[Hazel_M._McFerson]_Mixed_Blessing_The_Impact_of_American_Colonial_Experience_on_Politics_and_Society_in_the_Philippines


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ImperialismandColonialism:EssaysontheHistoryofEuropeanExpansion
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TheRacialDimensionofAmericanOverseasColonialPolicy
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BLESSING
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CopyrightAcknowledgments
Gratefulacknowledgmentsaregiventothefollowingforpermissiontoprint:
NicanorTiongsonforhistranslationofCecilioApostol,AlYankee,in
PhilippineLiterature:
AHistoryandAnthology
,editedbyBienvenidoLumberaandCynthiaNograles(PasigCity:Anvil
Publishing,Inc.,1997).
NicanorTiongsonforhistranslationofFernandoMa.GuerrerosMiPatria,in
EarlyPhilippine
Literature:FromAncientTimesto1940,
editedbyAsuncionDavid-Maramba(Manila:National
BookStore,Inc.,1971).
LeodivicoLacsamanaforhistranslationofAmadoV.HernandezsAngKulayNgPilipino,a
poempublishedin
ParnasongTagalogniA.G.Abadilla
,editedbyEfrenAbueg(Maynila:MCS
Enterprises,Inc.,1973).
LeodivicoLacsamanafortranslatingonestanzaofJoseChavezsKayRizal,apoempublished
inRosarioCruz-Lucero,AngRebolusyon1896:SaImahinasyongPampanitikangIlonggo1898
DilimanReview
45,no.4,46,no.1(19971998).
LeodivicoLacsamanafortranslatingtwostanzasofMiguelaMontelibanosAkongHandum,a
poempublishedinRosarioCruz-Lucero,AngRebolusyon1896:SaImahinasyongPampanitikang
Ilonggo,18981920,
DilimanReview
45,no.4,46,no.1(19971998).
LeodivicoLacsamanafortranslatingoneparagraphofD.A.RosariosAloha,ashortstorypub-
lishedin
EarlyPhilippineLiterature:FromAncientTimesto1940
,editedbyAsuncionDavid-
Maramba(Manila:NationalBookStore,Inc.,1971).
DaisyLopezforhertranslationofRafaelPalmasElAlmaDeEspan
a,anessaypublishedin
LatidosDelAlmaFilipina
,editedbyEdgardoTiamsonMendoza(Manila:Bookmark,1984).
LeonGonzalesandAuroraGonzalesfortheirtranslationofBenignoRamos,AngKayumanggi,
ParnasongTagalogniA.G.Abadilla,
editedbyEfrenAbueg(Maynila:MCSEnterprises,Inc.,
AngelaManalangGloria,ToaMestiza,in
TothewonderfulFilipinopeople,
andtomyhusband,Rino,
whomadeitallpossible.
FidelV.Ramos
PrefaceandAcknowledgmentsxiii
1Introduction
HazelM.McFerson
PARTI:CULTUREANDIDENTITY
2FilipinoIdentityandSelf-ImageinHistoricalPerspective
HazelM.McFerson
3RaceandCultureinSpanishandAmericanColonialPolicies
Contents
Wemustknowwherewecamefrom,itissaid,inordertodecidewherewe
thaninmanyothercountries).Theseattitudespartlyunderpinthesharpclass
cleavagesandextremeinequalityofincomeandopportunitysosadlyevidentin
thiscountry.Wemaynotapproveoftheseattitudes,oroftheirrepercussions,
butweignoretheirrealityatourperil.AsKarlMarxwrotein1852,menmake
theirownhistory,buttheydonotmakeitincircumstanceswhichtheythem-
selveschoose.
Ihavestressedonanotheroccasionthreeyearsagothatwhilemuchprogress
hasbeenmadesincethePeoplePowerrevolutionof1986,fourkeychallenges
remainaheadofusinthetwenty-rstcentury:socialandeconomicreforms,
PrefaceandAcknowledgments
Myresearchisalivedexperience.Formostofmyacademiclife,bothasa
graduatestudentandnowasauniversityprofessor,Ihavebeeninterestedin
PrefaceandAcknowledgments
racialgroupsuperiorityandinferiorityasmanifestedincustomaswellasin
formallaw;(2)theroleofracerelativetothemoreconventionalvariablesof
stratication,forexample,classandculture;(3)thecriteriausedtoclassify
racialgroups,theresultanthierarchyofracialgroups,and(4)thecentralityto
thisarrangementoftheroleofeithergenotypicorphenotypicdenitionsof
race.Onebasicimplicationoftheconceptisthattheintensityofconictin
differentsystemsispartlytheresultofsharpdiscontinuitiesinthesocioracial
statusrankingofindividualsbelongingtodifferentracialgroups.Thus,my
interestwasintheprevalenceofawhitebias,whichtranscendsclassand
culture,andledmetopayattentiontounderlyingracialtraditionsandtherole
increatinginvidiousstatusdistinctionsonthebasisofascribedcharacteristics
suchasancestryandphenotype.Thiswasoverlookedinmodernizationand
PrefaceandAcknowledgments
onthewhitesideoftheproject,whileIandmyblackpeerslivedonthe
blacksideontheothersideoftheeld.Asianslivedinneutralareas,usually
attachedtofamily-ownedbusinesses,whichalloftheracespatronized.
AnexceptiontothisresidentialpatternwasaneighboringfamilyaFilipino
familywho,intheBostonracialtraditionwerecharacterizedasblackon
PrefaceandAcknowledgments
States.ThePhilippineswereacquiredbytheUnitedStatesintheTreatyofParis
for$20million,whilePuertoRicowascededundertheTreatyofParisandthe
duringmystayintheircountry.Firstandforemost,specialappreciationisnoted
totheCouncilfortheExchangeofInternationalScholars(CEIS),Washington,
D.C.,andthePhilippine-AmericanEducationFoundation,Makati,Manila,who
awardedmetheFulbrightFellowship.IamalsogratefultoGeorgeMasonUni-
versity,DepartmentofPublicandInternationalAffairs,whichgrantedmea
leaveofabsence.IalsothanktheUniversityofAsiaandthePacic,PasigCity,
Manila,whichhostedmeasaFulbrightScholar.Specialthankstoallofmy
colleaguesatUA&P,especiallyDr.SusanaE.Manzon,ManagingDirector,
PublicandInternationalAffairs,Dr.JoseReneC.Gayo,DeanoftheSchoolof
PrefaceandAcknowledgments
persontocontact.AlsoaspecialthankstoMrs.VirginiaBenitezLicuanan.I
amalsodeeplygratefultoformerPresidentFidelRamos,whosehistoricaccom-
plishmentsincludethesecondpeacefultransferofpresidentialpowerinthe
contemporaryPhilippines,andwhoseinsightsconstitutetheforewordtothis
Finally,thisbookwasconceivedandeditedinthespiritoftheeminentFil-
ipinohistorianandscholar,O.D.Corpuz,whohasdecriedrightlythetendency
ofmanymodernexchangescholarstopickthebrainsofThirdWorldaca-
demicsinhostcountries(1989:1:395).
Thiscollectionisadeparturefromthat
unfortunatetraditioninthatallofthecontributors,exceptonlyformyself,are
Filipinoscholarsandacademics.Mymajorthanks,ofcourse,gotothem,as
wellasmypersonalhopethatthroughthisexamplethewealthofknowledge
anddirectunderstandingpossessedbyFilipinoscholarsandacademicsmaybe
HazelM.McFerson
ThePhilippineshistoricalandpoliticaldevelopmentstobecoveredhavebeen
discussedatlengthinseveralotherworks(Agoncillo,1969;Blount,1913;Con-
stantino,1975;Corpuz,1989;Karnow,1989;Salamanca,1968;Stanley,1974;
Steinberg,1982;Wolff,1961).Theywillbeanalyzedhereonlythroughthe
novelprismoftheimpactofthesuperimpositionoftherigidAmericanracial
traditionontotheclassstraticationinheritedfromSpanishcolonialtimes.
