierences in HDI are not
statistically signicant at the fourth decimal place. For this rea
son countries with the same HDI value at three decimal places
are listed with tied ranks.
Sources and denitions
Unless otherwise noted, the HDRO uses data from interna
tional data agencies with the mandate, resources and expertise
to collect national data on specic indicators.
Denitions of indicators and sources for original data com
ponents are given at the end of each table, with full source
details in
Statistical references
Methodology updates
e 2018 Statistical Update retains all the composite indices
from the family of human development indices—the HDI,
the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI),
the Gender Development Index (GDI), the Gender Inequality
Index (GII) and the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI).
e methodology used to compute the rst four indices is
the same as the one used in the 2016 Report. For details, see
Technical notes 1–4
at http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/les/
hdr2018_technical_notes.pdf. e methodology used to com
pute the MPI has been revised jointly with OPHI. For details,
see
Technical note 5
at http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/les/
hdr2018_technical_notes.pdf.
e 2018 Statistical Update expands the number of colour-
coded dashboards to five (quality of human development,
life-course gender gap, women’s empowerment, environmental
sustainability and socioeconomic sustainability). For details on the
methodology used to create them,
Technical note 6
http://
hdr.undp.org/sites/default/les/hdr2018_
technical_notes.pdf.
Comparisons over time and across editions
Because national and international agencies continually
improve their data series, the data—including the HDI values
and ranks—presented in this report are not comparable to
those published in earlier editions. For HDI comparability
across years and countries, see table 2, which presents trends
using consistent data, or http://hdr.undp.org/en/data, which
presents interpolated consistent data.
Discrepancies between national and
international estimates
National and international data can dier because international
agencies harmonize national data using a consistent methodol
ogy and occasionally produce estimates of missing data to allow
comparability across countries. In other cases international
agencies might not have access to the most recent national data.
When HDRO becomes aware of discrepancies, it brings them
to the attention of national and international data authorities.
Country groupings and aggregates
e tables present weighted aggregates for several country
groupings. In general, an aggregate is shown only when data are
available for at least half the countries and represent at least two-
thirds of the population in that grouping. Aggregates for each
grouping cover only the countries for which data are available.
Human development classication
HDI classications are based on HDI xed
cuto
points,
which are derived from
the quartiles of distributions of the
component indicators. e cuto points are HDI of less than
0.550 for low human development, 0.550–0.699 for medium
human development, 0.700–0.799 for high human develop
ment and 0.800 or greater for very high human development.
Regional groupings
Regional groupings are based on United Nations Development
Programme regional
classications
. Least Developed Countries
and Small Island Developing States are dened according to
UN classications (see www.unohrlls.org).
Readers guide | 17
Developing countries
e developing countries aggregates include all countries that
are included in a regional grouping.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and
Development
Of the 35 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and
Development members, 32 are considered developed countries
and 3 (Chile, Mexico and Turkey) are considered developing
countries. Aggregates refer to all countries from the group for
which data are available.
Country notes
Data for China do not include Hong Kong Special Administra
tive Region of China, Macao Special Administrative Region of
China or Taiwan Province of China.
As of 2 May 2016, Czechia is the short name to be used for
the Czech Republic.
As of 1 June 2018, the Kingdom of Eswatini is the name of
the country formerly known as Swaziland.
Symbols
A dash between two years, as in 2011–2017, indicates that the
data are from the most recent year available during the period
specied. A slash between years, as in 2012/2017, indicates
that
the data are the
average for the years shown. Growth rates are
usually average annual rates of growth between the rst and last
years of the period shown.
e following symbols are used in the tables:
..

Not available
0 or 0.0
Nil or negligible

Not applicable
Statistical acknowledgements
e 2018 Statistical Update’s composite indices and other sta
tistical resources draw on a wide variety of the most respect
ed international data providers in their specialized elds.
HDRO is particularly grateful to the Centre for Research
on the Epidemiology of Disasters; Economic Commission
for Latin America and the Caribbean; Eurostat; Food and
Agriculture Organization; Gallup; ICF Macro; Institute for
Criminal Policy Research; Internal Displacement Monitoring
Centre; International Labour Organization; International
Monetary Fund; International Telecommunication Union;
Inter-Parliamentary Union; Luxembourg Income Study;
Oce of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human
Rights; Oce of the United Nations High Commissioner
for Refugees; Organisation for Economic Co-operation and
Development; Socio-Economic Database for Latin America
and the Caribbean; Syrian Center for Policy Research; Unit
ed Nations Children’s Fund; United Nations Conference
on Trade and Development; United Nations Department
of Economic and Social Aairs; United Nations Economic
and Social Commission for West Asia; United Nations Edu
cational, Scientic and Cultural Organization Institute for
Statistics; United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and
the Empowerment of Women; United Nations Oce on
Drugs and Crime; United Nations World Tourism Organ
ization; World Bank; and World Health Organization. e
international education database maintained by Robert Barro
(Harvard University) and Jong-Wha Lee (Korea University)
was another invaluable source for the calculation of the 2018
Statistical Update’s indices.
Statistical tables
e rst six tables relate to the ve composite human devel
opment indices and their components. Since the 2010 Human
Development Report, four composite human development
indices—the HDI, the IHDI, the GII and the MPI for devel
oping countries—have been calculated. e 2014 Report intro
duced the GDI, which compares the HDI calculated separately
for women and men. A table with the MPI calculated based on
a revised methodology developed jointly by OPHI and UNDP
will be available in due course.
e remaining tables present a broader set of human develop
ment indicators and provide a more comprehensive picture of a
country’s human development.
For indicators that are global Sustainable Development Goals
indicators or can be used in monitoring progress towards specif
ic goals, the table headers include the relevant goals and targets.
Table 1, Human Development Index and its components,
ranks countries by 2017 HDI value and details the values of
the three HDI components: longevity, education (with two
indicators) and income per capita. e table also presents the
dierence in rankings by HDI value and gross national income
per capita, as well as the rank on the 2016 HDI, calculated
using the most recently revised historical data available in 2018.
Table 2, Human Development Index trends, 1990–2017,
provides a time series of HDI values allowing 2017 HDI values
to be compared with those for previous years. e table uses
the most recently revised historical data available in 2018 and
the same methodology applied to compute 2017 HDI values.
e table also includes the change in HDI rank over the last
ve years and the average annual HDI growth rate across
four time intervals: 1990–2000, 2000–2010, 2010–2017 and
1990–2017.
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDICES AND INDICATORS:
2018 STATISTICAL UPDATE
Table 3, Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index,
contains two related measures of inequality—the IHDI and
the loss in HDI due to inequality. e IHDI looks beyond the
average achievements of a country in longevity, education and
income to show how these achievements are distributed among
its residents. e IHDI value can be interpreted as the level of
human development when inequality is accounted for. e rel
ative dierence between IHDI and HDI values is the loss due
to inequality in distribution of the HDI within the country.
e table presents the coecient of human inequality, which is
the unweighted average of inequalities in the three dimensions.
In addition, the table shows each country’s dierence in rank
on the HDI and the IHDI. A negative value means that taking
inequality into account lowers a country’s rank on the HDI.
e table also presents three standard measures of income
inequality: the ratio of the top and the bottom quintiles; the
Palma ratio, which is the ratio of income of the top 10 percent
and the bottom 40 percent; and the Gini coecient.
Table 4, Gender Development Index,
measures dispar
ities on the HDI by gender. e table contains HDI values
estimated separately for women and men; the ratio of which is
the GDI value. e closer the ratio
is to 1,
the smaller the gap
between women and men. Values for the three HDI compo
nents—longevity, education (with two indicators) and income
per capita—are also presented by gender. e table includes ve
country groupings by absolute deviation from gender parity in
HDI values.
Table 5, Gender Inequality Index,
presents a composite
measure of gender inequality using three dimensions: repro
ductive health, empowerment and the labour market. e
reproductive health indicators are the maternal mortality ratio
and the adolescent birth rate. e empowerment indicators are
the share of parliamentary seats held by women and the share
of population with at least some secondary education by gender.
e labour market indicator is participation in the labour force
by gender. A low GII value indicates low inequality between
women and men, and vice-versa.
Table 6, Multidimensional Poverty Index,
captures the
multiple overlapping deprivations that people in developing
countries face in their health, education and standard of
living. The MPI shows both the incidence of nonincome
multidimensional poverty (a headcount of those in multidi
mensional poverty) and its intensity (the average deprivation
score experienced by poor people). Based on deprivation score
thresholds, people are classied as near multidimensional pov
erty, multidimensionally poor or in severe poverty. e table
includes the contribution of deprivation in each dimension to
overall multidimensional poverty. It also presents measures of
income poverty—population living below the national poverty
line and population living on less than $1.90 in purchasing
power parity terms per day. MPI values are based on a revised
methodology developed in partnership with OPHI. For details,
see
Technical note 5
at http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/les/
hdr2018_technical_notes.pdf and OPHI’s website (http://
ophi.org.uk/multidimensional-poverty-index/).
Table 7, Population trends,
contains major population
indicators, including total population, median age, dependency
ratios and total fertility rates, which can help assess the burden
of support that falls on the labour force in a country.
Table 8, Health outcomes,
presents indicators of infant
health (percentage of infants who are exclusively breastfed in
the 24 hours prior to the survey, percentage of infants who lack
immunization for DPT and measles and infant mortality rate)
and of child health (percentage of children under age 5 who are
stunted and under-ve mortality rates). e table also contains
indicators of adult health (adult mortality rates by gender, inci
dence of malaria and tuberculosis and HIV prevalence rates).
Finally, it includes healthy life expectancy at birth and current
health expenditure as a percentage of GDP.
Table 9, Education achievements,
presents standard edu
cation indicators. e table provides indicators of educational
attainment—adult and youth literacy rates and the share of the
adult population with at least some secondary education. Gross
enrolment ratios at each level of education are complemented by
primary school dropout rate and survival rate to the last grade
of lower secondary general education. e table also presents
government expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP.
Table 10, National income and composition of resources,
covers several macroeconomic indicators such as gross domes
tic product (GDP), gross xed capital formation, and taxes on
income, prot and capital gains as a percentage of total tax
revenue. Gross xed capital formation is a rough indicator of
national income that is invested rather than consumed. In
times of economic uncertainty or recession, gross xed capital
formation typically declines. General government nal con
sumption expenditure (presented as a share of GDP and as
average annual growth) is an indicator of public spending. In
addition, the table presents two indicators of debt—domestic
credit provided by the nancial sector and total debt service,
both measured as a percentage of GDP or GNI. e consumer
price index, a measure of ination, is also presented.
Table 11, Work and employment,
contains indicators on
four topics: employment, unemployment, work that is a risk to
human development and employment-related social security.
e employment indicators are the employment to popula
tion ratio, the labour force participation rate, employment in
agriculture and employment in services. e unemployment
indicators are total unemployment, youth unemployment and
youth not in school or employment. e indicators on work
that is a risk to human development are child labour and the
working poor. And the indicator on employment-related social
security is the percentage of the eligible population that receives
an old-age pension.
Table 12, Human security,
reects the extent to which the
population is secure. e table begins with the percentage of
births that are registered, followed by the number of refugees
Readers guide | 19
by country of origin and the number of internally displaced
people. It then shows the size of the homeless population due to
natural disasters, the population of orphaned children and the
prison population. It also provides homicide and suicide rates
(by gender) and includes an indicator on justication of wife
beating and an indicator on the depth of food decit.
Table 13, Human and capital mobility,
provides indica
tors of several aspects of globalization. International trade is
captured by measuring exports and imports as a share of GDP.
Financial ows are represented by net inows of foreign direct
investment and ows of private capital, net ocial develop
ment assistance and inows of remittances. Human mobility
is captured by the net migration rate, the stock of immigrants,
the net number of tertiary students from abroad (expressed as
a percentage of total tertiary enrolment in the country) and
the number of international inbound tourists. International
communication is represented by the percentages of the total
and female populations that use the Internet, the number of
mobile phone subscriptions per 100 people and the percentage
change in mobile phone subscriptions between 2010 and 2016.
Table 14, Supplementary indicators: perceptions of
well-being,
includes indicators that reect individuals’ per
ceptions of relevant dimensions of human development—edu
cation quality, health care quality, standard of living, personal
safety, freedom of choice and overall life satisfaction. e table
also presents indicators reecting perceptions about communi
ty and government.
Table 15, Status of fundamental human rights treaties,
shows when countries ratied key human rights conventions.
e 11 selected conventions cover basic human rights and free
doms related to elimination of all forms of racial and gender
discrimination and violence, protection of children’s rights,
rights of migrant workers and persons with disabilities. ey
also cover torture and other cruel, inhuman and degrading
treatment as well as protection from enforced disappearance.
Dashboard 1, uality of human development,
contains a
selection of indicators associated with the quality of health, edu
cation and standard of living. e indicators on quality of health
are lost health expectancy, number of physicians and number of
hospital beds. e indicators on quality of education are pupil–
teacher ratio in primary schools; primary school teachers trained
to teach; proportion of schools with access to the Internet; and
Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) scores
in mathematics, reading and science. e indicators on quality
of standard of living are the proportion of employment that is
in vulnerable employment, the proportion of rural population
with access to electricity, the proportion of population using
improved drinking-water sources and the proportion of popu
lation using improved sanitation facilities. A country in the top
third of an indicator distribution has performed better than at
least two-thirds of countries. A country that is in the top third
group on all indicators can be considered a country with the
highest quality of human development. e dashboard shows
that not all countries in the very high human development
group have the highest quality of human development and that
many countries in the low human development group are in the
bottom third of all quality indicators in the table.
Dashboard 2, Life-course gender gap,
contains a selection
of indicators that indicate gender gaps in choices and opportu
nities over the life course—childhood and youth, adulthood
and older age. e indicators refer to health, education, labour
market and work, seats in parliament, time use and social
protection. Most indicators are presented as a ratio of female
to male values. Sex ratio at birth is an exception to grouping
by tercile—countries are divided into two groups: the natural
group (countries with a value of 1.04–1.07, inclusive) and the
gender-biased group (all other countries). Deviations from
the natural sex ratio at birth have implications for population
replacement levels, suggest possible future social and economic
problems and may indicate gender bias. Countries with values
of a parity index concentrated around 1 form the group with
the best achievements in that indicator. Deviations from parity
are treated equally regardless of which gender is overachieving.