Therefore,politicalevolutionorcontemporaryeventsonlytangentiallyrelated
tothebooksmainargumentwillbecovered,butverybrieyandonlyas
necessarytopreserveminimalcontinuity.Thereaderinterestedinafullaccount
ofthesedevelopmentsisreferredtoanyofthecomprehensiveworksmentioned
above.(Karnow,1989hasanespeciallycomprehensiveandreadableaccount
ofhistoricalandpoliticalevents.)
ThePhilippinesisavibrantcountryofcontrastingimagesthatresonatesfrom
itsdualcolonialpast.Itisacliche
topointtothecontrastsinevidenceinall
MixedBlessing
Theubiquitousjeepneyslocallymanufacturedjeepsoriginatingfromthoseleftby
theAmericansafterWorldWarII,whichhavebeenelongatedandturnedintopopular
transportation,eachwithelaborateornamentationandnamedaftertheownershopes
anddreams,suchasTheAmericanDream,AHardDaysWork,andPraiseThe
LordahybridofthepracticalAmericanpastandFilipinocreativity.
Inprovincialtowns,
(waterbuffalo)cartscreepingalongsideBMWsand
Mercedes-Benz,whoseoccupantsareshieldedfromviewbydarktintedwindows.
Rampantconsumerism,withgiant(andostentatious)shoppingmallseverywhere
somewithice-skatingrinksinatropicalclimatealongsidevitalreligiousfestivals
andadeep-rootedCatholicismandCatholic-relatedcults.
yearsinHollywoodbothconfusesandoversimpliesacomplexandoften
brutalreality.Thence,thetitleofthisbook(anditsunderlyingtheme):the
Americanarrivalconstitutedamixedblessingforthepeopleoftheseislands.
Thethreadrunningthroughthediversechaptersofthisbookisprovidedby
acoreargumentfoundedonthefollowingpropositions:
Racialtraditions(seechapter2)wereanintegralaspectofSpanishandAmerican
colonialpoliciesinthePhilippines,andthelegaciesremainstrongtothisday.
TheexibleSpanishracialtraditionincludedacombinationofclass,culture,and
MixedBlessing
andprovideamoresolidunderpinningtopoliticalaccountabilityinthePhil-
ippines,aswellasthebasisforsustainedeconomicprogress.Forthistohappen,
continuedpeacefulanddemocratictransfersofpresidentialpowermustfollow
Chapters10and11focusontheplightofindigenouspeopleandothermar-
ginalizedgroups.RaulPertierraandEduardoF.Ugarteillustratetherootsof
thecontemporaryconictintheMuslimSouthandinthehinterlands,whose
proudpeoplehavesteadfastlyresistedattemptstodominatethem,beginning
withresistancetotheSpanish,andcontinuingtotheAmericanandpostcolonial
periods.Finally,JulioReyB.Hidalgofocusesonthepoliticalbehaviorofca-
ciqueswithinthecontextoftheAmericanstyledemocracythatwastrans-
plantedtothePhilippinesduringtheclosingyearsofSpanishruleandbecame
institutionalizedduringAmericancolonialism.Thepurchaseoflandsownedby
theSpanishfriarsfromtheVaticanduringtheTaftcolonialadministration
(19011903)wasintendedastherststepinaprogramoflanddistribution.
MixedBlessing
elitessupportedbytheAmericanadministration,andafterindependencebythe
sonsanddaughtersoftheverysameprivilegedgroups.
ThedeeplyingrainedcontemptoftheFilipinoeliteforthecommonpeople,
thegenesisofwhichisdescribedinthevariouschaptersofthisbook,ismost
vividlyillustratedbyanextraordinarycommentmadeinFebruary2001,
,bythen-SenatorMiriamDefensorSantiago,respondingtoextensive
criticismofhersupportforEstradaduringtheimpeachmenttrial:
WhyshouldIbebotheredbytheseFilipinoswhoareraisingtheseprotestsagainstme?
ThesesameFilipinoswhohavenotevensteppedfootinHarvardorOxford.Iwouldbe
7
MixedBlessing
tothesameunbridledextentastheirpredecessorsMarcosandEstrada.Inthe
meantime,economicrecoveryandpoliticalstabilityinthecountrywillcontinue
Agoncillo,T.A.
AShortHistoryofthePhilippines
.NewYork:Mentor,1969.
Blount,JamesH.
AmericanOccupationofthePhilippines1898/1912
.NewYork:Put-
nam,1913;reprint,Manila:SolarPublishingCorporation,1986.
Constantino,Renato.
ThePhilippines:APastRevisited
.Privateprinting,1975.
Corpuz,O.D.
TheRootsofPhilippineNationalism
.Vols.1and2.QuezonCity,Phil-
ippines:AklahiFoundation,Inc.,1989.
Karnow,Stanley.
InOurImage:AmericasEmpireinthePhilippines
.NewYork:Bal-
lantineBooks,1989.
Salamanca,Bonifacio.
TheFilipinoReactiontoAmericanRule,19011913
.Hamden,
Conn.:ShoeStringPress,1968.
PARTI
CULTUREANDIDENTITY
FilipinoIdentityandSelf-Image
inHistoricalPerspective
HazelM.McFerson
theMestizogirlsareoftenofwonderfulbeauty.
OntheAmericanconquestofthePhilippine
s...the
Americanpressreg-
ularlypresentedallFilipino
s...as
blackswhichsuggestgraphicallythat
CultureandIdentity
phenotypeofthelatterasundesirablewassearedintothemindsofFilipinos
andremainspervasiveinthecultureofthecountry.
FilipinoIdentityandSelf-Image
CultureandIdentity
theywereabletomaketheguresjustright.Thentheybreathedlifeintoalltheclay
gures.Outoftheoverbakedsprangtheblackrace;outoftheunderbakedgurescame
thewhitepeople;andoutofthoseclaygureswhichwereperfectlybakedoriginated
thebrownpeople.Thebrown-complexionedFilipinosarethustheperfectproductofthe
godstoastingexperiment.
And,accordingtothesecondmyth:
LalakeandBabae[therstmanandrstwomanintheworld]marriedandmanychildren
wereborntothem.Thesechildrenprovedtobelazy.Onedaythefather,angeredby
theirindolence,chasedthemwithastick.Thechildrenedtoescapetheirfatherswrath.
Someedashortdistanceandremainedinthecountry,whileothersrantofar-away
regions.ThosewhoremainedinthecountrybecametheFilipinoswhoseskinwasbrown
likethatoftheearth.Thosewhoedtoaregionwheretheclimatewascoldbecame
thewhitepeople;thosewhotookrefugeinacountrywherethesoilwasredbecamethe
FilipinoIdentityandSelf-Image
pernaturalbeings:Thereisanotherkindofinvisiblebeing,[theseare]ugly
[spirits]calledagta.Theyliveinbigtreesthatarelikemansions.
Whenyoupassby,youmustaskpermissionortheywillharmyou.
legend(AgtaisKindWhenNotOffended)recounts:Theagta,whoisas
darkasanegro,isgenerallyhelpfulandisdisposedtohelpyouincutting
timberandcarryingtoyourplaceifyoudonotoffendhimbyignoringhim
asthoughhedoesnotexistorbytakinghimforgranted.
CultureandIdentity
FilipinoIdentityandSelf-Image
theFilipinosarefartoostupidtoknowthat.Infact,ifthehairissocurlyastobe
positivelywoolly,theyaremorepleasedthanever[emphasisadded].
AmericansalsodenigratedtheIgorot,alight-skinnedAustronesianangroup
ofMongolstock,whowerelabeledaswildpeopleofthearchipelagointhe
secondAmericancensus.
TheyhavecometoepitomizethesavageFilipino,
andthey,too,aremarginalizedanddisparagedbymanycontemporaryFilipi-
TheIgorotsarecurrentlyundergoingaproudrevivalintheirnewidentity
asCordillerans.However,thenegativeconnotationofthenameisonlya
reectionofthenegativestereotypingofthepeoplethemselves.Indeed,just
asCordilleransmeansmountainpeopleinSpanish,thetermIgorotderives
fromthelocalwordgolotormountain.ThestatusoftheIgorotsinthecon-
CultureandIdentity
colorandphysicalfeaturesasreectedintheterminologyabove,ratherthan
FilipinoIdentityandSelf-Image
ofSpaniardsbyIndiowomenandtheirprogeny,butalsothoseoftheChinese,
whoareingeneralwhiterthaneitherparent,andcarefullydistinguishthemselves
fromtheIndians.
Hence,whilebrownMalaywomenweremothersofthemestizos,theirstatus
andsupposedlygreaterbeautyandhighercultureowedfromtheirpaternity.
ForDeOlivaresandotherSpaniards,thiswasdescribedthusly:
AmongtheMestizogirlsofSpanishfatherstherearemanywhopossessawonderful
beauty.Theyarelitheandgracefulinformandgure,withsoftolivecomplexions,
CultureandIdentity
terestafterall.Onecouldarguethattodayanti-Chinesesentimentisfostered
deliberately(certainly,tolerated)bythecontemporaryrulingelite,evenasit
usestheChineseasconvenientintermediariesintheeconomicarena.
ChinesemestizosgureprominentlyinthenationalisthistoryofthePhilip-
pines,includingprimarilyDr.JoseRizal,thenationalheroandwriter,andEm-
ilioAguinaldo,therstpresidentofthePhilippinesandmilitaryleaderinthe
Filipino-AmericanWar.
ThecomposerofthePhilippinenationalanthem,Jul-
ianFelipe,wasaChinesemestizo,aswastheowneroftheBandadeSan
FranciscodeBulacan,whichperformedtheanthemattherstag-raisingcer-
emonyinKawit,Cavite.Indeed,thescholarTeresitaAngSeeobservedthat
ChinesemestizoswerebroughtupasMalaysbytheirmothersandfoughtin
FilipinoIdentityandSelf-Image
CultureandIdentity
Americasdomesticandoverseascolonialterritorialrelations.
Racialpractices
andclassications,whichevolvedintheUnitedStates,weretransportedtothe
FilipinoIdentityandSelf-Image
reversalofSpanishcolonialpolicies,andmosteconomicandsocialrestrictions
ontheChinesewereremoved.Nevertheless,theChineseweredeniedcitizenship
andexcludedfromimmigration(asalsointhemainlandUnitedStatesatthe
time).Althoughexclusionwasneverfullyeffective,mostofthepresent-day
ChinoysinthePhilippinesaredescendedfromthosewhoenteredduringthe
Americanperiod.
TheChineseheldthepositionofmiddlemeninmercantile
CultureandIdentity
emergenceofanewtypeofmestizo,themixed-racewhiteAmericanandFili-
pino,beginningshortlyafterthearrivalofAmericantroops.
ThegeneralviewofAmericanstowardtheFilipinoswasnaturallyconsistent
withthewidespreadnegrophobiaintheUnitedStates.Moreover,incommon
withotherAmericanoverseasterritories,thePhilippineswereinitiallyadmin-
isteredbythemostprejudicedmilitarymeninall-whiteandsegregatedunits,
generallycommandedbysouthernofcersorformerIndianghters,apart
fromtheregimentsofall-blacktroops.
PhilippinesgovernorWilliamHoward
Taftnotedin1900theincreasingdisplaysofracismtowardFilipinosonthe
partofarmypersonnel,particularlywhitearmywives:ladiesofthearmycer-
tainlyseemtohave[theimpression]thattheyregardtheFilipinoladiesand
menasniggers,andasnotttobeassociatedwith.
Thiswasarudesurprise
totheFilipinomestizo,whohaduntilthenbeenaccordedastatussignicantly
higherthanthatofthepureMalayandsawthathigherstatussuddenlywiped
Thehistoricaldenigrationofthebrown-skinnedIgorotsandblackNegritos
discussedearlier,alsofoundaplaceintheAmericanoutlookandfurthercon-
tributedtothenegricationofFilipinos.Theseviews,coupledwiththatofthe
Spanishcolonizers,reinforcedforFilipinostheundesirabilityofdarkskin.For
example,acartoonbyVictorGillamin
HarpersWeekly
(1899),depictedGen-
eralEmilioAguinaldo,thereveredleaderoftheKatipunanrevolutionwhich
beganin1896,asablackdancinggirlconfrontingastupeedUncleSam
dressedasanoldwhitelady.
Thewifeofanothernationalistleader,General
Yayang,HilariadelRosario,wasderidedinequallyracisttermsbyanAmer-
ican:herfaceistheround,fat,dusky,uninterestingfaceoftheaveragenative
ofLuzonsisle.
AnotherAmericansourceclaimedthatdelRosarioslittle
dark-eyedsonstoodbyhersideandgazedwonderinglyatthekind-hearted
Americanladieswithsuch
beautifulwhitefaces
andbrighteyes(italicsadded).
ItisimportanttonotethattheseviewswerereportedtotheincomingAmer-
icansastheir
introductiontotheinhabitantsintheirnewlyannexedterritory.
AndRudyardKipling,thebardofimperialism,excoriatedFilipinosashalf
devilandhalfchildinhisWhiteMansBurden(1898).Thus,theracial
animosityinherentintheAmericanracialtraditiontowardNativeAmericans,
AfricanAmericans,andAsiansinAmericawastransferredtotheLittleBrown
Brothersandtowhattheyconsideredastheequallyunattractivebrownsisters.
However,becauseoftheirdependenceonthecollaborationof
thekeennessofmanyofthelattertoingratiatethemselveswiththenewcolonial
masters),Americanpolicy-andimage-makersinthePhilippinessoonex-
FilipinoIdentityandSelf-Image
periodconsolidatedmestizosocialdominanceandreinforcedthedesirabilityof
whatmanyFilipinoshavenowcometointernalize:themestizafemaleideal.
JOSERIZALANDTHEMESTIZAIDEAL
EvensuchanaugustwriterasthenationalheroJoseRizalsubscribedtothese
Eurocentricrole-images.
CultureandIdentity
religiousimagesbroughttothePhilippinesfourcenturiesearlier.Atthesame
time,reectingthepsychologicalpredicamentofcolonialism,whichdiminishes
thecolonizerevenasitoppressesthecolonized,MariaClaraisarepressed
womanwhoseweaknessanddespairoveralostloveoverwhelmher,enabling
powerfulandsinisterforcestoslowlydrivehertodeath.
FilipinoIdentityandSelf-Image
whichmillionsofcontemporaryFilipinasdealwithpoverty.
Anotherexample
ofthisgrowingtraditionisMartinoAbellanas
JobWasAlsoMan
(1953);Job
isdepictedasacontemporarybeggarcladonlyinshortsagainstabackground
ofruinedbuildings.Thefaceislinedwithsuffering,theresignedeyesandmouth
areopeninsupplication,andthenudebrowntorsoandlimbsshowstrained
Aninterestingrecentreversalofthecolonialstereotypeis
TheBrownBroth-
ersBurden
,a1972paintinginBenedictoCabrerasLarawanseries.
upthefalsehoodofKiplingsWhiteMansBurdenrationalization,theartist
revealsthetrueburdentobethewhitemansinterestsweighingheavilyonthe
shouldersofthelittlebrownbrothers(castinsepiatones).Acriticnotes:the
CultureandIdentity
theattempttoeclipsethepre-colonialnotionofgenderequality,Philippinehistoryis
ofhermother,observesthatbecauseofherFrenchbloo
d...shewasone
FilipinoIdentityandSelf-Image
AroutetoupwardmobilityforFilipinasisenhancedenormouslybywinning
localandinternationalbeautypageants.Indeed,itisexpectedthatafterthedays
oframpmodelingandbeautyqueenreigninghaveended,thewomenwillmarry
richmenandentermotherhood.Thesechancesareenhancedbybeingmestiza.