Dashboard 3, Women’s empowerment,
contains a selec
tion of woman-specic empowerment indicators that allows
empowerment to be compared across three dimensions: repro
ductive health and family planning, violence against girls and
women and socioeconomic empowerment. Most countries have
at least one indicator in each tercile, which implies that wom
en’s empowerment is unequal across indicators and countries.
Dashboard 4, Environmental sustainability,
contains a
selection of indicators that
cover environmental sustainability
and environmental threats. e environmental sustainability
indicators present levels of or changes in energy consumption,
carbon dioxide emissions, forest area and fresh water with
drawals. e environmental threats indicators are mortality
rates attributed to household and ambient air pollution and
to unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene services and the Inter
national Union for Conservation of Nature Red List Index
value, which measures aggregate extinction risk across groups
of species.
Dashboard 5, Socioeconomic sustainability,
contains a
selection of indicators that cover economic and social sustain
ability. e economic sustainability indicators are adjusted
net savings, total debt service, gross capital formation, skilled
labour force, diversity of exports and expenditure on research
and development. e social sustainability indicators are the
ratio of education and health expenditure to military expendi
ture, change in overall loss in HDI value due to inequality and
changes in gender and income inequality.
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDICES AND INDICATORS:
2018 STATISTICAL UPDATE
Human development
composite indices
SDG 4.3
SDG 4.6
SDG 8.5
Index (HDI)
at birth
of schooling
of schooling
(GNI) per capita
minus HDI rank
Value
VERY HIGH HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
Latvia
0.847
74.7
15.8
12.8
8
43
41
Portugal
0.847
81.4
16.3
9.2
27,315
2
42
43
Bahrain
0.846
77.0
16.0
9.4
–19
41
44
Chile
0.843
79.7
16.4
10.3
21,910
13
44
45
Hungary
0.838
76.1
15.1
11.9
25,393
3
45
46
Croatia
0.831
77.8
15.0
11.3
10
46
47
Argentina
0.825
76.7
17.4
9.9
19
47
48
Oman
0.821
77.3
13.9
9.5
36,290
–19
47
49
Russian Federation
0.816
71.2
15.5
12.0
3
49
50
Montenegro
0.814
77.3
14.9
11.3
19
50
51
Bulgaria
0.813
74.9
14.8
11.8
18,740
13
50
52
Romania
0.811
75.6
14.3
11.0
22,646
2
52
53
Belarus
0.808
73.1
15.5
12.3
16,323
18
54
54
Bahamas
0.807
75.8
12.8
–10
53
55
Uruguay
0.804
77.6
15.9
8.7
19,930
5
56
56
Kuwait
0.803
74.8
13.6
7.3
70,524
–51
55
57
Malaysia
0.802
75.5
13.7
10.2
–11
57
58
Barbados
0.800
76.1
15.3
10.6
57
58
Kazakhstan
0.800
70.0
15.1
11.8
–3
60
TABLE
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDICES AND INDICATORS:
2018 STATISTICAL UPDATE
TABLE
SDG 4.3
SDG 4.6
SDG 8.5
Index (HDI)
at birth
of schooling
of schooling
(GNI) per capita
minus HDI rank
Value
Turkey
Trinidad and Tobago
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
Tunisia
Tonga
Turkmenistan
TABLE
Human Development Index and its components | 23
TABLE
SDG 4.3
SDG 4.6
SDG 8.5
Index (HDI)
at birth
of schooling
of schooling
(GNI) per capita
minus HDI rank
Value
Cabo Verde
Tajikistan
Timor-Leste
Vanuatu
Sao Tome and Principe
Tanzania (United Republic of)
Togo
TABLE 1
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX AND ITS COMPONENTS
TABLE
SDG 4.3
SDG 4.6
SDG 8.5
Index (HDI)
at birth
of schooling
of schooling
(GNI) per capita
minus HDI rank
Value
Tuvalu
Very high human development
Organisation for Economic
World
Value from UNDESA (2011).
HDRO estimate based on data from World Bank
Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) Multiple
HDRO estimate based on data from World Bank
UNESCWA (2018).
Technical note 1
at http://hdr.undp.org/
TABLE
Human Development Index and its components | 25
TABLE
HDI rank
Average annual HDI growth
Value
VERY HIGH HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
0.891
1
0.90
0.47
0.43
0.62
27
Czechia
0.730
0.796
0.862
0.865
0.879
0.882
0.885
0.888
1
0.86
0.80
0.42
0.72
28
Italy
0.769
0.830
0.870
0.874
0.874
0.876
0.878
0.880
–2
0.76
0.48
0.15
0.50
29
Malta
0.740
0.783
0.843
0.849
0.862
0.871
0.875
0.878
4
0.56
0.74
0.59
0.64
30
Estonia
0.733
0.780
0.845
0.859
0.864
0.866
0.868
0.871
–1
0.63
0.79
0.44
0.64
31
Greece
0.753
0.796
0.856
0.854
0.864
0.866
0.868
0.870
–1
0.56
0.72
0.24
0.54
32
Cyprus
0.732
0.802
0.850
0.852
0.856
0.860
0.867
0.869
–1
0.91
0.59
0.31
0.64
33
Poland
0.712
0.785
0.835
0.836
0.842
0.855
0.860
0.865
5
0.98
0.62
0.50
0.72
34
United Arab Emirates
0.727
0.798
0.836
0.846
0.855
0.860
0.862
0.863
1
0.94
0.47
0.45
0.64
35
Andorra
..
0.759
0.828
0.849
0.853
0.854
0.856
0.858
–2
..
0.88
0.51
..
35
Lithuania
0.732
0.756
0.824
0.831
0.851
0.852
0.855
0.858
5
0.33
0.87
0.58
0.59
37
Qatar
0.754
0.810
0.825
0.844
0.853
0.854
0.855
0.856
–1
0.72
0.19
0.52
0.47
38
Slovakia
0.739
0.764
0.829
0.842
0.845
0.851
0.853
0.855
–1
0.33
0.83
0.44
0.54
39
Brunei Darussalam
0.782
0.819
0.842
0.852
0.853
0.852
0.852
0.853
–8
0.46
0.28
0.19
0.32
39
Saudi Arabia
0.697
0.743
0.808
0.835
0.852
0.854
0.854
0.853
0
0.64
0.84
0.78
0.75
41
Latvia
0.704
0.728
0.816
0.824
0.838
0.841
0.844
0.847
2
0.33
1.15
0.53
0.69
41
Portugal
0.711
0.785
0.822
0.829
0.839
0.842
0.845
0.847
1
0.98
0.46
0.44
0.65
43
Bahrain
0.746
0.792
0.796
0.800
0.810
0.832
0.846
0.846
7
0.60
0.06
0.87
0.47
44
Chile
0.701
0.759
0.808
0.819
0.833
0.840
0.842
0.843
0
0.80
0.62
0.61
0.68
45
Hungary
0.704
0.769
0.823
0.830
0.833
0.834
0.835
0.838
–4
0.89
0.68
0.26
0.65
46
Croatia
0.670
0.750
0.808
0.816
0.824
0.827
0.828
0.831
0
1.14
0.75
0.40
0.80
47
Argentina
0.704
0.771
0.813
0.818
0.820
0.822
0.822
0.825
–2
0.91
0.54
0.20
0.59
48
Oman
..
0.704
0.793
0.804
0.815
0.822
0.822
0.821
0
..
1.19
0.50
..
49
Russian Federation
0.734
0.720
0.780
0.798
0.807
0.813
0.815
0.816
3
–0.18
0.80
0.66
0.40
50
Montenegro
..
..
0.793
0.800
0.805
0.809
0.810
0.814
0
..
..
0.36
..
51
Bulgaria
0.694
0.712
0.779
0.786
0.797
0.807
0.810
0.813
6
0.26
0.90
0.61
0.59
52
Romania
0.701
0.709
0.797
0.795
0.802
0.805
0.807
0.811
2
0.11
1.18
0.25
0.54
53
Belarus
..
0.792
0.803
0.807
0.805
0.805
0.808
–4
..
1.49
0.29
..
54
Bahamas
..
0.776
0.789
0.807
0.807
0.807
0.806
0.807
–7
..
0.17
0.32
..
55
Uruguay
0.692
0.742
0.773
0.790
0.801
0.800
0.802
0.804
1
0.70
0.40
0.57
0.56
56
Kuwait
0.713
0.786
0.792
0.796
0.799
0.802
0.804
0.803
–3
0.99
0.07
0.20
0.44
57
Malaysia
0.643
0.725
0.772
0.781
0.790
0.795
0.799
0.802
1
1.20
0.63
0.54
0.82
58
Barbados
0.716
0.752
0.782
0.795
0.796
0.797
0.799
0.800
–4
0.49
0.39
0.34
0.41
58
Kazakhstan
0.690
0.685
0.765
0.781
0.793
0.797
0.797
0.800
0
–0.07
1.12
0.64
0.55
TABLE
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDICES AND INDICATORS:
2018 STATISTICAL UPDATE
TABLE
HDI rank
Average annual HDI growth
Value
Turkey
Trinidad and Tobago
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
Tunisia
Tonga
Turkmenistan
0.670
0.684
0.696
0.693
0.697
0.700
–3
–0.86
1.15
0.62
0.27
MEDIUM HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
113
Philippines
0.586
0.624
0.665
0.677
0.689
0.693
0.696
0.699
1
0.64
0.64
0.71
0.66
113
South Africa
0.618
0.630
0.649
0.664
0.685
0.692
0.696
0.699
6
0.19
0.30
1.06
0.46
115
Egypt
0.546
0.611
0.665
0.675
0.683
0.691
0.694
0.696
0
1.12
0.86
0.64
0.90
116
Indonesia
0.528
0.606
0.661
0.675
0.683
0.686
0.691
0.694
–1
1.39
0.88
0.69
1.02
116
TABLE
Human Development Index trends, 1990–2017 | 27
TABLE
HDI rank
Average annual HDI growth
Value
Cabo Verde
Tajikistan
Timor-Leste
Vanuatu
Sao Tome and Principe
Tanzania (United Republic of)
Togo
0.442
0.454
0.465
0.478
0.486
0.492
3
0.16
1.16
1.55
0.89
171
Malawi
0.340
0.399
0.441
0.455
0.468
0.470
0.474
0.477
1
1.62
1.01
1.11
1.26
172
Djibouti
..
0.363
0.449
0.459
0.467
0.470
0.474
0.476
–1
..
2.15
0.82
..
173
TABLE
TABLE 2
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX TRENDS, 1990–2017
HDI rank
Average annual HDI growth
Value
Tuvalu
Very high human development
Organisation for Economic
World
For HDI values that are comparable across years and
countries, use this table or the interpolated data at
http://hdr.undp.org/en/data, which present trends
Technical note 1
at http://hdr.undp.org/
TABLE
Human Development Index trends, 1990–2017 | 29
TABLE
Development
Index (HDI)
HDI (IHDI)
of human
inequality
in life
expectancy
adjusted life
expectancy
index
in
education
adjusted
education
index
in
income
adjusted
income
index
Value
Value
loss (%)
from HDI
rank
Value
Value
Value
ratio
ratio
Gini
VERY HIGH HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
0.901
0.808
10.3
1
10.1
3.6
0.930
8.6
0.768
18.1
0.739
5.2
1.3
32.7
Slovenia
0.896
0.846
5.6
11
5.5
3.0
0.912
2.2
0.866
11.4
0.766
3.7
0.9
25.4
26
Spain
0.891
0.754
15.4
–12
14.9
3.0
0.945
18.6
0.671
23.3
0.676
7.3
1.5
36.2
27
Czechia
0.888
0.840
5.3
11
5.2
3.3
0.876
1.6
0.879
10.8
0.771
3.7
0.9
25.9
28
Italy
0.880
0.771
12.3
–4
11.9
2.9
0.944
10.5
0.708
22.5
0.687
6.6
1.4
34.7
29
Malta
0.878
0.805
8.3
5
8.2
4.0
0.901
6.9
0.762
13.7
0.761
4.4
29.0
Estonia
0.871
0.794
8.8
3
8.5
4.3
0.850
2.3
0.849
18.9
0.694
5.4
1.2
32.7
31
Greece
0.870
0.753
13.5
–8
13.1
3.5
0.912
13.1
0.728
22.8
0.642
7.1
1.5
36.0
32
Cyprus
0.869
0.769
11.5
–1
11.3
3.6
0.900
11.7
0.714
18.7
0.707
5.3
1.4
34.0
33
Poland
0.865
0.787
9.0
5
8.8
4.7
0.847
4.7
0.825
17.1
0.697
5.0
1.2
31.8
34
United Arab Emirates
0.863
..
..
..
..
5.2
0.837
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
35
Andorra
0.858
..
..
..
..
..
..
9.4
0.647
..
..
..
..
..
35
Lithuania
0.858
0.757
11.7
–1
11.3
5.4
0.797
4.5
0.840
23.9
0.649
7.2
1.6
37.4
37
Qatar
0.856
..
..
..
..
5.9
0.844
11.4
0.619
..
..
..
..
..
38
Slovakia
0.855
0.797
6.8
10
6.7
5.2
0.831
1.4
0.819
13.4
0.744
4.1
0.9
26.5
39
Brunei Darussalam
0.853
..
..
..
..
5.5
0.834
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
39
Saudi Arabia
0.853
..
..
..
..
8.9
0.767
16.2
0.660
..
..
..
..
..
41
Latvia
0.847
0.759
10.4
2
10.1
5.9
0.792
3.7
0.834
20.7
0.661
5.9
1.4
34.2
41
Portugal
0.847
0.732
13.6
–7
13.2
2.9
0.918
16.3
0.635
20.5
0.674
6.4
1.5
35.5
43
Bahrain
0.846
..
..
..
..
5.6
0.828
19.0
0.614
..
..
..
..
..
44
Chile
0.843
0.710
15.7
–7
14.9
6.1
0.863
7.5
0.741
31.1
0.561
11.2
2.8
47.7
45
Hungary
0.838
0.772
7.8
8
7.7
4.7
0.822
3.2
0.789
15.2
0.710
4.9
1.1
30.4
46
Croatia
0.831
0.756
9.0
4
8.8
4.1
0.853
5.0
0.752
17.3
0.675
5.2
1.1
30.8
47
Argentina
0.825
0.707
14.3
–6
13.9
9.5
0.790
6.2
0.765
25.8
0.585
9.5
2.1
42.4
48
Oman
0.821
..
..
..
..
7.1
0.818
..
..
..
..
..
..
49
Russian Federation
0.816
0.738
9.5
1
9.3
8.0
0.725
2.2
0.814
17.7
0.683
6.6
1.7
37.7
50
Montenegro
0.814
0.741
8.9
3
8.8
4.4
0.842
7.4
0.732
14.6
0.661
4.8
1.2
31.9
51
Bulgaria
0.813
0.710
12.7
–1
12.3
6.7
0.788
6.5
0.753
23.6
0.604
7.3
1.6
37.4
52
Romania
0.811
0.717
11.7
1
11.4
6.8
0.797
6.3
0.714
21.0
0.647
4.3
1.0
28.3
53
Belarus
0.808
0.755
6.5
9
6.5
4.9
0.776
3.7
0.807
10.8
0.686
3.8
1.0
27.0
54
Bahamas
0.807
..
..
..
..
8.7
0.784
6.3
0.680
..
..
..
..
..
55
Uruguay
0.804
0.689
14.3
–4
13.9
9.0
0.807
7.4
0.679
25.3
0.598
7.9
1.8
39.7
56
Kuwait
0.803
..
..
..
..
6.3
0.790
17.8
0.510
..
..
..
..
..
57
Malaysia
0.802
..
..
..
..
5.9
0.803
15.6
0.607
..
..
11.2
Barbados
0.800
0.669
16.4
–8
15.4
7.0
0.802
5.5
0.734
33.6
0.508
..
..
..
58
Kazakhstan
0.800
0.737
7.9
6
7.9
10.1
0.692
3.2
0.788
10.3
0.734
3.7
1.0
26.9
TABLE
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDICES AND INDICATORS:
2018 STATISTICAL UPDATE
TABLE
Development
Index (HDI)
HDI (IHDI)
of human
inequality
in life
expectancy
adjusted life
expectancy
index
in
education
adjusted
education
index
in
income
adjusted
income
index
Value
Value
loss (%)
from HDI
rank
Value
Value
Value
ratio
ratio
Gini
Turkey
Trinidad and Tobago
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
Tunisia
Tonga
Turkmenistan
TABLE
Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index | 31
TABLE
Development
Index (HDI)
HDI (IHDI)
of human
inequality
in life
expectancy
adjusted life
expectancy
index
in
education
adjusted
education
index
in
income
adjusted
income
index
Value
Value
loss (%)
from HDI
rank
Value
Value
Value
ratio
ratio
Gini
Cabo Verde
Tajikistan
Timor-Leste
Vanuatu
Sao Tome and Principe
Tanzania (United Republic of)
Togo
TABLE 3
INEQUALITY-ADJUSTED HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX
TABLE
Development
Index (HDI)
HDI (IHDI)
of human
inequality
in life
expectancy
adjusted life
expectancy
index
in
education
adjusted
education
index
in
income
adjusted
income
index
Value
Value
loss (%)
from HDI
rank
Value
Value
Value
ratio
ratio
Gini
Yemen
Tuvalu
Very high human development
Organisation for Economic
World
See http://hdr.undp.org/en/composite/IHDI for the list
Technical note 1
at http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/
TABLE
Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index | 33
TABLE
SDG 4.3
SDG 4.6
SDG 8.5
Index
Index (HDI)
at birth
of schooling
of schooling
income per capita
Value
Value
VERY HIGH HUMAN DEVELOPMEN7
12.3
26,898
34,341
26
Spain
0.979
1
0.879
0.898
86.0
80.5
18.2
9.7
10.0
26,954
41,850
27
Czechia
0.986
1
0.881
0.894
81.7
76.0
17.6
16.1
12.6
13.1
23,224
38,206
28
Italy
0.967
2
0.863
0.893
85.3
80.9
16.6
15.9
10.0
45,326
29
Malta
0.960
2
0.858
0.893
82.6
79.4
16.4
15.4
11.0
11.6
24,255
44,446
30
Estonia
1.019
1
0.876
0.860
82.0
73.0
16.9
15.3
13.0
12.2
21,896
37,043
31
Greece
0.964
2
0.853
0.885
83.9
78.9
17.0
17.5
10.5
11.0
19,658
29,796
32
Cyprus
0.984
1
0.861
0.875
82.8
78.5
15.0
14.2
12.0
12.2
26,580
36,543
33
Poland
1.006
1
0.866
0.861
81.6
73.9
17.3
15.6
12.3
12.3
20,367
32,343
34
United Arab Emirates
0.968
2
0.832
0.859
78.9
76.7
14.3
13.4
11.9
84,130
Andorra
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
10.1
10.2
..
..
35
Lithuania
1.026
2
0.868
0.846
80.0
69.4
16.6
15.7
13.0
13.0
24,366
32,934
37
Qatar
1.031
2
0.870
0.843
80.0
77.6
14.8
12.0
10.8
9.5
59,164
135,961
Slovakia
0.991
1
0.850
0.858
80.4
73.4
15.5
14.4
12.3
12.6
22,600
36,726
39
Brunei Darussalam
0.990
1
0.846
0.854
79.1
75.8
14.8
14.1
9.0
88,204
Saudi Arabia
0.877
5
0.782
0.892
76.5
73.4
16.0
17.8
8.8
73,945
41
Latvia
1.030
2
0.858
0.834
79.4
69.7
16.5
15.1
13.2
29,924
41
Portugal
0.983
1
0.839
0.853
84.2
78.4
16.2
16.4
9.2
9.2
23,095
32,013
43
Bahrain
0.931
3
0.805
0.865
78.1
76.2
16.6
15.6
9.3
55,130
44
Chile
0.961
2
0.823
0.856
82.1
77.2
16.7
16.2
10.2
10.5
15,137
28,809
45
Hungary
0.985
1
0.830
0.843
79.4
72.5
15.4
14.8
11.7
12.1
19,931
31,413
46
Croatia
0.991
1
0.828
0.835
81.0
74.5
15.7
14.3
11.2
27,164
47
Argentina
0.997
1
0.816
0.819
80.4
73.0
18.7
16.2
10.1
24,789
48
Oman
0.942
3
0.781
0.829
79.7
75.6
14.7
13.4
10.4
9.2
11,246
49,282
49
Russian Federation
1.019
1
0.823
0.808
76.8
65.6
15.9
15.2
12.0
29,671
50
Montenegro
0.956
2
0.794
0.831
79.6
74.9
15.2
14.7
10.7
20,692
51
Bulgaria
0.990
1
0.808
0.816
78.4
71.5
15.0
14.6
11.9
11.8
14,777
22,930
52
Romania
0.985
1
0.804
0.817
79.0
72.1
13.9
10.6
11.3
18,217
27,358
53
Belarus
1.020
1
0.814
0.799
78.5
67.5
15.9
15.1
12.2
12.4
13,479
19,592
54
Bahamas
..
..
..
..
78.8
72.7
..
..
11.5
31,397
55
Uruguay
1.014
1
0.807
0.796
81.0
74.0
16.9
15.0
9.0
8.4
15,282
24,905
56
Kuwait
0.990
1
0.791
0.799
76.1
73.9
14.3
12.9
8.0
6.9
39,570
93,476
Malaysia
0.976
1
0.791
0.810
77.9
73.3
14.1
13.3
10.0
31,826
58
Barbados
1.015
1
0.805
0.792
78.4
73.6
16.7
13.9
10.6
18,384
58
Kazakhstan
1.007
1
0.801
0.795
74.8
65.3
15.5
14.8
11.8
28,815
TABLE
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDICES AND INDICATORS:
2018 STATISTICAL UPDATE
TABLE
SDG 4.3
SDG 4.6
SDG 8.5
Index
Index (HDI)
at birth
of schooling
of schooling
income per capita
Value
Value
Turkey
Trinidad and Tobago
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
Tunisia
Tonga
Turkmenistan
12.5
20,825
110
Paraguay
0.972
2
0.690
0.710
75.5
71.1
13.2
12.2
8.4
8.3
6,212
10,486
112
Moldova (Republic of)
1.005
1
0.701
0.698
76.0
67.4
11.9
11.4
11.5
11.7
4,849
6,318
MEDIUM HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
113
Philippines
1.000
1
0.699
0.698
72.8
65.9
12.9
12.3
9.5
10,705
113
South Africa
0.984
1
0.692
0.704
67.0
59.9
13.7
13.1
9.9
10.4
9,060
14,894
115
Egypt
0.872
5
0.636
0.729
74.0
69.5
13.1
13.1
6.5
16,489
116
Indonesia
0.932
3
0.666
0.715
71.6
67.3
12.8
12.8
7.5
8.4
7,259
14,385
116
TABLE
Gender Development Index | 35
TABLE
SDG 4.3
SDG 4.6
SDG 8.5
Index
Index (HDI)
at birth
of schooling
of schooling
income per capita
Value
Value
Cabo Verde
Tajikistan
Timor-Leste
Vanuatu
Sao Tome and Principe
Tanzania (United Republic of)
Togo
1,643
167
Sudan
0.831
5
0.446
0.537
66.3
63.1
7.2
7.7
3.1
6,455
168
Afghanistan
0.625
5
0.364
0.583
65.4
62.8
8.0
12.7
1.9
3,030
168
Haiti
..
..
..
..
65.8
61.4
..
..
4.3
1,937
170
Côte d'Ivoire
0.841
5
0.446
0.531
55.7
52.7
8.1
10.0
4.0
4,409
171
Malawi
0.936
3
0.460
0.492
66.2
61.0
10.9
10.8
4.0
1,235
172
Djibouti
..
..
..
..
64.4
61.0
5.8
6.7
..
..
2,491
4,286
173
TABLE 4
GENDER DEVELOPMENT INDEX
TABLE
SDG 4.3
SDG 4.6
SDG 8.5
Index
Index (HDI)
at birth
of schooling
of schooling
income per capita
Value
Value
Yemen
Tuvalu
Very high human development
Organisation for Economic
World
Technical note 3
at http://hdr.
TABLE
Gender Development Index | 37
TABLE
SDG 3.7
SDG 5.5
SDG 4.6
Index
mortality ratio
birth rate
in parliament
secondary education
participation rate
Value
live births)
ages 15–19)
VERY HIGH HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
..
35
Lithuania
0.123
28
10
10.7
21.3
91.8
96.4
55.9
66.2
37
Qatar
0.206
44
13
9.9
9.8
70.9
68.0
58.1
94.6
38
Slovakia
0.180
39
6
22.0
20.0
99.1
100.0
52.5
67.7
39
Brunei Darussalam
0.236
51
23
10.3
9.1
69.1
74.7
39
Saudi Arabia
0.234
50
12
7.8
19.9
67.8
75.5
22.3
79.5
41
Latvia
0.196
42
18
13.5
16.0
99.4
99.1
55.2
67.3
41
Portugal
0.088
19
10
9.4
34.8
52.1
53.4
53.3
63.8
43
Bahrain
0.222
47
15
13.4
15.0
63.7
57.1
44.0
87.0
44
Chile
0.319
72
22
45.6
15.8
80.9
50.6
74.4
45
Hungary
0.259
54
17
19.7
10.1
95.7
98.0
47.9
64.2
46
Croatia
0.124
29
8
8.9
18.5
94.5
96.9
45.5
57.7
47
Argentina
0.358
81
52
62.8
38.9
65.9
73.2
48
Oman
0.264
56
17
7.1
8.8
73.4
63.7
30.2
87.3
49
Russian Federation
0.257
53
25
21.6
16.1
95.8
95.3
56.6
71.8
50
Montenegro
0.132
32
7
11.8
23.5
87.0
96.4
42.2
55.0
51
Bulgaria
0.217
46
11
39.5
23.8
93.7
96.1
47.8
59.6
52
Romania
0.311
68
31
33.1
18.7
86.5
92.7
44.1
63.1
53
Belarus
0.130
31
4
17.2
33.1
87.0
92.2
58.4
70.7
54
Bahamas
0.340
75
80
26.7
21.8
87.4
87.6
70.0
82.0
55
Uruguay
0.270
57
15
54.7
22.3
55.8
52.1
56.1
74.4
56
Kuwait
0.270
57
4
9.0
3.1
54.8
49.3
47.4
84.1
57
Malaysia
0.287
62
40
13.4
13.1
78.9
81.3
50.8
77.4
58
Barbados
0.284
60
27
37.3
19.6
94.2
70.0
58
Kazakhstan
0.197
43
12
27.5
22.1
98.5
99.1
65.4
77.3
TABLE
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDICES AND INDICATORS:
2018 STATISTICAL UPDATE
TABLE
SDG 3.7
SDG 5.5
SDG 4.6
Index
mortality ratio
birth rate
in parliament
secondary education
participation rate
Value
live births)
ages 15–19)
Turkey
Trinidad and Tobago
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
Tunisia
Tonga
Turkmenistan
TABLE
Gender Inequality Index | 39
SDG 3.7
SDG 5.5
SDG 4.6
Index
mortality ratio
birth rate
in parliament
secondary education
participation rate
Value
live births)
ages 15–19)
Cabo Verde
Tajikistan
Timor-Leste
Vanuatu
Sao Tome and Principe
Tanzania (United Republic of)
Togo
TABLE 5
GENDER INEQUALITY INDEX
TABLE
SDG 3.7
SDG 5.5
SDG 4.6
Index
mortality ratio
birth rate
in parliament
secondary education
participation rate
Value
live births)
ages 15–19)
Yemen
Tuvalu
Very high human development
Organisation for Economic
World
a
Estimates modelled by the International Labour
Organization.
b
Data are the annual average of projected values
for 2015–2020.
c
Data refer to the most recent year available
during the period specied.
d
Based on Barro and Lee (2016).
e
Refers to 2016.
f
Excludes the 36 special rotating delegates
appointed on an ad hoc basis.
g
Refers to 2013.
h
In calculating the Gender Inequality Index, a value
of 0.1 percent was used.
i
Refers to 2015.
T
From original data source.