Arecentfeatureintheavant-gardemagazine
,reportedoneightwomen
whocreatedanidentityforthemselvesbeyondthetitleofformermodeland
beautyqueen.Thetransitionofallfrombeautyqueentorespectable,afuent
matronwasmadepossible,inpart,bytheirmestizacountenance.
Themestizaidealistransmittedlargelythroughthemedia.FilipinaDoreen
G.Fernandez,acontemporaryculturalhistorian,notesthat:Contrarytoits
name,[themassmedia]itisnotusuallycreatedbythepopulous,thepeople,
themajority,themass,butbypatrons,orifyouwill,sponsors,forthecon-
sumptionofthemasses.
Themass-mediainthePhilippinesisextremelycom-
plicitinelevatingthemestizaidealastheFilipinafemininemystique.
TheAmericanmovieindustryhasgreatlyinuencedthePhilippinecinema
industryanditsdisseminationofthemestizaideal.InbothAmericanandPhil-
ippinemovieswhitestandardsoffeminineandmasculinebeautydominateand
continuetobeinternalizedbythegeneralpublic(althoughcertainchangesare
visibleinrecentyears).Hollywoodmythology,withitswhitegodsandgod-
desses,wastransportedtothePhilippines.
Mestizaimagesareprevalentin
cinemainthePhilippines,andareviewofthephenotypesofpopularFilipino
actorsandactresses,bothpastandcontemporary,revealsthedominanceofthe
mestizoandmestizaidealinpopularcinema.Duringthethirtiesandfortiesthese
iconsincludedactorssuchasMaryWalterandManualRamirez,RogeliodeLa
Rosa,ElyRamos,NormaBlancaor,andLeopoldoSalcedo;inmorerecent
years,VilmaSantos,CesarRamirez,AliciaVergel,FernandoPoJr.,andGloria
CultureandIdentity
government,becametherstFilipinatowinaninternationalbeautytitle,as
MissInternationalBeauty.Afterhercrowning,sheurgedFilipinostoreevaluate
theirattitudestowardwhatconstitutesbeauty.ThePhilippinesregularlysent
fair-skinnedmestizastointernationalpageants.Oflightcomplexionherself,
FilipinoIdentityandSelf-Image
PondsInstituteadvertisementfeaturesamestiza,whoproclaims:EvenHenoticed
myrosywhiteskin!andpromisesthatuseoftheproductisthenatural,gradualway
torosywhiteskin,resultingfromtheproductsVitaminB3thatwhitensskinfrom
TheFacialCareCenter,wherebeautifulskinhappensispromotedbyAprilMarcial-
Stewart,amestizahostessforthetelevisionprogramForKidsOnly.Acompanion
adforthesamechainpromisestomakefaceswhiterandurgeswomentolighten
upsun-darkenedornaturally-borndarkskinwithShiroiActiveWhiteningTreatment,
[o]riginatedinJapanandtestedinSwisslaboratories,thistreatmentpromotesskin
clarityforhyper-pigmentationandstabilizesskintoneoverdark,blotchyareas.It
concludesNowyounolongerhavetoputupwiththeworryofunappealingdark
AnniesBeautyWorldandHealthCenter,achainofclinics,promisesEyefoldbeau-
ticationwithoutopensurgeryandbodybleachingforasimplyawles
youcanauntanywhere;
TheRogemsonCompany,makersofBabesSunscreenFacialCleanserandEpiderm
ASkinWhiteningLotion,SoapandFacialCream,warnsagainstthedangersofhy-
droquinone,achemicalusedprimarilyasadeveloperinblack-and-whitephotography,
lithographyandx-raylms.TheadnotespiouslythatAcceleratingskinwhitening
maydomoreharmthangood.Whatisimportantistouseskinwhiteningproducts
thatcontainnoharshingredientslikehydroquinone.[Use]productsthatworkwiththe
bodysnaturalfunctionsratherthanalterthem.[Use]productsthatnotonlywhitenbut
helpkeepskinsupple,smoothandhealthy.
ACONCLUDINGWORD
ThemestizaidealcreatedbytheSpanishandreinforcedduringthedaysof
Americancolonialism,remainsstrongintothetwenty-rstcentury.
Theview
ofJomanquotedatthebeginningofthischapteryouwishyouwere
blackdoesnotappeartohavetakenrootinFilipinopopularculture.The
generalattitudestillseemstobethepaler[theskin]themoresuitedtoour
Thereisaplausibleargumentthatthispathologyaffectslargely
theurbanmiddleandupperclassesandthusahopethat,
developmentbe-
comesmoreequitableandlessManila-centric,thewhitebiasofFilipinosas
agroupwillgraduallylessenandtheirself-pridewillgrowcorrespondingly
CultureandIdentity
FilipinoIdentityandSelf-Image
andcommercialpostsaroundSulu.ConcerningMuslims,theArabscholarMudumar-
rivedinSuluinabout1380andlaidthegroundworkforthespreadofIslaminthe
Philippines.Fromthattime,otherMuslimsarrivedasbothtradersandscholars.When
theSpanisharrivedinthesixteenthcenturytheyfoundagreatpartofMindanaoand
SuluinhabitedbyMuslims,whomtheycalledMorosbyhistoricalanalogytotheir
Moorishantagonistssixcenturiesearlier.SeeTeodoroA.Agoncillo,
AShortHistoryof
ThePhilippines
(NewYork:MentorBooks,1969).
13.GregorioF.Zaide,
PhilippinePoliticalandCulturalHistory
.vol.1(Manila:Phil-
ippineEducationCompany,1949)p.19.
14.Zaidewrites:
PhilippinePoliticalandCulturalHistory
,p.11.HeAccordingto
CultureandIdentity
physicaldifferencesfromNegrilloseitherintheirhairorinthemembersoftheirbodies,
orinthequalitiesoftheirminds.Ibid.,p.300.
30.Reed,
NegritosofZambales
,pp.1314.
31.Mrs.CampbellDauncey,
AnEnglishwomaninthePhilippines
(London:John
Murray,1906),p.193.
32.Cf.
CensusofthePhilippineIslands
(TakenUndertheDirectionofthePhilippine
CommissionintheYear1903),vol.2,
(Washington,D.C.:UnitedStates
BureauoftheCensus,1905),p.48.AlsoincludedinthisclassicationOfthewild
tribes,theIgorotswere,aftertheMoros[Muslims],themostnumerous;thenthereisa
greatjumptotheBukidnon;thenfollowingtheSubanos,theNegritos,theMandayas,
andManobos(p.46).TheIgorotconsistofvarioussubgroupslivinginthemountains
ofnorthernLuzon,Philippines,allofwhomkeep,orhavekeptuntilrecentlytheirtra-
FilipinoIdentityandSelf-Image
kasiIgorotangtatayniya(becausehisfatherisanIgorot)Cf:WhyIgorotsWont
LoveLucy,
PhilippineDailyInquirer
,January12,1999,p.13.
34.TheSpanishwerediscriminatorytowardtheindigenous,non-Spanishgroups,and
theyevendifferentiatedamongthemselves,preferring
,thoseborninSpain,
,pure-bloodedSpanish-Filipinos,Spaniardsborninthecolony,orthosewho
wenttothePhilippinesinchildhood.Thisgroupwasaccordedsecond-classstatus,though
theyenjoyedmanyadvantagesoverIndiosasbothgroupstermedFilipinos,reserving
tothemselvesthenameFilipino.
35.BlairandRobertson,
NativePeoplesandCustoms
,vol.40.
36.Somegroupswereclassiedascivilized,othersasuncivilized,andheathen.
TheReportevenclaimedthatintheislandofMindoro,thereisone[clan]whichhas
alittletail,asdothemonkeys;andmanyreligious[friars]haveassured[thereports
author]ofit.Cf.BlairandRobertson,
ThePhilippineIslands
,vol.40,p.307.
37.Ibid.,vol.51,p.103.
38.Ibid.,p.570.
39.Ibid.Unlessotherwisenoted,thissectionisbasedonthissource.