DEFINITIONS
Gender Inequality Index:
TABLE
Gender Inequality Index | 41
Human development
indicators
Total
Average annual
age 5
15–64
and older
age
ages 15–64)
Total fertility rate
Young age
(65 and older)
–0.9
–0.5
53.9
0.9
13.2
3.5
41.3
22.8
26.7
1.5
1.5
53
Belarus
9.5
9.2
–0.3
–0.1
78.1
0.6
6.5
1.4
39.6
24.5
21.6
1.4
1.7
54
Bahamas
0.4
0.4
1.8
1.0
82.9
0.0
0.3
0.0
32.5
29.0
12.8
1.9
1.8
55
Uruguay
3.5
3.6
0.3
0.4
95.2
0.2
2.2
0.5
34.9
32.8
22.8
2.1
2.0
56
Kuwait
4.1
4.9
5.5
1.8
100.0
0.3
3.2
0.1
33.4
27.5
3.1
2.4
2.0
57
Malaysia
36.8
1.8
1.4
75.4
2.6
21.9
2.0
27.7
35.0
9.1
2.2
2.0
58
Barbados
0.3
0.3
0.4
0.2
31.2
0.0
0.2
0.0
38.5
28.9
22.7
1.8
1.8
58
Kazakhstan
18.2
20.3
1.1
1.1
57.3
2.0
11.8
1.3
29.3
42.9
10.7
2.5
2.6
TABLE
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDICES AND INDICATORS:
2018 STATISTICAL UPDATE
TABLE
Total
Average annual
age 5
15–64
and older
age
ages 15–64)
Total fertility rate
Young age
(65 and older)
Turkey
Trinidad and Tobago
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
Tunisia
Tonga
Turkmenistan
1.2
61.3
0.7
4.4
0.4
24.9
45.8
9.9
2.9
2.5
112
Moldova (Republic of)
3.8
–0.4
–0.2
42.6
0.2
3.0
0.4
35.6
21.4
14.8
1.3
1.2
MEDIUM HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
113
Philippines
104.9
125.4
1.7
1.5
46.7
11.6
66.6
5.0
24.1
50.0
7.6
3.3
2.9
113
South Africa
56.7
64.5
1.1
1.2
65.8
5.7
37.2
3.0
26.1
44.1
8.1
2.6
2.4
115
Egypt
97.6
119.7
1.8
1.9
42.7
12.9
59.9
5.0
24.7
54.5
8.4
3.0
3.2
116
Indonesia
264.0
295.6
1.3
1.1
54.7
24.7
177.7
14.0
28.0
40.6
7.9
2.5
2.3
116
TABLE
Population trends | 45
Total
Average annual
age 5
15–64
and older
age
ages 15–64)
Total fertility rate
Young age
(65 and older)
Cabo Verde
Tajikistan
Timor-Leste
Vanuatu
Sao Tome and Principe
Tanzania (United Republic of)
Togo
1.2
6.8
0.5
23.0
53.0
7.7
3.6
2.9
170
Côte d'Ivoire
24.3
33.3
2.1
2.5
50.3
3.9
13.3
0.7
18.3
77.7
5.4
5.4
4.8
171
Malawi
18.6
26.6
3.0
2.9
16.7
3.0
9.9
0.6
17.4
82.9
5.6
5.7
4.5
172
Djibouti
1.0
1.1
1.7
1.5
77.6
0.1
0.6
0.0
23.7
48.0
6.5
3.6
2.8
173
TABLE 7
POPULATION TRENDS
TABLE
Total
Average annual
age 5
15–64
and older
age
ages 15–64)
Total fertility rate
Young age
(65 and older)
Yemen
Tuvalu
Very high human development
Organisation for Economic
World
TABLE
Population trends | 47
SDG 3.b
SDG 2.2
SDG 3.2
SDG 3.2
SDG 3
SDG 3
SDG 3.3
SDG 3.3
SDG 3.3
SDG 3.c
breastfed
immunization
malnutrition
prevalence,
adult
expectancy
at birth
health
expenditure
(moderate
or severe)
Under-ve
Tuberculosis
(% of one-year-olds)
age 5)
(per 1,000 people)
people at risk)
people)
15–49)
VERY HIGH HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
..
3.2
3.9
49
7.7
0.4
73.4
11.1
25
Slovenia
..
2
7
..
1.8
2.3
44
6.5
0.1
8.5
26
Spain
..
2
4
..
2.7
3.3
38
10.0
0.4
73.8
9.2
27
Czechia
..
2
3
..
2.5
3.2
53
5.0
0.1
7.3
28
Italy
..
2
8
..
2.8
3.3
37
6.1
0.3
73.2
9.0
29
Malta
..
2
9
..
5.9
6.8
40
67
..
13.0
0.1
9.6
30
Estonia
..
6
7
..
2.3
2.9
65
16.0
..
68.2
6.5
31
Greece
..
1
3
..
3.1
3.8
41
89
..
4.4
..
72.0
8.4
32
Cyprus
..
2
10
..
2.1
2.6
34
67
..
5.6
..
73.3
6.8
33
Poland
..
1
4
..
4.0
4.7
64
18.0
..
68.5
6.3
34
United Arab Emirates
..
3
1
..
6.6
7.7
56
79
..
0.8
..
66.7
3.5
35
Andorra
..
1
1
..
2.4
2.7
..
..
..
6.0
..
..
12.0
35
Lithuania
..
3
6
..
4.3
5.3
85
53.0
0.2
66.1
6.5
37
Qatar
29.3
2
1
..
7.3
8.5
46
65
..
23.0
0.1
3.1
38
Slovakia
..
1
4
..
4.9
5.9
63
5.9
0.1
6.9
39
Brunei Darussalam
..
1
3
19.7
9.9
72
102
..
66.0
..
67.9
2.6
39
Saudi Arabia
..
1
4
..
11.1
12.9
77
96
0.2
10.0
0.1
5.8
41
Latvia
..
2
4
..
3.9
4.6
89
37.0
0.7
66.2
5.8
41
Portugal
..
1
2
..
2.9
3.5
42
20.0
..
72.0
9.0
43
Bahrain
..
2
1
..
6.5
7.6
58
73
..
12.0
0.1
5.2
44
Chile
..
2
7
1.8
7.2
8.3
66
108
..
16.0
0.5
69.7
8.1
45
Hungary
..
1
1
..
4.4
5.2
84
8.8
..
66.8
7.2
46
Croatia
..
2
11
..
4.0
4.7
55
130
..
12.0
0.1
7.4
47
Argentina
32.7
9
11
..
9.9
11.1
74
151
0.0
24.0
0.4
68.4
6.8
48
Oman
32.8
1
1
14.1
9.2
10.7
68
107
..
..
65.6
3.8
49
Russian Federation
..
3
2
..
6.6
7.7
120
66.0
..
63.5
5.6
50
Montenegro
16.8
5
42
9.4
3.5
3.8
65
123
..
16.0
0.1
6.0
51
Bulgaria
..
4
6
..
6.5
7.6
..
..
..
27.0
0.1
8.2
52
Romania
15.8
14
..
7.7
9.0
79
184
..
74.0
0.1
5.0
53
Belarus
19.0
3
3
..
2.9
3.9
90
52.0
0.4
65.5
6.1
54
Bahamas
..
2
10
..
8.6
10.6
118
197
..
26.0
3.3
66.8
7.4
55
Uruguay
..
3
5
10.7
7.9
9.2
76
133
..
29.0
0.6
68.8
9.2
56
Kuwait
..
1
1
4.9
7.2
8.4
57
93
..
24.0
0.1
4.0
57
Malaysia
..
1
7
20.7
7.1
8.3
84
157
0.2
92.0
0.4
66.6
4.0
58
Barbados
19.7
8
7.7
11.4
12.3
73
123
..
1.2
1.3
67.0
7.5
58
Kazakhstan
37.8
1
1
8.0
10.1
11.4
117
295
..
67.0
0.2
63.4
3.9
TABLE
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDICES AND INDICATORS:
2018 STATISTICAL UPDATE
TABLE
SDG 3.b
SDG 2.2
SDG 3.2
SDG 3.2
SDG 3
SDG 3
SDG 3.3
SDG 3.3
SDG 3.3
SDG 3.c
breastfed
immunization
malnutrition
prevalence,
adult
expectancy
at birth
health
expenditure
(moderate
or severe)
Under-ve
Tuberculosis
(% of one-year-olds)
age 5)
(per 1,000 people)
people at risk)
people)
15–49)
Turkey
Trinidad and Tobago
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
Tunisia
Tonga
Turkmenistan
..
60.0
..
61.4
6.3
110
Gabon
6.0
19
37
17.0
34.3
47.4
212
253
206.2
485.0
3.6
58.7
2.7
110
Paraguay
24.4
8
5.6
17.0
19.9
125
165
0.0
42.0
0.5
65.3
7.8
112
Moldova (Republic of)
36.4
9
7
6.4
13.7
15.9
98
241
..
101.0
0.6
63.6
10.2
MEDIUM HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
113
Philippines
34.0
11
33.4
21.5
27.1
136
261
0.5
554.0
0.1
4.4
113
South Africa
31.6
26
40
27.4
34.2
43.3
274
396
1.1
781.0
18.9
55.7
8.2
115
Egypt
39.7
5
6
22.3
19.4
22.8
109
186
..
14.0
0.1
4.2
116
Indonesia
41.5
4
25
36.4
22.2
26.4
143
204
9.2
391.0
0.4
61.7
3.3
116
TABLE
Health outcomes | 49
SDG 3.b
SDG 2.2
SDG 3.2
SDG 3.2
SDG 3
SDG 3
SDG 3.3
SDG 3.3
SDG 3.3
SDG 3.c
breastfed
immunization
malnutrition
prevalence,
adult
expectancy
at birth
health
expenditure
(moderate
or severe)
Under-ve
Tuberculosis
(% of one-year-olds)
age 5)
(per 1,000 people)
people at risk)
people)
15–49)
Cabo Verde
Tajikistan
Timor-Leste
Vanuatu
Sao Tome and Principe
Tanzania (United Republic of)
Togo
50.9
67.0
210
272
13.9
188.0
2.1
55.3
6.9
170
Côte d'Ivoire
12.1
1
22
21.6
66.0
91.8
371
411
223.2
153.0
2.7
48.3
5.4
171
Malawi
61.2
7
17
37.4
38.9
55.1
228
341
249.1
159.0
9.2
56.2
9.3
172
Djibouti
1.3
25
33.5
53.5
64.2
226
273
9.6
335.0
1.3
56.6
4.4
173
TABLE 8
HEALTH OUTCOMES
TABLE
SDG 3.b
SDG 2.2
SDG 3.2
SDG 3.2
SDG 3
SDG 3
SDG 3.3
SDG 3.3
SDG 3.3
SDG 3.c
breastfed
immunization
malnutrition
prevalence,
adult
expectancy
at birth
health
expenditure
(moderate
or severe)
Under-ve
Tuberculosis
(% of one-year-olds)
age 5)
(per 1,000 people)
people at risk)
people)
15–49)
Yemen
Tuvalu
Very high human development
Organisation for Economic
World
TABLE
Health outcomes | 51
SDG 4.6
SDG 4.6
SDG 4.2
SDG 4.1
SDG 4.1
SDG 4.3
SDG 1.a
at least some
secondary
education
school
dropout rate
the last grade of
lower secondary
general education
expenditure
on education
(% ages 15
and older)
Youth
Tertiary
and older)
preschool-age
children)
school–age
population)
school–age
population)
school–age
population)
school cohort)
VERY HIGH HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
7.2
30
Estonia
99.9
100.0
99.9
100.0
88
97
111
72
2.0
100
5.5
31
Greece
97.1
98.8
98.6
69.2
47
95
99
117
8.3
99
..
32
Cyprus
98.7
99.8
99.8
78.6
80
99
100
60
2.4
100
6.1
33
Poland
..
..
..
86.2
70
110
107
67
2.0
98
4.9
34
United Arab Emirates
..
..
..
69.0
111
96
37
8.0
97
..
35
Andorra
100.0
100.0
100.0
72.5
..
..
..
..
28.8
93
3.3
35
Lithuania
99.8
99.9
99.8
93.8
90
101
103
66
1.8
97
4.5
37
Qatar
97.7
99.6
98.4
68.4
60
104
93
15
1.5
98
3.6
38
Slovakia
..
..
..
99.3
93
99
91
53
1.0
88
4.6
39
Brunei Darussalam
96.1
99.5
99.2
69.7
107
93
31
3.6
100
4.4
39
Saudi Arabia
94.4
99.1
99.3
72.8
25
116
117
67
25.8
86
..
41
Latvia
99.9
99.9
99.8
99.3
87
98
112
68
4.8
96
5.3
41
Portugal
94.5
99.5
99.4
52.7
93
105
118
63
..
..
5.1
43
Bahrain
94.6
97.6
98.6
59.2
55
101
104
47
1.4
99
2.7
44
Chile
96.3
99.1
99.0
80.6
85
100
100
90
0.6
99
4.9
45
Hungary
..
..
..
96.8
82
102
102
48
1.6
96
4.6
46
Croatia
99.1
99.7
99.7
95.7
63
95
98
67
2.6
99
4.6
47
Argentina
98.1
99.5
99.1
64.8
110
107
86
4.7
85
5.9
48
Oman
93.0
99.0
98.5
66.4
57
109
107
45
0.9
98
6.2
49
Russian Federation
99.7
99.8
99.7
95.6
89
102
105
82
0.7
98
3.8
50
Montenegro
98.4
99.1
99.4
89.4
56
96
91
57
6.8
95
..
51
Bulgaria
98.4
97.7
98.1
94.8
81
95
100
71
6.5
46
4.1
52
Romania
98.6
99.0
99.0
89.5
87
89
89
48
6.0
93
3.1
53
Belarus
99.6
99.8
99.8
91.9
99
102
104
87
1.2
99
5.0
54
Bahamas
..
..
..
87.5
32
95
90
..
10.5
97
..
55
Uruguay
98.5
99.2
98.6
54.1
90
107
112
56
1.2
84
..
56
Kuwait
95.7
99.4
99.2
51.2
68
101
98
33
3.9
97
..
57
Malaysia
93.1
98.5
98.4
80.0
94
103
85
44
8.0
93
4.8
58
Barbados
..
..
..
92.9
93
107
..
6.6
96
5.1
58
Kazakhstan
99.8
99.9
99.9
98.8
54
108
113
50
1.7
99
3.0
TABLE
52
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDICES AND INDICATORS:
2018 STATISTICAL UPDATE
TABLE
SDG 4.6
SDG 4.6
SDG 4.2
SDG 4.1
SDG 4.1
SDG 4.3
SDG 1.a
at least some
secondary
education
school
dropout rate
the last grade of
lower secondary
general education
expenditure
on education
(% ages 15
and older)
Youth
Tertiary
and older)
preschool-age
children)
school–age
population)
school–age
population)
school–age
population)
school cohort)
Turkey
Trinidad and Tobago
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
Tunisia
Tonga
Turkmenistan
TABLE
Education achievements | 53
SDG 4.6
SDG 4.6
SDG 4.2
SDG 4.1
SDG 4.1
SDG 4.3
SDG 1.a
at least some
secondary
education
school
dropout rate
the last grade of
lower secondary
general education
expenditure
on education
(% ages 15
and older)
Youth
Tertiary
and older)
preschool-age
children)
school–age
population)
school–age
population)
school–age
population)
school cohort)
Cabo Verde
Tajikistan
Timor-Leste
Vanuatu
Sao Tome and Principe
Tanzania (United Republic of)
Togo
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDICES AND INDICATORS:
2018 STATISTICAL UPDATE
TABLE 9
EDUCATION ACHIEVEMENTS
TABLE
SDG 4.6
SDG 4.6
SDG 4.2
SDG 4.1
SDG 4.1
SDG 4.3
SDG 1.a
at least some
secondary
education
school
dropout rate
the last grade of
lower secondary
general education
expenditure
on education
(% ages 15
and older)
Youth
Tertiary
and older)
preschool-age
children)
school–age
population)
school–age
population)
school–age
population)
school cohort)
Yemen
Tuvalu
Very high human development
Organisation for Economic
World
Youth literacy rate:
TABLE
Education achievements | 55
SDG 17.4
xedcapital
formation
nalconsumption
expenditure
Total tax
Taxes on
Total
provided by
nancial sector
Total debt
price index
billions)
growth (%)
Total
Average annual
tax revenue)
VERY HIGH HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
29,481
4.9
23.7
20.3
0.8
1.4
20.4
4.8
..
115
31
Greece
264.4
24,574
1.5
12.6
20.0
–1.1
26.7
18.7
116.7
..
101
32
Cyprus
27.8
32,415
2.6
14.9
2.7
24.3
23.8
241.3
..
101
33
Poland
1,033.6
27,216
4.5
18.0
17.5
2.7
16.2
12.3
73.7
..
110
34
United Arab Emirates
632.6
67,293
–0.6
23.0
12.3
3.4
0.0
..
100.8
..
113
35
Andorra
..
..
2.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
35
Lithuania
83.5
29,524
5.3
18.8
16.5
1.2
4.9
17.0
13.4
..
113
37
Qatar
308.6
116,936
–1.1
..
23.1
1.1
14.7
40.2
147.2
..
115
Slovakia
164.0
30,155
3.2
21.2
19.2
0.2
17.4
18.8
79.2
..
110
39
Brunei Darussalam
30.8
71,809
0.0
34.6
26.5
7.4
..
..
28.6
..
99
39
Saudi Arabia
1,615.5
49,045
–2.7
22.7
24.9
0.8
..
..
39.1
..
122
41
Latvia
48.6
25,064
5.6
19.9
18.1
4.1
23.9
10.3
76.3
..
111
41
Portugal
287.6
27,937
3.0
16.2
17.6
–0.2
22.5
24.1
154.1
..
109
43
Bahrain
64.6
43,291
–0.8
25.9
17.1
0.3
1.1
0.5
90.9
..
115
44
Chile
411.1
22,767
0.7
21.6
14.0
4.0
17.4
33.9
128.0
..
125
45
Hungary
261.9
26,778
4.3
21.5
20.1
0.3
23.4
17.3
58.4
..
114
46
Croatia
93.5
22,670
4.0
19.9
19.7
2.0
19.1
6.0
77.0
..
107
47
Argentina
838.2
18,934
1.9
14.8
18.1
2.0
12.2
12.4
39.2
4.8
..
48
Oman
176.0
37,961
–4.8
34.3
27.8
0.8
2.5
2.6
69.5
..
112
49
Russian Federation
3,636.7
24,766
–0.4
18.0
0.4
9.1
–1.3
52.8
5.7
168
50
Montenegro
10.2
16,409
4.3
25.2
18.7
1.3
..
..
60.4
11.2
113
51
Bulgaria
131.4
18,563
4.3
19.2
16.0
3.2
20.0
16.1
55.3
15.3
108
52
Romania
456.6
23,313
7.6
22.6
15.1
0.7
16.8
20.9
32.9
10.3
114
53
Belarus
163.2
17,168
2.4
25.0
14.6
–1.3
13.8
2.4
41.9
13.0
..
54
Bahamas
11.0
27,718
0.4
26.3
13.0
9.6
14.2
..
72.4
..
111
55
Uruguay
71.0
20,551
2.3
16.7
14.3
–1.3
23.7
31.0
35.3
..
175
56
Kuwait
271.1
65,531
–4.8
..
25.9
2.9
1.4
0.6
92.2
..
125
57
Malaysia
847.8
26,808
4.4
25.3
12.2
5.4
13.8
46.9
145.3
3.6
120
58
Barbados
4.9
16,978
1.4
17.6
13.1
..
26.1
29.7
..
..
124
58
Kazakhstan
433.9
24,056
2.6
22.7
11.6
2.3
9.9
29.1
41.9
16.3
169
TABLE
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDICES AND INDICATORS:
2018 STATISTICAL UPDATE
TABLE
SDG 17.4
xedcapital
formation
nalconsumption
expenditure
Total tax
Taxes on
Total
provided by
nancial sector
Total debt
price index
billions)
growth (%)
Total
Average annual
tax revenue)
Turkey
Trinidad and Tobago
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
Tunisia
Tonga
Turkmenistan
TABLE
10
National income and composition of resources | 57
SDG 17.4
xedcapital
formation
nalconsumption
expenditure
Total tax
Taxes on
Total
provided by
nancial sector
Total debt
price index
billions)
growth (%)
Total
Average annual
tax revenue)
Cabo Verde
Tajikistan
Timor-Leste
Vanuatu
Sao Tome and Principe
Tanzania (United Republic of)
Togo
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDICES AND INDICATORS:
2018 STATISTICAL UPDATE
TABLE 10
NATIONAL INCOME AND COMPOSITION OF RESOURCES
TABLE
SDG 17.4
xedcapital
formation
nalconsumption
expenditure
Total tax
Taxes on
Total
provided by
nancial sector
Total debt
price index
billions)
growth (%)
Total
Average annual
tax revenue)
Yemen
Tuvalu
Very high human development
Organisation for Economic
World
constant local currency.
Value of
Sum of principal repayments
and interest actually paid in foreign currency, goods
term debt; and repayments (repurchases and charges)
TABLE
10
National income and composition of resources | 59
SDG 9.2
SDG 8.5
SDG 8.5
SDG 8.6
SDG 8.7
SDG 1.3
Work that is a risk to
social security
to population
ratio
participation
rate
agriculture
in services
Total
Youth
Youth not in
labour
Working poor
recipients
force)
employment)
VERY HIGH HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
Work and employment
TABLE
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDICES AND INDICATORS:
2018 STATISTICAL UPDATE
TABLE
SDG 9.2
SDG 8.5
SDG 8.5
SDG 8.6
SDG 8.7
SDG 1.3
Work that is a risk to
social security
to population
ratio
participation
rate
agriculture
in services
Total
Youth
Youth not in
labour
Working poor
recipients
force)
employment)
Turkey
Trinidad and Tobago
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
Tunisia
Tonga
Turkmenistan
TABLE
11
Work and employment | 61
SDG 9.2
SDG 8.5
SDG 8.5
SDG 8.6
SDG 8.7
SDG 1.3
Work that is a risk to
social security
to population
ratio
participation
rate
agriculture
in services
Total
Youth
Youth not in
labour
Working poor
recipients
force)
employment)
Cabo Verde
Tajikistan
Timor-Leste
Vanuatu
Sao Tome and Principe
Tanzania (United Republic of)
Togo
TABLE 11
WORK AND EMPLOYMENT
TABLE
SDG 9.2
SDG 8.5
SDG 8.5
SDG 8.6
SDG 8.7
SDG 1.3
Work that is a risk to
social security
to population
ratio
participation
rate
agriculture
in services
Total
Youth
Youth not in
labour
Working poor
recipients
force)
employment)
Yemen
Tuvalu
Very high human development
Organisation for Economic
World
Because statutory pension ages differ by country,
a country’s working-age population that engages
TABLE
11
Work and employment | 63
SDG 1.5, 11.5
SDG 1.5, 11.5
SDG 1.5, 11.5, 13.1
registration
by country
of origin
displaced
persons
due to natural
disaster
children
population
rate
wife beating
decit
age 5)
permillion people)
people)
people)
per person per day)
VERY HIGH HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
..
29
250
136
0.6
2.9
9.4
..
..
9
27
Czechia
100
..
0
..
195
0.6
3.9
17.7
..
..
5
28
Italy
100
..
116
300
86
0.7
2.2
8.7
..
..
2
29
Malta
100
..
..
..
135
0.9
2.0
8.2
..
..
4
30
Estonia
100
..
0
..
216
3.2
4.8
26.4
..
..
20
31
Greece
100
..
33
..
109
0.8
1.2
5.4
..
..
5
32
Cyprus
100
217.0
0
..
94
1.0
6.7
..
..
34
33
Poland
100
1.1
..
0
..
191
0.7
4.9
32.7
..
..
3
34
United Arab Emirates
100
0.1
..
0
..
229
0.9
0.9
3.6
..
..
30
35
Andorra
100
..
..
..
72
1.2
..
..
..
..
..
35
Lithuania
100
..
0
..
268
5.2
8.1
47.1
..
..
14
37
Qatar
100
0.0
..
..
..
53
0.4
1.2
7.3
7
16
..
38
Slovakia
100
..
0
..
184
1.0
2.5
18.1
..
..
22
39
Brunei Darussalam
..
0.0
..
0
..
132
0.5
1.3
1.4
..
..
17
39
Saudi Arabia
..
1.2
..
31
230
161
1.5
2.2
5.5
..
..
32
41
Latvia
100
..
0
30
239
3.4
4.8
31.9
..
..
9
41
Portugal
100
..
28
..
138
0.6
3.7
14.3
..
..
3
43
Bahrain
..
0.5
..
0
..
301
0.5
2.9
9.5
..
..
..
44
Chile
99
0.5
..
4,515
140
247
3.5
3.3
15.3
..
..
26
45
Hungary
100
..
0
..
187
2.1
6.9
25.8
..
..
14
46
Croatia
..
24.9
..
0
..
89
1.0
5.7
19.2
..
..
11
47
Argentina
100
0.1
..
15
630
160
5.9
4.8
23.7
2
..
26
48
Oman
..
0.0
..
0
..
36
0.7
1.3
6.4
8
..
47
49
Russian Federation
100
19.0
9
..
445
10.8
32.2
..
..
6
50
Montenegro
99
0.7
..
0
..
174
4.5
5.3
12.4
3
5
2
51
Bulgaria
100
0.7
..
16
..
125
1.1
4.8
18.3
..
..
24
52
Romania
..
1.2
..
0
230
143
1.2
16.4
..
..
5
53
Belarus
100
3.7
..
0
140
306
5.4
35.0
4
4
8
54
Bahamas
..
0.4
..
0
..
363
28.4
0.4
2.9
..
..
72
55
Uruguay
100
0.0
..
268
45
291
7.7
6.3
25.2
2
..
9
56
Kuwait
..
1.1
..
0
..
92
1.8
2.1
5.7
..
..
15
57
Malaysia
..
0.5
..
90
470
171
2.1
3.4
9.5
..
..
15
58
Barbados
99
0.2
..
0
..
322
10.9
0.1
0.5
3
..
31
58
Kazakhstan
100
2.4
..
47
470
234
4.8
48.1
14
17
17
TABLE
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDICES AND INDICATORS:
2018 STATISTICAL UPDATE
TABLE
SDG 1.5, 11.5
SDG 1.5, 11.5
SDG 1.5, 11.5, 13.1
registration
by country
of origin
displaced
persons
due to natural
disaster
children
population
rate
wife beating
decit
age 5)
permillion people)
people)
people)
per person per day)
Turkey
Trinidad and Tobago
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
Tunisia
Tonga
Turkmenistan
5.8
13
..
96
113
South Africa
85
0.5
..
25
3,000
292
34.0
5.1
20.7
..
..
32
115
Egypt
99
22.1
82.0
1
1,700
76
2.5
1.8
4.5
36
32
116
Indonesia
73
7.0
13.0
32
5,300
64
0.5
1.6
4.5
35
18
116
TABLE
12
Human security | 65
SDG 1.5, 11.5
SDG 1.5, 11.5
SDG 1.5, 11.5, 13.1
registration
by country
of origin
displaced
persons
due to natural
disaster
children
population
rate
wife beating
decit
age 5)
permillion people)
people)
people)
per person per day)
Cabo Verde
Tajikistan
Timor-Leste
Vanuatu
Sao Tome and Principe
Tanzania (United Republic of)
Togo
13
179
172
Djibouti
92
1.8
..
0
33
68
6.5
6.5
15.4
..
..
96
173
TABLE 12
TABLE
SDG 1.5, 11.5
SDG 1.5, 11.5
SDG 1.5, 11.5, 13.1
registration
by country
of origin
displaced
persons
due to natural
disaster
children
population
rate
wife beating
decit
age 5)
permillion people)
people)
people)
per person per day)
Yemen
Tuvalu
Very high human development
Organisation for Economic
World
Data refer to people recognized as refugees under
the 1951 UN Convention, the 1967 UN Protocol and
the 1969 Organization of African Unity Convention.