40.TheChinesearetheultimateinsidersasoutsidersinthePhilippines.Among
themanypastandpresentprominentFilipinosofpart-Chineseancestryarenationalist
heroandwriterJoseRizal;post-MarcosformerpresidentCoryAquino;thecurrentCar-
dinalJaimeSin;andscoresofTaipansorChinesetycoons,suchasLucioTan,the
familiesofLopez,Ty,Gokongweis,Huangs,CojuangcoandGotonameafew.Fil-
Chinesearealsoprominentinthemedicalprofessionsandingovernment.Theyare
regularlyscape-goatedandblamedformanyofthecountryseconomicproblemsand
forthehaughtymannerinwhichmanyregardnon-ChineseFilipinos.Noneofthishas
resultedinanti-Chinesepogroms,whichfrequentlyoccurinIndonesiaandotherAsian
CultureandIdentity
theirproductsofironwerespokenofassuperior,andevensuperb.QuotedinDe
Olivares,SpanishOfcialHistoryofthePhilippineIslands,p.390.
45.CulturalCenterofthePhilippines,PhilippinesVisualArts,
CCPEncyclopedia
ofPhilippineArt
,vol.4(Manila:CulturalCenterofthePhilippines,1994).
46.Ibid.
47.LeonardWolffwritesthatsomeoftheFriarsweredistressinglyrace-conscious.
ADominicannewspaperinManila,referringtoapoemaboutthenativesrecitedatthe
FilipinoIdentityandSelf-Image
U.S.navalbaseintheworldoutsideoftheUnitedStates.AnumberofAfricanAmerican
troopsdesertedtheAmericanarmyandfoughtwithFilipinoinsurgentsduringthe
Philippine-AmericanWar,whichbeganin1898.ManyconsortedwithFilipinasandhad
familiesofblack/Filipinaancestries.Theirstorieshavegenerallybeenoverlookedin
accountsofAmericansexualencounterswithFilipinas,asillustratedinthefollowing
view,whichattemptstowhitenthegenealogyofmanymestizos:Amongtherstto
leavethePhilippinesin1945werechildrenandgrandchildrenofSpanish-AmericanWar
CultureandIdentity
69.ImeldaCajipe-Endaya,J.Merino,andR.Paras-Perez,withanintroductionby
LeonidasB.Benesa,
FilipinoEngraving,17thto19thCentury
(Manila:Ylang-Ylang
GraphicGroup,1980),quotedin
CCPEncyclopediaofPhilippineArt
,vol.4,p.25.
70.MariaChristineZamoraexploredthislineofanalysisinOfSaintsandScars:
TheHagiographicImprintoftheModernPhilippineNation,FulbrightScholar1998
99,presentation,PhilippineAmericanEducationalFoundation,MakatiCity,December
1998.ThePh.D.candidatespresentationexaminedthephenotypesofwomenwhowere
presentedasbeing-as-imageorpicture-writingthatidentiesthehagiographicpor-
traitsofsaintsintheconstructionofmodernFilipinonationalheroes.Zamoraconcluded
thatFilipinonationalismtodayisavisuallycenteredideologyinwhichimagesabound
ofthemostlyMalaywomenhumanbody,despitetheseeminglycontradictoryperva-
sivenessoftheveneratedmestizaideal.Amongthebrown-skinned,Malay-featuredcon-
temporaryreligiousguresare:NuestrasSenorasDeMontserrat,DeBuensucesso,De
LosDesamparados,DeGuia,DePenafranciaDeBicol.
71.McGloin,Colonization,p.2.
FilipinoIdentityandSelf-Image
80.DoreenG.Fernandez,MassCultureandCulturalPolicy:ThePhilippineExpe-
PhilippineStudies
37(1989):488502.
81.Cf.ClodualdoA.DelMundo,
NativeResistance:PhilippineCinemaandColo-
nialism18981941
(Malate,Manila:DeLaSalleUniversityPress,Inc.,1998).
82.ArecentRoperStarchWorldwidethirty-countrytrendtrackerstudyreportedthat
35percentoffemalerespondentsinthePhilippinessaidthattheythinkoftheirappear-
anceallthetime;28percentofmalerespondentsinthePhilippinessaidtheythinkof
theirappearanceallthetime.Worldwidealmosttwo-thirdsofVenezuelanwomen(65
percent)saidthattheythinkoftheirappearanceallthetime;47percentofmalerespon-
dentssaidtheythinkoftheirappearanceallthetime.Twenty-sevenpercentofAmer-
icanfemalerespondentssaidthattheythinkoftheirappearanceallthetime,and17
percentofAmericanmalerespondentssaidtheythinkoftheirappearanceallthetime.
WashingtonPost
,November11,2000,p.A21.
83.ArecentFunfaregossipcolumnwriter,RicardoF.Lo,aChinesemestizo,re-
centlywroteaboutactressChristinaGonzalez:WillChristinasbabybeaswhiteas
RaceandCultureinSpanish
andAmericanColonialPolicies
CultureandIdentity
representativeoftheSpanishcrown;perhapsmoreimportant,hewasthemain
channelwherebyHispanization,mainlyviaChristianity,tookplace.Attesting
tothisarethereligiousartandtraditionsdatingfromtheSpanishcenturies,
whichconstitutethatpartofHispanicculturalheritagethathaspermeatedPhil-
RaceandCulture
distsinSpainwouldrefuteonceandagainwastheassertionofFilipino
incapacity,amixtureofnaturalindolenceandunderdevelopment,bysomeSpan-
ishquarters.Thetaskofrebuttalwasnotonlyamatterofnationalorracial
pride,butevenmorecruciallyatthattime,wasofpoliticaltranscendence.Both
implicitlyandexplicitly,
(updating,bringinguptodate,inthe
senseofadjustingaccordingtothespiritofthe[current]times)intheareaof
CultureandIdentity
andcultureofthecolonialPhilippinesdeveloped.Itconcernsstructuresand
praxisthatmaterializedideasonraceandcontinuitiesandtransitionsthatoc-
curredinthem.InevitablythepoliticalandeconomicplanesofSpanishPhil-
RaceandCulture
tianized.TheywerenotsubjectsofSpain,atleastnotuntiltheyacceptedthe
lordshipofboththeChristiangodandtheSpanishmonarch.
In1881GregorioSancianco,aChinesehalf-casteormestizostudyingin
Spain,publishedastudyonthePhilippineswithaviewtoimprovinggover-
nance;itwasaptlytitled
ElprogresodeFilipinas
.Thechapterscontaining
proposedchangesinthetaxationsystemareofinterestastheydrawoutracial
implications.Theyactuallyfollowupanearlierproposaldiscussedmorethana
decadeearlierintheSpanishCortesorparliament.Inthenameofprogress,
Sanciancocriticizesthetributarysystemasoutdatedgiventhenewpolitical
framework.Thestateisnolongerthemasterofthelivesandpropertyofthe
theindividualsofpeninsularandEuropeandescent,uptowherethepaternallineis
traced,alsoavailofthem?ShouldonlythechildrenofthepeninsularesorEuropeans
haverights,orshouldthedutiesbeexclusivetotheothersborninthePhilippinesbecause
theyarenotconsideredSpaniardsliketheformer?
Hesurmisesthatthecurrentdistinctionsweremeanttoseparatethedominating
raceandthedominated;ifnotso,itcouldbepartofapolicyofattractionso
dula
wouldaccreditlegitimacyof
personandlife,asdifferentiatedfromvagabonds(
)whoare,admin-
istrativelyspeaking,nonentities.Intheclassicationheproposes,itisnotewor-
CultureandIdentity
nesemestizos.However,theChinesearestilltobeconsideredasforeigners,
mostlytransientswhotakethefruitsoftheirlaborbacktoChina;accordingly,
theydeservetobetaxedathigherrates(tripleormorethantherstgroup).The
pagantribesthathavecomeundercolonialdominionshallpayaminimaltax
indicativeoftheirrecognitionofvassalage;besides,theypossessedlessedu-
cationandfortune.