In the absence of government gures, the Ofce of
the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
has estimated the refugee population in many
industrialized countries based on 10 years of
TABLE
12
Human security | 67
SDG 17.6, 17.8
Trade
and
imports
investment,
capital
ows
Remittances,
immigrants
student
mobility
inbound
tourists
subscriptions
Total
GDP)
people)
population)
tertiary
enrolment)
population)
population)
people)
VERY HIGH HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
3,032
75.5
74.1
114.8
10.7
26
Spain
65.5
0.3
3.5
..
0.23
–2.4
75,315
80.6
78.6
111.2
1.2
27
Czechia
151.7
4.3
–7.2
..
1.66
1.1
4.1
7.4
9,321
76.5
74.8
117.7
–4.2
28
Italy
59.5
1.0
5.0
..
0.51
0.9
10.0
1.7
52,372
61.3
57.2
153.0
–2.4
29
Malta
261.5
27.8
–22.3
..
1.88
4.5
10.6
–0.3
1,966
77.3
77.2
123.9
13.2
30
Estonia
151.6
3.3
8.0
..
1.93
–1.6
14.7
–2.7
3,147
87.2
87.4
144.6
16.6
31
Greece
67.5
2.0
–13.7
..
0.15
–2.9
10.9
–0.9
24,799
69.1
67.1
112.1
4.4
32
Cyprus
131.6
48.6
–23.0
..
1.67
4.0
3,187
75.9
74.4
133.4
6.8
33
Poland
102.8
1.2
–1.3
..
1.31
–0.4
1.7
1.9
17,471
73.3
72.8
138.7
13.2
34
United Arab Emirates
172.8
2.5
..
..
..
11.0
88.4
41.5
..
90.6
88.9
214.7
62.5
35
Andorra
..
..
..
..
..
..
53.3
–198.2
2,831
97.9
..
92.0
18.7
35
Lithuania
160.6
2.3
2.2
..
2.76
–9.7
4.3
–4.2
2,296
74.4
74.7
144.6
–7.7
37
Qatar
89.1
0.6
–5.1
..
0.40
56.5
65.2
18.1
2,938
94.3
91.7
142.1
15.7
38
Slovakia
189.2
6.2
–2.9
..
2.26
0.4
3.4
–10.6
2,027
80.5
79.3
128.4
17.1
39
Brunei Darussalam
85.2
–1.3
6.4
..
..
1.0
25.3
–30.9
219
90.0
90.0
123.7
10.5
39
Saudi Arabia
61.7
1.2
–1.5
..
0.04
10.8
37.0
–0.3
18,049
73.8
92.9
148.5
–21.0
41
Latvia
122.3
3.8
6.5
..
4.18
–8.1
13.2
–0.6
1,793
79.8
78.9
134.5
23.6
41
Portugal
85.2
4.6
0.5
..
0.21
–2.7
8.5
1.3
11,223
70.4
69.0
111.6
–2.7
43
Bahrain
139.6
1.5
9.9
..
..
6.4
48.4
–1.6
10,158
98.0
99.0
210.1
66.4
44
Chile
55.7
2.3
1.0
0.1
0.02
0.9
2.7
–0.4
5,641
66.0
..
130.1
11.4
45
Hungary
172.4
–10.7
1.2
..
3.33
0.6
5.2
5.1
5,302
79.3
78.4
120.8
–0.2
46
Croatia
100.4
3.8
–2.1
0.2
4.53
–1.5
13.4
–5.1
13,809
72.7
68.7
104.8
–8.0
47
Argentina
25.0
1.9
–7.1
0.0
0.09
0.1
4.9
..
5,559
71.0
70.1
145.3
5.0
48
Oman
76.8
2.5
–9.0
0.0
0.06
45.2
44.7
–8.8
2,292
69.9
67.4
155.2
2.5
49
Russian Federation
46.7
1.8
0.2
..
0.51
1.4
8.1
3.0
24,571
73.1
72.6
159.2
–4.1
50
Montenegro
106.2
11.5
–11.9
1.9
9.09
–1.0
11.3
..
1,662
69.9
65.9
165.6
–11.7
51
Bulgaria
131.1
2.9
4.0
..
3.88
–0.7
2.2
–4.7
8,252
59.8
59.1
125.8
–8.7
Romania
85.0
2.3
–3.9
..
2.03
–3.0
1.9
–1.4
10,223
59.5
56.9
115.8
–2.8
53
Belarus
133.6
2.3
–4.6
0.0
2.20
1.6
11.4
–2.1
9,424
71.1
70.9
120.7
10.6
54
Bahamas
75.5
0.6
–0.4
..
..
5.2
15.6
..
1,482
80.0
..
92.1
–22.4
55
Uruguay
40.0
0.0
–3.3
0.0
0.18
–1.8
2.3
..
3,037
66.4
64.2
148.6
13.0
56
Kuwait
94.7
0.1
26.9
..
0.02
38.7
75.5
..
307
78.4
..
133.1
0.3
57
Malaysia
135.9
3.0
–0.4
0.0
0.52
5.3
26,757
78.8
76.7
140.8
16.9
58
Barbados
80.7
5.0
0.9
0.4
2.33
1.5
12.1
3.9
632
79.5
..
116.6
–6.9
58
Kazakhstan
60.3
2.8
–5.8
0.0
0.22
1.9
20.0
–12.1
6,509
74.6
73.3
142.0
20.0
TABLE
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDICES AND INDICATORS:
2018 STATISTICAL UPDATE
TABLE
SDG 17.6, 17.8
Trade
and
imports
investment,
capital
ows
Remittances,
immigrants
student
mobility
inbound
tourists
subscriptions
Total
GDP)
people)
population)
tertiary
enrolment)
population)
population)
people)
Turkey
Trinidad and Tobago
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
Tunisia
Tonga
Turkmenistan
110
Paraguay
84.6
1.5
–2.9
0.3
2.37
–2.7
2.4
..
1,308
51.3
48.8
111.4
16.8
112
Moldova (Republic of)
113.2
2.6
–2.5
4.5
20.17
–0.5
121
71.0
66.9
93.3
49.4
MEDIUM HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
113
Philippines
70.7
3.2
–1.3
0.1
10.46
–1.3
0.2
–0.2
5,967
55.5
..
109.4
23.3
113
South Africa
58.2
0.4
–3.0
0.4
0.25
3.0
7.1
3.4
10,044
54.0
..
147.1
50.7
115
Egypt
44.8
3.1
–13.2
0.6
9.57
–0.6
0.5
0.8
5,258
41.2
38.2
102.2
21.6
116
Indonesia
39.5
2.2
–4.0
0.0
0.89
–0.7
0.1
–0.5
11,519
25.4
23.5
147.7
69.5
116
TABLE
13
Human and capital mobility | 69
SDG 17.6, 17.8
Trade
and
imports
investment,
capital
ows
Remittances,
immigrants
student
mobility
inbound
tourists
subscriptions
Total
GDP)
people)
population)
tertiary
enrolment)
population)
population)
people)
Cabo Verde
Tajikistan
Timor-Leste
Vanuatu
Sao Tome and Principe
Tanzania (United Republic of)
Togo
–2.9
0.4
..
516
12.2
..
60.0
49.9
170
Côte d'Ivoire
48.6
1.6
–2.8
1.9
0.94
0.6
9.0
–3.7
1,583
26.5
..
115.8
51.5
171
Malawi
65.3
4.4
–4.6
23.5
0.65
–0.4
1.3
–20.3
849
9.6
..
39.7
93.0
172
Djibouti
108.5
9.1
..
10.4
3.37
1.4
12.1
–40.2
63
13.1
..
36.6
88.3
173
TABLE 13
HUMAN AND CAPITAL MOBILITY
TABLE
SDG 17.6, 17.8
Trade
and
imports
investment,
capital
ows
Remittances,
immigrants
student
mobility
inbound
tourists
subscriptions
Total
GDP)
people)
population)
tertiary
enrolment)
population)
population)
people)
Yemen
Tuvalu
Very high human development
Organisation for Economic
World
TABLE
13
Human and capital mobility | 71
quality
care
quality
of living
safe
choice
satisfaction,
index
labour
Volunteered
Condence
in judicial
Actions to
preserve the
Trust in
national
satised)
satised)
satised)
(0, least
satised,
to 10, most
answering
good)
answering
yes)
answering
yes)
answering
yes)
answering
yes)
VERY HIGH HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
69
77
78
68
77
83
82
6.6
17
31
88
59
54
37
25
Slovenia
81
79
77
82
93
93
90
6.2
40
35
91
29
72
24
26
Spain
56
66
71
80
84
76
73
6.2
24
17
80
42
40
27
27
Czechia
71
73
79
61
85
78
79
6.8
57
19
91
50
66
34
28
Italy
57
53
67
55
61
62
63
6.2
10
17
65
30
22
23
29
Malta
81
87
88
67
88
93
91
6.7
80
25
87
51
58
75
30
Estonia
63
58
61
59
83
78
84
5.9
32
16
88
55
58
41
31
Greece
42
35
39
49
65
43
41
5.1
9
7
76
42
23
14
32
Cyprus
56
54
73
66
90
76
80
6.1
44
26
89
42
53
31
33
Poland
77
55
67
60
73
82
80
6.2
46
15
83
52
54
50
34
United Arab Emirates
73
92
91
..
..
95
96
7.0
50
23
94
..
96
..
35
Andorra
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
35
Lithuania
54
52
36
56
67
68
67
6.3
35
18
84
46
61
32
37
Qatar
72
..
86
87
96
89
91
6.4
66
19
92
..
91
..
38
Slovakia
62
62
69
59
75
67
67
6.4
24
22
91
39
50
34
39
Brunei Darussalam
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
39
Saudi Arabia
72
80
85
..
..
78
82
6.3
54
12
90
..
71
..
41
Latvia
54
45
45
53
73
66
62
6.0
21
9
84
30
54
26
41
Portugal
69
65
70
65
87
90
91
5.7
47
15
89
45
48
50
43
Bahrain
73
80
82
..
..
87
90
6.2
40
33
90
..
73
..
44
Chile
49
33
77
40
52
73
83
6.3
30
15
78
21
33
27
45
Hungary
58
56
68
57
72
63
65
6.1
44
12
81
50
46
38
46
Croatia
64
60
55
63
76
71
70
5.3
28
11
75
48
51
21
47
Argentina
55
51
63
34
47
81
83
6.0
17
15
75
25
42
31
48
Oman
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
49
52
35
47
41
67
70
67
5.6
20
11
71
36
35
56
50
Montenegro
54
41
48
67
75
57
65
5.6
22
9
65
35
28
35
51
Bulgaria
45
45
48
54
64
66
66
5.1
26
5
80
22
32
33
52
Romania
65
68
58
61
76
80
81
6.1
33
6
84
41
29
30
53
Belarus
54
42
44
54
70
60
55
5.6
10
19
77
46
51
45
54
Bahamas
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
55
Uruguay
57
67
71
40
59
89
88
6.3
19
15
78
41
58
41
56
Kuwait
55
79
90
..
..
88
88
6.1
46
11
86
..
75
..
57
Malaysia
75
78
75
35
54
62
71
6.3
54
33
78
55
62
44
58
Barbados
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
58
Kazakhstan
64
56
73
62
72
71
70
5.9
35
16
84
55
51
76
14
TABLE
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDICES AND INDICATORS:
2018 STATISTICAL UPDATE
TABLE
quality
care
quality
of living
safe
choice
satisfaction,
index
labour
Volunteered
Condence
in judicial
Actions to
preserve the
Trust in
national
satised)
satised)
satised)
(0, least
satised,
to 10, most
answering
good)
answering
yes)
answering
yes)
answering
yes)
answering
yes)
Turkey
Trinidad and Tobago
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
Tunisia
Tonga
Turkmenistan
TABLE
14
Supplementary indicators: perceptions of well-being | 73
quality
care
quality
of living
safe
choice
satisfaction,
index
labour
Volunteered
Condence
in judicial
Actions to
preserve the
Trust in
national
satised)
satised)
satised)
(0, least
satised,
to 10, most
answering
good)
answering
yes)
answering
yes)
answering
yes)
answering
yes)
Cabo Verde
Tajikistan
Timor-Leste
Vanuatu
Sao Tome and Principe
Tanzania (United Republic of)
Togo
TABLE 14
SUPPLEMENTARY INDICATORS: PERCEPTIONS OF WELL-BEING
TABLE
quality
care
quality
of living
safe
choice
satisfaction,
index
labour
Volunteered
Condence
in judicial
Actions to
preserve the
Trust in
national
satised)
satised)
satised)
(0, least
satised,
to 10, most
answering
good)
answering
yes)
answering
yes)
answering
yes)
answering
yes)
Yemen
Tuvalu
Very high human development
Organisation for Economic
World
Percentage
of respondents answering “satised” to the Gallup
World Poll question, “Are you satised or dissatised
Percentage
of respondents answering “satised” to the Gallup
World Poll question, “Are you satised or dissatised
Gallup World Poll question, “Are you satised or
“yes” to the Gallup World Poll question, “Do you
World Poll question, “In this country, are you
Average response
to the Gallup World Poll question, “Please imagine a
ladder, with steps numbered from zero at the bottom
TABLE
14
Supplementary indicators: perceptions of well-being | 75
International
Convention on
the Elimination
of All Forms
of Racial
Discrimination,
1965
International
Covenant
on Civil and
Political
Rights, 1966
International
Covenant on
Economic,
Social and
Cultural
Rights, 1966
CEDAW:
Women, 1979
CAT:
against Torture
Treatment or
Conventionon
the Rights of
the Child, 1989
ICMW:
Workers and
Optional
Protocol to the
Convention on
the Rights of
the Child on the
involvement
of children
in armed
conict, 2000
pornography,
International
Convention for
the Protection
of All Persons
from Enforced
Disappearance,
2006
Convention on
the Rights of
Persons with
Disabilities,
2006
4 January
1969
23 March
1969
3 January
1976
3 September
1981
26 June
1987
2 September
1990
1 July
2003
12 February
2002
18 January
2002
23 December
2010
Year of
Year of
Year of
Year of
Year of
Year of
Year of
Year of
Year of
Year of
Year of
Cabo Verde
2004
1994
2017
1993
2007
2016
Congo
1988
1983
1983
1982
2003
1993
2017
2010
2009
2014
Congo (Democratic Republic of the)
1976
1976
1976
1986
1996
1990
2001
2001
2015
Costa Rica
1967
1968
1968
1986
1993
1990
2003
2002
2012
2008
Côte d'Ivoire
1973
1992
1992
1995
1995
1991
2012
2011
2014
Croatia
1992
1992
1992
1992
1992
1992
2002
2002
2007
Cuba
1972
1980
1995
1991
2007
2001
2009
2007
Cyprus
1967
1969
1969
1985
1991
1991
2010
2006
2011
Czechia
1993
1993
1993
1993
1993
1993
2001
2013
2017
2009
Denmark
1971
1972
1972
1983
1987
1991
2002
2003
2009
Djibouti
2011
2002
2002
1998
2002
1990
2011
2011
2012
Dominica
1993
1993
1980
1991
2002
2002
2012
Dominican Republic
1983
1978
1978
1982
2012
1991
2014
2006
2009
Ecuador
1966
1969
1969
1981
1988
1990
2002
2004
2004
2009
2008
Egypt
1967
1982
1982
1981
1986
1990
1993
2007
2002
2008
El Salvador
1979
1979
1979
1981
1996
1990
2003
2002
2004
2007
Equatorial Guinea
2002
1987
1987
1984
2002
1992
2003
Eritrea
2001
2002
2001
1995
2014
1994
2005
2005
Estonia
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
1991
2014
2004
2012
TABLE
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDICES AND INDICATORS:
2018 STATISTICAL UPDATE
TABLE
International
Convention on
the Elimination
of All Forms
of Racial
Discrimination,
1965
International
Covenant
on Civil and
Political
Rights, 1966
International
Covenant on
Economic,
Social and
Cultural
Rights, 1966
CEDAW:
Women, 1979
CAT:
against Torture
Treatment or
Conventionon
the Rights of
the Child, 1989
ICMW:
Workers and
Optional
Protocol to the
Convention on
the Rights of
the Child on the
involvement
of children
in armed
conict, 2000
pornography,
International
Convention for
the Protection
of All Persons
from Enforced
Disappearance,
2006
Convention on
the Rights of
Persons with
Disabilities,
2006
4 January
1969
23 March
1969
3 January
1976
3 September
1981
26 June
1987
2 September
1990
1 July
2003
12 February
2002
18 January
2002
23 December
2010
Year of
Year of
Year of
Year of
Year of
Year of
Year of
Year of
Year of
Year of
Year of
1991
2006
2006
2009
Latvia
1992
1992
1992
1992
1992
1992
2005
2006
2010
Lebanon
1971
1972
1972
1997
2000
1991
2004
Lesotho
1971
1992
1992
1995
2001
1992
2005
2003
2003
2013
2008
Liberia
1976
2004
2004
1984
2004
1993
2012
Libya
1968
1970
1970
1989
1989
1993
2004
2004
2004
2018
Liechtenstein
2000
1998
1998
1995
1990
1995
2005
2013
Lithuania
1998
1991
1991
1994
1996
1992
2003
2004
2013
2010
Luxembourg
1978
1983
1983
1989
1987
1994
2004
2011
2011
Madagascar
1969
1971
1971
1989
2005
1991
2015
2004
2004
2015
Malawi
1996
1993
1993
1987
1996
1991
2010
2009
2017
2009
Malaysia
1995
1995
2012
2012
2010
Maldives
1984
2006
2006
1993
2004
1991
2004
2002
2010
Mali
1974
1974
1974
1985
1999
1990
2003
2002
2002
2009
2008
Malta
1971
1990
1990
1991
1990
1990
2002
2010
2015
2012
Marshall Islands
2018
2018
2006
2018
1993
2015
Mauritania
1988
2004
2004
2001
2004
1991
2007
2007
2012
2012
Mauritius
1972
1973
1973
1984
1992
1990
2009
2011
2010
TABLE
15
Status of fundamental human rights treaties | 77
International
Convention on
the Elimination
of All Forms
of Racial
Discrimination,
1965
International
Covenant
on Civil and
Political
Rights, 1966
International
Covenant on
Economic,
Social and
Cultural
Rights, 1966
CEDAW:
Women, 1979
CAT:
against Torture
Treatment or
Conventionon
the Rights of
the Child, 1989
ICMW:
Workers and
Optional
Protocol to the
Convention on
the Rights of
the Child on the
involvement
of children
in armed
conict, 2000
pornography,
International
Convention for
the Protection
of All Persons
from Enforced
Disappearance,
2006
Convention on
the Rights of
Persons with
Disabilities,
2006
4 January
1969
23 March
1969
3 January
1976
3 September
1981
26 June
1987
2 September
1990
1 July
2003
12 February
2002
18 January
2002
23 December
2010
Year of
Year of
Year of
Year of
Year of
Year of
Year of
Year of
Year of
Year of
Year of
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDICES AND INDICATORS:
2018 STATISTICAL UPDATE
TABLE 15
STATUS OF FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN RIGHTS TREATIES
TABLE
International
Convention on
the Elimination
of All Forms
of Racial
Discrimination,
1965
International
Covenant
on Civil and
Political
Rights, 1966
International
Covenant on
Economic,
Social and
Cultural
Rights, 1966
CEDAW:
Women, 1979
CAT:
against Torture
Treatment or
Conventionon
the Rights of
the Child, 1989
ICMW:
Workers and
Optional
Protocol to the
Convention on
the Rights of
the Child on the
involvement
of children
in armed
conict, 2000
pornography,
International
Convention for
the Protection
of All Persons
from Enforced
Disappearance,
2006
Convention on
the Rights of
Persons with
Disabilities,
2006
4 January
1969
23 March
1969
3 January
1976
3 September
1981
26 June
1987
2 September
1990
1 July
2003
12 February
2002
18 January
2002
23 December
2010
Year of
Year of
Year of
Year of
Year of
Year of
Year of
Year of
Year of
Year of
Year of
Tajikistan
Tanzania (United Republic of)
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
Timor-Leste
Togo
Tonga
Trinidad and Tobago
Tunisia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Tuvalu
Vanuatu
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)
impunity, effective law enforcement and upholding the
respect for their inherent dignity. It considers disability
TABLE
15
Status of fundamental human rights treaties | 79
Human development
dashboards
Country groupings (terciles)
Top third
Three-colour coding is used to visualize partial grouping of countries by indicator. For each indicator
and the bottom third. Aggregates are colour coded using the same tercile cutoffs. See
after the table.
SDG 4.a
SDG 4.1
SDG 7.1
SDG 6.1
SDG 6.2
expectancy
beds
teacher
ratio,
primary
school
school
teachers
trained
to teach
of schools
with
access to
Student Assessment
(PISA) score
Vulnerable
population
with
access to
electricity
using improved
drinking-water
sources
using improved
sanitation
facilities
teacher)
employment)
VERY HIGH HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
31
13
..
100
486
496
493
11.9
100.0
99.9
99.9
27
Czechia
12.5
36.8
68
19
..
100
492
487
493
14.2
100.0
99.9
99.1
28
Italy
11.6
40.2
34
12
..
..
490
485
481
17.7
100.0
100.0
99.3
29
Malta
11.4
39.1
48
13
..
100
479
447
465
8.8
100.0
100.0
100.0
30
Estonia
12.4
34.3
53
11
..
99
520
519
534
5.7
100.0
99.6
99.6
31
Greece
11.3
62.6
48
10
..
..
454
467
455
26.5
100.0
100.0
99.0
32
Cyprus
9.1
25.0
35
12
..
100
437
443
433
12.6
100.0
100.0
99.4
33
Poland
11.9
22.9
65
10
..
81
504
506
501
17.0
100.0
97.9
98.1
34
United Arab Emirates
13.6
15.6
11
25
100
..
427
434
437
0.4
100.0
99.6
100.0
35
Andorra
..
36.9
25
10
100
100
..
..
..
..
100.0
100.0
100.0
35
Lithuania
11.9
43.8
70
13
..
100
478
472
475
10.2
100.0
97.4
93.6
37
Qatar
12.1
19.6
12
12
49
53
402
402
418
0.2
100.0
100.0
100.0
38
Slovakia
11.8
34.5
60
15
..
..
475
453
461
12.2
100.0
97.9
98.9
39
Brunei Darussalam
11.1
17.5
28
10
85
100
..
..
..
5.1
100.0
99.5
96.3
39
Saudi Arabia
12.2
25.7
21
12
100
..
..
..
..
3.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
41
Latvia
11.8
32.1
59
11
..
100
482
488
490
8.9
100.0
98.6
92.9
41
Portugal
11.7
44.3
34
13
..
..
492
498
501
13.1
100.0
99.9
99.4
43
Bahrain
13.9
9.2
21
12
84
100
..
..
..
1.8
100.0
100.0
100.0
44
Chile
12.3
10.3
21
18
..
78
459
447
23.9
100.0
100.0
99.9
45
Hungary
12.0
30.9
72
11
..
99
477
470
477
5.9
100.0
100.0
98.0
46
Croatia
11.9
31.3
59
14
..
100
464
487
475
8.7
100.0
99.6
97.5
47
Argentina
11.1
39.1
47
..
..
36
456
100.0
99.6
94.8
48
Oman
14.8
19.2
17
..
..
90
..
..
..
9.1
100.0
90.9
99.3
49
Russian Federation
11.7
39.8
97
20
..
80
495
487
6.3
100.0
96.4
88.8
50
Montenegro
11.3
23.4
40
..
..
..
418
427
411
11.7
100.0
97.6
95.9
51
Bulgaria
11.3
40.0
64
18
..
..
441
432
446
8.2
100.0
99.3
86.0
52
Romania
11.4
26.7
61
19
..
..
DASHBOARD 1
Quality of human development | 81
DASH
SDG 4.a
SDG 4.1
SDG 7.1
SDG 6.1
SDG 6.2
expectancy
beds
teacher
ratio,
primary
school
school
teachers
trained
to teach
of schools
with
access to
Student Assessment
(PISA) score
Vulnerable
population
with
access to
electricity
using improved
drinking-water
sources
using improved
sanitation
facilities
teacher)
employment)
Turkey
Trinidad and Tobago
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
Tunisia
Tonga
Turkmenistan
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDICES AND INDICATORS:
2018 STATISTICAL UPDATE
SDG 4.a
SDG 4.1
SDG 7.1
SDG 6.1
SDG 6.2
expectancy
beds
teacher
ratio,
primary
school
school
teachers
trained
to teach
of schools
with
access to
Student Assessment
(PISA) score
Vulnerable
population
with
access to
electricity
using improved
drinking-water
sources
using improved
sanitation
facilities
teacher)
employment)
2016
2007–2017
2015
2015
2017
2016
2015
2015
Paraguay
12.0
12.9
13
24
92
9
..
..
..
39.1
96.1
98.9
91.2
112
Moldova (Republic of)
11.1
32.0
62
17
99
..
420
416
428
28.7
100.0
86.7
78.4
MEDIUM HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
113
Philippines
11.0
..
10
30
100
12
..
..
35.4
86.3
90.5
75.0
113
South Africa
12.4
8.2
28
30
..
..
..
..
..
9.6
67.9
84.7
73.1
115
Egypt
13.3
8.1
5
23
74
49
..
..
..
20.1
100.0
98.4
93.2
116
Indonesia
11.0
2.0
9
14
..
42
397
403
47.5
94.8
89.5
67.9
116
Vanuatu
Lao People’s Democratic Republic
Sao Tome and Principe
Tanzania (United Republic of)
Togo
DASHBOARD 1
Quality of human development | 83
SDG 4.a
SDG 4.1
SDG 7.1
SDG 6.1
SDG 6.2
expectancy
beds
teacher
ratio,
primary
school
school
teachers
trained
to teach
of schools
with
access to
Student Assessment
(PISA) score
Vulnerable
population
with
access to
electricity
using improved
drinking-water
sources
using improved
sanitation
facilities
teacher)
employment)
2016
2007–2017
2015
2015
2017
2016
2015
2015
Afghanistan
15.5
3.0
5
44
..
..
..
..
..
66.1
79.0
63.0
39.2
168
Haiti
12.9
..
13
..
..
..
..
..
..
87.5
0.5
30.5
170
Côte d’Ivoire
11.6
1.4
4
43
100
..
..
..
..
73.3
38.1
73.1
29.9
171
Malawi
12.5
0.2
13
70
91
..
..
..
..
59.9
4.0
67.2
43.5
172
Djibouti
11.3
2.3
14
30
100
..
..
..
..
39.1
2.0
51.4
173
Tuvalu
Very high human development
Organisation for Economic
World
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDICES AND INDICATORS:
2018 STATISTICAL UPDATE
grouping of countries and aggregates by indicator.
Technical note 6
at http://hdr.undp.org/
testing of skills and knowledge of 15-year-old
Vulnerable employment:
People living in rural areas with access to electricity,
from faecal matter. Improved drinking water sources
DASHBOARD 1
Quality of human development | 85
Country groupings (terciles)
Top third
Three-colour coding is used to visualize partial grouping of countries by indicator. For each indicator
and the bottom third. Aggregates are colour coded using the same tercile cutoffs. See
after the table.
SDG 4.1
SDG 4.1
SDG 8.5
SDG 4.6
SDG 8.5
SDG 8.3
SDG 5.5
SDG 5.4
SDG 1.3
at birth
Youth
at least some
secondary
education
Total
employment in
nonagriculture,
female
seats in
parliament
Time spent on unpaid
pension
recipients
Women ages
female
births)
male ratio)
male ratio)
male ratio)
employment in
nonagriculture)
women)
24-hour day)
male ratio)
VERY HIGH HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDICES AND INDICATORS:
2018 STATISTICAL UPDATE
DASH
SDG 4.1
SDG 4.1
SDG 8.5
SDG 4.6
SDG 8.5
SDG 8.3
SDG 5.5
SDG 5.4
SDG 1.3
at birth
Youth
at least some
secondary
education
Total
employment in
nonagriculture,
female
seats in
parliament
Time spent on unpaid
pension
recipients
Women ages
female
births)
male ratio)
male ratio)
male ratio)
employment in
nonagriculture)
women)
24-hour day)
male ratio)
Turkey
Trinidad and Tobago
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
Tunisia
Tonga
..
25.0
..
..
..
104
Samoa
1.08
1.09
1.01
1.10
1.22
1.11
1.34
38.2
10.0
..
..
..
105
Uzbekistan
1.08
0.96
0.98
0.99
1.04
1.00
0.97
39.4
16.4
..