Inanattempttofanenthusiasmfortheaforementionedproposedreform,
anotherFilipinostudentinMadrid,GracianoLo
pezJaena,airedsimilarviews
in1883.Asidefromracialdiscriminationthetributarysystempurportedtoper-
RaceandCulture
aneworder.Withoutupheaval,whathadbeenpreviouslylargelyindependent
entitiesweretransformedintodependentlocalunitswithinahighlycentralized
government.Forthisthecolonizerscapitalizedpreciselyonthelooseinterbar-
angayrelations.Theresultwasalocaloligarchy,rsthereditary,thenelective.
Theothersideofpoliticalparticipationwasitssharplimitation:theindioswere
notpermittedtoaspireforofcebeyondthelevelofmunicipalgovernment.As
JohnL.Phelanexplains,
Spanishlegislationregardedtheindigenouspopulationoftheempireaslegalminors
whoserightsandobligationsmeritedpaternalisticprotectionfromtheCrownandits
agents.Foradministrativepurposes,thenativewastreatedasaseparatecommonwealth,
larepu
CultureandIdentity
able,gainedcurrency.FrayGaspardeSanAgustin,whowroteintheeighteenth
century,contributedtoconsolidatingthisimpression.Hewashardputtogratify
aSpanishfriendsrequesttodescribetheFilipinonative(itwasdifcultenough
togeneralizeaboutanygroupsofhumans),buthisattemptdisclosesalow
regard.Thefollowinglinesspecicallyrevealhisperceptionofindio-castila
[TheIndians]areextremelyprou
theyonlyobeytheSpaniardbecausetheyrecog-
RaceandCulture
AftereightyearsofserviceinthePhilippinesManuelSchiednageltriedto
disabusehisfellowcountrymenofmisconceptionsregardingnativeFilipinos,
whichareinvoluntaryandbornofapopularopinionontheonehan
d...and
ontheotherofthelackofexactknowledgeoftheirconditions,wayofexpress-
ingtheirsentiments,andofunderstandingoftheirlanguage.Hegoesonto
defendthemfromderogatoryremarks,liketheyneverlearntospellSpanish
correctly,whichhedisprovesbycitingthefactthatmostclerksandminor
ofcialsintheadministrationwhodomostofthepaperworkareFilipinos.
CultureandIdentity
(who,tobeginwith,wereveryfew)andindios;
moreover,itisbelievedwidely
thattheSpanishhalf-castesweremostlyoffspringofillicitunions,unfavorable
panies,tradingrmsorprivateenterprises,andtheyremaininidlenessandgivethem-
RaceandCulture
showsthatpopularracialclassicationwasbasedonphenotypes.
Afterall,the
CultureandIdentity
ofcolonialadministration;theyhadalsoformedrootsthathadgonedeepenough
toallowforarealidentityas
oleslipinos
,paralleltothe
olesamer-
.Theirresentmentatbeingbypassedforcivilgovernmentandmilitary
positionsinfavorofSpaniardsfromSpain,eveniftheywerelessqualied,is
recordedinhistory.ThemutinyofAndresNovalesin1823isheldupasa
classicexampleofsuchasituation.Novales,aMexicanarmyofcer,andtwo
othersshowedtheirresentmentregardingtheincreasingnumberofPeninsular
ofcersor
andwerethusaccusedofconspiring.Hewasassignedto
afarpostinMindanao,butbeforehegotthereheledaregimentofother
malcontentsagainstthecolonialgovernment.However,theywerequickly
routed.Itwouldbeinterestingtostudytheplaceoforiginofthemenwho
obtainedappointmentstopublicofceandmilitarypostsinordertofurther
substantiatethisparticularcauseoftension.Butcertainlybythemid-1800sthe
couldidentifywiththegrievancesinthisrespectoftheirLatinAmer-
icancounterpartsofthepastcentury.However,unlikeinLatinAmerica,the
Philippine-bornSpaniardswouldnotigniterevolution.Itcouldverywellbethat
theyweretoofewtodosoandtheirinterestsstillstronglyattachedtoSpain.
Atthispointitislargelyamatterofconjecturesinceotherdevelopmentsover-
tooktheconsolidationofthecreolepopulation.Inthesocialanddemographic
aspect,theriseoftheChinesemestizoclasshadvitalconsequencesforthis
period;theconcatenationaswellastheconvergenceofdevelopmentsindiffer-
entareasofPhilippinelifeaccountfortherest.Ineffect,Philippinenationalism
wouldbelargelytheworkofhalf-castesandnatives.
AtthispointitisnecessarytoturnourattentiontotheChinesewhoformed
notaninsignicantsocialsectorinHispanicPhilippines.Theyformedacom-
munityapart;becauseofitssheernumberandeconomicimport,theyrequired
specialtreatmentandlegislation.
Forinstance,Chinesetradersandartisans,
eitherasmigrantsortransients,paidstipulatedresidencetaxesratesthatwere
remarkablyhigherthanthenative
.Theirstatuswasthatofaminority
groupofforeignerswhosenegativeconnotationwascompoundedbythefact
thatmanywereunbaptized(
)andtherebypresentedapossiblethreatto
thenativesasfarasfaithandmoralswereconcernedandtothecolonialregime
ingeneralintermsofloyaltyandeconomicdominance.Understandably,non-
ChristianChinesepaidmorethantheirfellowswhohadconvertedtotheCath-
olicreligion.Thepejorativeterm
signiedtheirchiefactivityinthe
archipelago,foritmeant
.Eventuallytheywouldbereferredtomore
respectfullybytheirnationalityas
Ontheotherhand,thetwoprincipalobjectionstoChineseimmigrationwere
counterbalancedbytheundeniableservicestheyrendered,particularlyinserv-
icesandindustrialproduction.Hence,theambivalentgovernmentpoliciesthat
swanglikeapendulum,fromexpulsionandrestrictiontoattraction,butexerting
relentlesspressureintheformofheavytaxation,regulationofmovement,and
RaceandCulture
favorabletothem.By1861formalorganizationoftheChinesecommunity,
paralleltothemunicipalgovernmentofthenatives,developedintheimportant
cities.Quicktotakeadvantageofeconomicopportunities,theChinesespread
CultureandIdentity
thenativesortheChinese.Consequently,theterm
wouldnolonger
denoteanypersonofChinesedescentbuttheSpanishmestizoorEurasian.
Thisdevelopmentreectedtheactualmeldingofsocialclassestheresultof
whichwouldbeasdesignated
TheacquisitionofHispanicandWesternizedculturetookplaceininstitutions
ofhigherlearninginManila,wheremainlytheafuentcouldaffordtostudy,
andincosmopolitancitieslikeIloilo.Butwheresubstantialpropertymadea
differencewasinputtingeducationinEuropewithinthereachofFilipinos.The
ascendancyofthosewhoreceivedthiskindofexposurewasexpectedlygreater.
RaceandCulture
resentatives[intheparliament]andmoresecurityforusandourfortune.Spain
couldalwayswintheesteemoftheFilipinosifonlySpainwerereasonable!
Thefundamentalappealwasdirectedtoprogressbasedonjusticeandtherefore
CultureandIdentity
defenderofFilipinointerests.Hehadlearnedtolovethepeople(remoteasthey
were)towhomhehaddevotedyearsofscholarship.Theabovementionedarticle
repeatssomeoftheargumentsthatBlumentritthadalreadyspiritedlyexpressed
LaSolidaridad
,mostlyasarejoindertoarticlesthatreferredtoFilipinosin
verypejorativeterms,publishedinsomeSpanishnewspapers.Theparticular
interestofthislaterworkliesrstinitsdeepcomprehensionofthereactionof
theFilipinoasheexperiencestheEuropeansenseofsuperiorityoverhim.Sec-
Filipino,owingtoalevelofcivilizationthatwasjudgedasdecientfromthe
Spanishstandpoint.TheissuewasbroughtupattheCortesorSpanishparlia-
mentwhentheelectorallawprovidingforuniversalsuffragewasbeingdis-
cussed;itwasproposedasanamendmenttothesaidlaw.