..
..
DASHBOARD 2
Life-course gender gap | 87
SDG 4.1
SDG 4.1
SDG 8.5
SDG 4.6
SDG 8.5
SDG 8.3
SDG 5.5
SDG 5.4
SDG 1.3
at birth
Youth
at least some
secondary
education
Total
employment in
nonagriculture,
female
seats in
parliament
Time spent on unpaid
pension
recipients
Women ages
female
births)
male ratio)
male ratio)
male ratio)
employment in
nonagriculture)
women)
24-hour day)
male ratio)
Turkmenistan
Timor-Leste
Vanuatu
Lao People’s Democratic Republic
Sao Tome and Principe
Tanzania (United Republic of)
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDICES AND INDICATORS:
2018 STATISTICAL UPDATE
SDG 4.1
SDG 4.1
SDG 8.5
SDG 4.6
SDG 8.5
SDG 8.3
SDG 5.5
SDG 5.4
SDG 1.3
at birth
Youth
at least some
secondary
education
Total
employment in
nonagriculture,
female
seats in
parliament
Time spent on unpaid
pension
recipients
Women ages
female
births)
male ratio)
male ratio)
male ratio)
employment in
nonagriculture)
women)
24-hour day)
male ratio)
Togo
Korea (Democratic People’s Rep. of)
Tuvalu
Very high human development
Organisation for Economic
World
DASHBOARD 2
Life-course gender gap | 89
Three-colour coding is used to visualize partial
grouping of countries and aggregates by indicator. For
each indicator countries are divided into three groups
of approximately equal size (terciles): the top third,
the middle third and the bottom third. Aggregates are
colour coded using the same tercile cutoffs. Sex ratio
—countries are divided into
two groups: the natural group (countries with a value
of 1.04–1.07, inclusive), which uses darker shading,
and the gender-biased group (all others), which uses
Technical note 6
at http://hdr.
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDICES AND INDICATORS:
2018 STATISTICAL UPDATE
Country groupings (terciles)
Top third
Three-colour coding is used to visualize partial grouping of countries by indicator. For each indicator
and the bottom third. Aggregates are colour coded using the same tercile cutoffs. See
after the table.
Women’s empowerment
SDG 3.7, 5.6
marriage
ever experienced
Women
care
coverage,
at least
one visit
of births
attended
by skilled
health
personnel
mortality
ratio
Adolescent
prevalence,
Women
partner
partner
Share of female
graduates
graduating
in science,
mathematics,
engineering,
manufacturing
and construction
share of
employment
in senior
and middle
management
paid
maternity
leave
per
100,000
live births)
per 1,000
women
ages 15–19)
women of reproductive
age, 15–49 years)
ages 20–24
who are
married or
in union)
female population
ages 15 and older)
female
population
ages 15
and older)
VERY HIGH HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
DASHBOARD 3
Women’s empowerment | 91
DASH
SDG 3.7, 5.6
marriage
ever experienced
Women
care
coverage,
at least
one visit
of births
attended
by skilled
health
personnel
mortality
ratio
Adolescent
prevalence,
Women
partner
partner
Share of female
graduates
graduating
in science,
mathematics,
engineering,
manufacturing
and construction
share of
employment
in senior
and middle
management
paid
maternity
leave
per
100,000
live births)
per 1,000
women
ages 15–19)
women of reproductive
age, 15–49 years)
ages 20–24
who are
married or
in union)
female population
ages 15 and older)
female
population
ages 15
and older)
Turkey
Trinidad and Tobago
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
Tunisia
92
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDICES AND INDICATORS:
2018 STATISTICAL UPDATE
SDG 3.7, 5.6
marriage
ever experienced
Women
care
coverage,
at least
one visit
of births
attended
by skilled
health
personnel
mortality
ratio
Adolescent
prevalence,
Women
partner
partner
Share of female
graduates
graduating
in science,
mathematics,
engineering,
manufacturing
and construction
share of
employment
in senior
and middle
management
paid
maternity
leave
per
100,000
live births)
per 1,000
women
ages 15–19)
women of reproductive
age, 15–49 years)
ages 20–24
who are
married or
in union)
female population
ages 15 and older)
female
population
ages 15
and older)
Tonga
Turkmenistan
Cabo Verde
Tajikistan
Timor-Leste
Vanuatu
Lao People’s Democratic Republic
Sao Tome and Principe
23.7
40
25.0
..
..
..
41.6
52
DASHBOARD 3
Women’s empowerment | 93
SDG 3.7, 5.6
marriage
ever experienced
Women
care
coverage,
at least
one visit
of births
attended
by skilled
health
personnel
mortality
ratio
Adolescent
prevalence,
Women
partner
partner
Share of female
graduates
graduating
in science,
mathematics,
engineering,
manufacturing
and construction
share of
employment
in senior
and middle
management
paid
maternity
leave
per
100,000
live births)
per 1,000
women
ages 15–19)
women of reproductive
age, 15–49 years)
ages 20–24
who are
married or
in union)
female population
ages 15 and older)
female
population
ages 15
and older)
Tanzania (United Republic of)
Togo
Yemen
Korea (Democratic People’s Rep. of)
Tuvalu
Very high human development
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDICES AND INDICATORS:
2018 STATISTICAL UPDATE
grouping of countries and aggregates by indicator.
Technical note 6
at http://hdr.undp.org/
SDG 3.7, 5.6
marriage
ever experienced
Women
care
coverage,
at least
one visit
of births
attended
by skilled
health
personnel
mortality
ratio
Adolescent
prevalence,
Women
partner
partner
Share of female
graduates
graduating
in science,
mathematics,
engineering,
manufacturing
and construction
share of
employment
in senior
and middle
management
paid
maternity
leave
per
100,000
live births)
per 1,000
women
ages 15–19)
women of reproductive
age, 15–49 years)
ages 20–24
who are
married or
in union)
female population
ages 15 and older)
female
population
ages 15
and older)
Organisation for Economic
World
DASHBOARD 3
Women’s empowerment | 95
Country groupings (terciles)
Top third
Three-colour coding is used to visualize partial grouping of countries by indicator. For each indicator
and the bottom third. Aggregates are colour coded using the same tercile cutoffs. See
after the table.
SDG 7.2
SDG 9.4
SDG 15.1
SDG 6.4
SDG 3.9
SDG 3.9
SDG 15.5
energy
consumption
energy
consumption
withdrawals
and ambient
air pollution
Unsafe water,
energy
consumption)
nal energy
consumption)
(tonnes)
PPP $ of GDP)
land area
renewable water
resources)
VERY HIGH HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
96
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDICES AND INDICATORS:
2018 STATISTICAL UPDATE
DASH
SDG 7.2
SDG 9.4
SDG 15.1
SDG 6.4
SDG 3.9
SDG 3.9
SDG 15.5
energy
consumption
energy
consumption
withdrawals
and ambient
air pollution
Unsafe water,
energy
consumption)
nal energy
consumption)
(tonnes)
PPP $ of GDP)
land area
renewable water
resources)
Turkey
Trinidad and Tobago
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
Tunisia
Tonga
DASHBOARD 4
Environmental sustainability | 97
SDG 7.2
SDG 9.4
SDG 15.1
SDG 6.4
SDG 3.9
SDG 3.9
SDG 15.5
energy
consumption
energy
consumption
withdrawals
and ambient
air pollution
Unsafe water,
energy
consumption)
nal energy
consumption)
(tonnes)
PPP $ of GDP)
land area
renewable water
resources)
Turkmenistan
Sao Tome and Principe
Tanzania (United Republic of)
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDICES AND INDICATORS:
2018 STATISTICAL UPDATE
SDG 7.2
SDG 9.4
SDG 15.1
SDG 6.4
SDG 3.9
SDG 3.9
SDG 15.5
energy
consumption
energy
consumption
withdrawals
and ambient
air pollution
Unsafe water,
energy
consumption)
nal energy
consumption)
(tonnes)
PPP $ of GDP)
land area
renewable water
resources)
Togo
Very high human development
Organisation for Economic
World
DASHBOARD 4
Environmental sustainability | 99
grouping of countries and aggregates by indicator.
Technical note 6
at http://hdr.undp.org/
100
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDICES AND INDICATORS:
2018 STATISTICAL UPDATE
DASHBOARD 5
Socioeconomic sustainability | 101
Country groupings (terciles)
Top third
Three-colour coding is used to visualize partial grouping of countries by indicator. For each indicator
and the bottom third. Aggregates are colour coded using the same tercile cutoffs. See
after the table.
SDG 9.5
SDG 10.1
SDG 5
SDG 10.1
versus military expenditure
Total
capital
formation
labour
force
index
(exports)
and
development
expenditure
expenditure
education
and health
expenditure
to military
expenditure
loss in
HDI value
due to
inequality
Inequality
Index
quintile ratio
goods, services and
primary income)
force)
Average annual change
VERY HIGH HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
–2.4
..
30
Estonia
12.6
..
25.4
89.2
0.110
1.5
2.1
6.0
–1.4
–3.6
–0.3
31
Greece
–8.6
..
11.7
76.7
0.234
1.0
2.6
..
4.6
–2.8
1.6
32
Cyprus
2.2
..
20.4
84.2
0.234
0.5
1.8
8.4
–0.1
–3.3
1.9
33
Poland
10.5
..
20.0
94.5
0.067
1.0
1.9
5.9
–2.3
–1.6
–1.1
34
United Arab Emirates
..
..
24.8
53.5
0.227
0.9
5.6
..
..
–5.1
..
35
Andorra
..
..
..
..
0.199
..
..
..
..
..
..
35
Lithuania
17.5
..
17.5
95.7
0.112
1.0
1.7
12.1
0.3
–2.8
0.8
37
Qatar
25.8
..
45.2
44.0
0.400
0.5
1.5
..
..
..
..
38
Slovakia
5.1
..
22.4
93.7
0.195
1.2
1.2
10.2
0.2
–0.4
–0.6
39
Brunei Darussalam
34.1
..
34.8
79.1
0.629
..
2.9
1.8
..
..
..
39
Saudi Arabia
12.2
..
28.2
60.5
0.593
0.8
10.2
..
..
–5.4
..
41
Latvia
1.9
..
21.5
91.2
0.093
0.6
1.7
13.9
–0.8
–0.8
–2.2
41
Portugal
2.4
..
16.3
52.0
0.071
1.3
1.7
7.9
2.0
–4.3
–0.7
43
Bahrain
8.0
..
29.6
..
0.320
0.1
4.0
1.7
..
–2.6
..
44
Chile
5.1
..
22.1
69.2
0.306
0.4
1.9
6.8
–2.5
–1.5
–1.9
45
Hungary
9.7
95.5
22.5
87.2
0.123
1.4
1.0
13.6
–1.2
0.0
–1.6
46
Croatia
9.0
..
20.5
90.5
0.066
0.9
1.4
7.2
–5.9
–2.0
..
47
Argentina
5.9
34.9
19.1
63.4
0.195
0.6
0.9
15.0
–3.9
–0.3
–3.1
48
Oman
–6.0
..
36.4
..
0.506
0.2
12.0
0.5
..
–2.7
..
49
Russian Federation
6.7
19.2
23.9
96.1
0.305
1.1
4.2
2.5
–2.5
–2.4
–1.8
DASH
SDG 9.5
SDG 10.1
SDG 5
SDG 10.1
versus military expenditure
Total
capital
formation
labour
force
index
(exports)
and
development
expenditure
expenditure
education
and health
expenditure
to military
expenditure
loss in
HDI value
due to
inequality
Inequality
Index
quintile ratio
goods, services and
primary income)
force)
Average annual change
Turkey
Trinidad and Tobago
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
Tunisia
Tonga
102
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDICES AND INDICATORS:
2018 STATISTICAL UPDATE
SDG 9.5
SDG 10.1
SDG 5
SDG 10.1
versus military expenditure
Total
capital
formation
labour
force
index
(exports)
and
development
expenditure
expenditure
education
and health
expenditure
to military
expenditure
loss in
HDI value
due to
inequality
Inequality
Index
quintile ratio
goods, services and
primary income)
force)
Average annual change
Turkmenistan
Vanuatu
Lao People’s Democratic Republic
Sao Tome and Principe
Tanzania (United Republic of)
DASHBOARD 5
Socioeconomic sustainability | 103
SDG 9.5
SDG 10.1
SDG 5
SDG 10.1
versus military expenditure
Total
capital
formation
labour
force
index
(exports)
and
development
expenditure
expenditure
education
and health
expenditure
to military
expenditure
loss in
HDI value
due to
inequality
Inequality
Index
quintile ratio
goods, services and
primary income)
force)
Average annual change
Togo
Korea (Democratic People’s Rep. of)
Tuvalu
Very high human development
Organisation for Economic
World
104
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDICES AND INDICATORS:
2018 STATISTICAL UPDATE
grouping of countries and aggregates by indicator.
Technical note 6
at http://hdr.undp.org/
and interest actually paid in currency, goods
DASHBOARD 5
Socioeconomic sustainability | 105
Developing regions
Algeria, Bahrain, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, State of Palestine, Qatar,
SaudiArabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, Yemen
Cambodia, China, Fiji, Indonesia, Kiribati, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Lao People’s Democratic Republic,
Malaysia, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nauru, Palau, Papua New Guinea,
Index to Sustainable Development Goal indicators
Total debt service (% of exports of goods, services and primary income)
Total debt service (% of GNI)
Technology
Barro, R. J., and J.-W. Lee. 2016.
United Nations Development Programme
One United Nations Plaza
New York, NY 10017
www.undp.org
m
o
w
e
ed li
e
.

R
esilient nation
.

Human Development Indices and Indicators | 2018 Statistical Update
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDICES AND INDICATORS:
2018 STATISTICAL UPDATE
TABLE
TABLE
TABLE
TABLE
TABLE
TABLE
TABLE
TABLE
TABLE
TABLE
DASHBOARD 1
QUALITY OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
DASH
DASH
DASH
DASHBOARD 2
LIFE-COURSE GENDER GAP
DASH
DASHBOARD 3
WOMEN’S EMPOWERMENT
DASH
DASH
DASH
DASHBOARD 4
ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY
DASH
DASHBOARD 5
SOCIOECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY
DASH
DASH

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