Anissueof
gavepublicitytothespeechesdeliveredonthatoccasion.Marcelo
RaceandCulture
CultureandIdentity
topbrass,whoareindeedworthmuch,itsjustthattheydonotmakeuseof
Aswasstatedearlier,muchoftheireofFilipinoreformistsandlatersep-
aratistsandtheirallieswasfueledbyracistpublicationssuchasthoseofPablo
Feced,whousedthepseudonymQuioquiap,andhisbrotherJose
,VicenteBar-
RaceandCulture
whilermlysupportingthosewhosharehisnativedignity.Withoutentirely
denyingtheSpanishcontributiontoPhilippineculture,hevigorouslyairsthe
damageinictedbythecolonialregimeonthelatter.ForemostisDon
aVicto-
rina,anIndianwhoselifelongdreamistobetransformedintoacastila;thus,
shetriesinvaintolookphysicallylikeacastilaandalsosoundlikeone,she
CultureandIdentity
other,vis-a
`-visthenatives,theywereadvancingthecauseofonenationcom-
RaceandCulture
thepresenceofcertainelements(
Forhispart,MarceloH.delPilar
couldnothelpbutsuspectthatAntonioRegidor,acreoleexiledintheaftermath
oftheCaviteMutinyof1872,tookbackhisoffertonancethepublicationof
Rizalsannotatedversionofthe
SucesosdelasIslasFilipinas
HistoricalEvents
inthePhilippineIslands
)onaccountofracialantagonism.Tosupporthis
opinion,hecitedanotherincidentrevealingsaidattitude:Hehadbeentoldthat
RegidorhadrelegatedthepaintingofJuanLunatoexhibitthatofaSpanish
mestizothatwasbereftofmerit,tosustainracialsuperiority.
bothworlds,whichmeantconcomitantlyavoidingtheirdefects.Theverybrand
ofnationalismespousedbySimounbespeaksGermanromanticismasapplied
tothePhilippines.Theliberalidealspermeatedthedreamsofthepropagandists
fortheirhomeland.
Theleadersoftherevolutionof1896wouldbetheirheirs.Forinstance,an
essayofAndresBonifacio,headoftherevolutionaryorganizationKatipunan
bearsthestampofRizal.Thecentralthemeof
AngDapatMabatidngmga
CultureandIdentity
contaminateduswiththeirinfamousprocedure.Theyendeavoredtomakeus
abandonourowngoodcustoms;theyhaveinitiatedusinafalsebeliefandhave
draggedthehonorofthepeopleintothemire.ComparethattoRizalscom-
mentaryonthehugenumberofhumanliveslostasaresultofpiracybypeople
fromthesouthernPhilippinesduringtheSpanishperiod.
TheSpaniards,however,saythatthePhilippinesbringsnothingtoMotherSpain,thatit
istheIslandsthatoweher.Probably;theenormousquantityofgoldthatshetookfrom
theIslandsintherstyears,thetributesofthetenantsofthe
,thenine
whodiedintheexpeditions,depopulatedislands,inhabitantssoldasslavesbytheSpan-
RaceandCulture
FerdinandBlumentrittconcludeshisexaminationoftheracialissueinthe
Philippinesthus:
Imightcontinueatgreaterlengthonthistheme,butIbelievethatthereaderwillsuf-
cientlyapprehendfromwhatIhavesaidthattheEuropeanandAmericanwhiteshave
notmadeagoodimpressiononthecoloredFilipinos,andthatthePhilippinecreolesfeel
TheBenevolentAssimilationproclamationofPresidentWilliamMcKinley
restsbasicallyonthesamepremiseastheSpanishcolonizationdid.Manifest
DestinytooktheplaceofservicetoGodandking.Bothcolonizerssawthem-
selvesasagentsofcivilizationandoverallwell-being.However,inthesame
CultureandIdentity
bloodedtendtoassociatewithandmarrytheirownkind.Althoughtheracial
questionhasceasedtobeacoreissueinnationallife,itisstillsignicantto
nationallife.Thechallengenowishowtoliveculturalpluralism,especially
RaceandCulture
literallyheadofthebarangay.The
wasthesmallestpoliticalunitinpre-
FirstPhilippineRepublictheyplayedanimportantroleingovernmentsincebesidesthe
aforementionedadvantagestheypossessed,theyformedpartoftheeducatedclass.(Cesar
ThePoliticalandConstitutionalIdeasofthePhilippineRevolution
[QuezonCity:
UniversityofthePhilippinesPress,1996],6568;
MabiniandthePhilippineRevolution
[QuezonCity:UniversityofthePhilippinesPress,1996],4243.)
CartadeFr.GaspardeSanAgustinaunamigosuyoenEspan
aquelepregunta
elnaturalygeniodelosindiosnaturalesdeestasYslasFilipinas
,Manila,8dejunio
de1720,3334.
(Son[indios]sumament
obedecensoloalEspan
olporquereconocensermas;
yestodicenqueporimpulsointeriorquelesobliga,sinquerernisabercomo;quees
laprovidenciadeDiosparaquepuedansergobernados.
SonmuyamigosdeimitaralEspan
olentodolomalo,comoeslavariedaddetrages,
echarvotos,jugarylodemasqueven,hacerenloszaramullos,yhuyendeimitarlo
buenodeltratoypoliticadelosEspan
oles,ylabuenacrianzadesushijos.)
16.PaulP.delaGironiere,
TwentyYearsinthePhilippines
(NewYork:Harperand
CultureandIdentity
Brothers,1854),7987.Theauthorwasasurgeonbyprofession,anativeofNantes,
whocametothePhilippineswherehegotacommissiontoserveasamilitarysurgeon.
Hemarriedintoacreolefamily.
17.Fr.Joaqu
nMart
nezdeZun
iga,
EstadismodelasIslasFilipinasomisviajespor
estepa
StatusofthePhilippinesorMyTravelsthroughtheCountry
)2vols.,annotated
delassociedades,casasde
comercioo
empresasparticulares,ypermanecenenlaholganzayseentregana
todo
abusocontralaclasequecreeindigna,burla
ndosedelosfuncionariosyagentesdela
autoridadsobrequienesseimponen.)
23.IvanGoncharov,VoyageoftheFrigate
TravelAccountsoftheIslands
(Manila:FilipinianaBookGuild,1974),163.
24.F.Jagor,
TravelsinthePhilippines
(London:ChapmanandHall,1875),33.The
authortraveledaroundthePhilippinesfrom1859to1860.Hisaccountissupplemented
bypainstakingresearchinSpanisharchivesandlibrariesinBerlinandLondon.
25.Abella,
FromIndiotoFilipino
,27.Onthepreviouspagehecitesapassagefrom
aworkonthePhilippinesthatarticulatestheinferiorpositionofthemestizoinrelation
RaceandCulture
totheSpaniard,whichwasembeddedintheirconsciousness.Inturnthemestizosvin-
dicatethemselves,assertingtheirsuperioritywhendealingwithindios.(FromFrayFran-
cisco,ElArchipie
lagoFilipino,
laCiudaddeDios
24[Madrid,1891],609.)
26.AccordingtoManuelSchiednagel(
Lascoloniasespan
olasdeAsia
,12),asof
1880therewere12,000creolesinthePhilippines,veryfewcomparedtothetotalpop-
ulationofapproximatelysixmillion.
AgustindelaCavadaMe
CultureandIdentity
Maniestoquealanoblenacio
nespan
oladirigenloslealeslipinosendefensa
desuhonraydelidadgravementevulneradasporelperio
dicoLaVerdaddeMadrid
TheauthorexplainsthattheSpanishtextreproducedinthisbookisnotfromtheoriginal
of1864butistakenfromthesecondeditionpublishedinHongKongin1888.
38.Jagor,
TravelsinthePhilippines
,28789,alsoobservedthatmestizosandcreoles
resentedtheirexclusionfromofcialappointments.
RaceandCulture
arequiteanumberofpersonswhorelishthistheoryofthesuperiorityofthewhites,
becausetheynotonlyatterusbutitisalsoofextraordinarypracticalusefulness.)
45.Forabackgroundonthisdevelopment,seeSchumachers
ThePropagandaMove-
ment18801895
,198201.
46.MarceloH.delPilar,
FilipinasenlasCortes.DiscursospronunciadosenelCon-
gresodeDiputadossobrelarepresentacio
nparliamentariadelArchipie
lagolipino
(Madrid:ImprentadeEnriqueJaramilloyCompan
a,1890).
47.Asanexample,inthecourseofhisintervention,ManuelBecerrastatedthathe
wouldrathernotcomparetheintelligenceoftheEuropeanandtheindiosinceintelligence
ismanifestedindifferentways.Yaquealguienhadichoqueelindiotienesuinteli-
genciaenlosojosenyenlasmanos,noesestaunagrancondicio
n?Noindicaespecial
aptitud?Pueshayqueexplotarla.(Sincesomeonehassaidthattheindiohashisin-
telligenceinhiseyesandhands,isthisnotagreatcondition?Doesitnotindicatea
specialaptitude?Well,ithastobeexploited.)Ibid.,43.
48.Schumacher,PropagandistsReconstructionofthePhilippinePast,113.
CultureandIdentity
aquelloslibrosde
Viva,Espan
a,Viva
,hayart
culosdeBurgos.Siall
notene
is,aqu
tengoyounainnidad.Esmenestarsacaraluznuestraplanamayor,queenefectovale,
loquenolahacenvaler.)
RaceandCulture
spenttwentyyearsinthePhilippinesastherepresentativeofanEnglishrm.The
christianizedFilipinos,enjoyingtodaythebenetsofEuropeantraining,areinclinedto
repudiate,ascompatriots,thedescendantsofthenon-Christiantribes,althoughtheir
concurrentexistence,sincethetimeoftheirimmigrantforefathers,makesthemall
equallyFilipinos.(JohnForeman,
ThePhilippines
[Manila:FilipinianaBookGuild,
1980],165.)
CultureandIdentity
DelPilar,MarceloH.
FilipinasenlasCortes.DiscursospronunciadosenelCongreso
deDiputadossobrelarepresentacio
nparliamentariadelArchipie
lagolipino
Madrid:ImprentadeEnriqueJaramilloyCompan
ia,1890.
EpistolariodeMarceloH.delPilar
.TomoI.Manila:ImprentadelGobierno,1955.
Foreman,John.
ThePhilippines
.Manila:FilipinianaBookGuild,1980.
Goncharov,Ivan.
TravelAccountsoftheIslands,18321858
.Manila:FilipinianaBook
Guild,1974.
Jagor,F.
TravelsinthePhilippines
.London:ChapmanandHall,1875.
MacMicking,Robert.
RecollectionsofManilaandthePhilippinesduring1848,1849
and1850
.London:RichardBentley,1851.
Mallat,Jean.
ThePhilippines.History,Geography,Customs,Agriculture,Industryand
CommerceoftheSpanishColoniesinAcoeania
.Manila:NationalHistoricalIn-
stitute,1994.
nezdeZun
iga,Joaqu
n.
EstadismodelasIslasFilipinasomisviajesporestepa
BenevolentAssimilationand
FilipinoResponses
MariaSerenaI.Diokno
ThenotionofAmericanruleasamixedblessingwasunwittinglyauthored
bytheAmericansthemselveswhen,on21December1898,PresidentWilliam
McKinleydeclaredthepolicyofbenevolentassimilationofthePhilippines.
Thatstatementwasaformal,skillfullycrafteddisclosureofAmericancolonial
intentionsinthePhilippines:tocomenotasinvadersorconquerors,butas
friends,toprotectthenativesintheirhomes,intheiremployments,andintheir
personalandreligiousrights.
AlongwiththepromiseofAmericanbenevo-
lence,however,andinthatverysameproclamation,cametheorderextending
U.S.militarycontrolovertheentirecountry(notjustthecityandbayofManila),
infulllmentoftherightsof[American]sovereignty.
Notunnoticed,theironyachieveditsintendedeffectandgaveAmericanrule
itsdistinctiveimagecolonialismwithaheart.HowcouldFilipinoswhohad
longstruggledforlibertynowopposeAmericanrulerswho,unliketheirSpanish
predecessors,assuredFilipinosthatfullmeasureofindividualrightsandlib-
ertieswhichistheheritageoffreepeoples?SomeFilipinos,mostlythewealthy,
welcomedtheimpositionofU.S.sovereigntyandwere,asMcKinleyhadprom-
ised,rewardedwithAmericanprotection.AlltheothersFilipinorevolution-
ariesandtheirsupporterswerewarnedtheywouldbebroughtwithinthe
lawfulrulewehaveassumed,withrmnessifneedbe,butwithoutseverity,so
faraspossible.Asitcametopass,thehandofAmericanfriendshipbecame
stainedwiththebloodofirreconcilableFilipinos(anotherdistinctlyAmerican
term)inabrutaltwo-yearwar,therstwarofnationalliberationinAsia.
CultureandIdentity
AMIXOFFORCEANDKINDNESS
Theparadoxwasevidentinthemeasuresthecolonialgovernmenttookto
establishitselfonPhilippinesoil.Ontheonehandwerethebenevolentmea-
suresaptlycalledFilipinizationwhichaimedtoattracttheFilipinoelite
bygivingthemseatsinvariousbranchesofgovernmentthattheUnitedStates
BenevolentAssimilationandFilipinoResponses
rule,theFederalPartywastheonlypoliticalpartyallowed.Acounterrevolu-
tionaryparty,itwasco-foundedbyAmericansandmembersoftheFilipino
elite,someofwhomhadthemselvesbeenleadersoftherevolutiontheynow
soughttosuppress.Havingpassedtheloyaltytest,theFederalPartyalsobecame
thesourceofearlyFilipinoappointeestothecolonialgovernment.
THELOGICOFBENEVOLENTCONQUEST
Thesimultaneousapplicationofsoftandharshmeasureswasthusfullyin
keepingwiththepolicyofbenevolentassimilation,aturn-of-the-centuryoxy-
moronthatreectedthepassagefromonemodeofcolonialruletoanother.The
rationalizationofthiscontradictionwasthatcolonialruleandtheaspirationsof
theFilipinopeopleweretrulycompatiblebecause:
[t]heUnitedStatesstrivingearnestlyforthewelfareandadvancementoftheinhabitants
CultureandIdentity
Ontheirpart,Filipinorevolutionariesviewedraceasacleardividingline
BenevolentAssimilationandFilipinoResponses
meanwhile,toridourselvesoftheprideandfavoritismanddisunitywhichthe
Spaniardstaughtus.
CAPITULATIONBYANYOTHERNAME
CultureandIdentity
NeitherdidtheUnitedStateswishtobeinvolvedintheendlesstasksof
anevolutionarypathtoemancipation.Therevolutionariesdisagreed.Itwasim-
BenevolentAssimilationandFilipinoResponses
fullyobtainedsovereigntythroughtheTreatyofParis,whichtheAmerican
Congresssubsequentlysanctioned;andtheFilipinoscouldnotwinthewar.It
wasthelatterreasonthatriledtherevolutionariesthemost.Saidone:Glory
willnevereverbeofthecowardsandturncoatsbutofthemenoffaith.
twenty-twomonthsofwarfare,GeneralHughes,commanderoftheVisayas,
legitimateoutcome.
were,intheeyesoftherevolutionaries,
merelyfearfuloflosingtheirrichesandthreatenedbytherisksofwar,despite
theirpublicclaimtopatriotism.
Indeedasonerevolutionarynewspaperputit,
therewasmoretofearfromtheFilipino
thanfromtheAmericans
themselves,foronewasastrangertotheirhomewhiletheotherlivedamong
OFLEADERSANDMEN
Thecauseofthe
wasconsiderablyweakenedbytheirleadership,
whoseactionsandpersonalmotiveswereoftenquestioned.Consider,forin-
stance,PaternoandcompanysoathofloyaltytotheUnitedStates.Inafeeble
CultureandIdentity
uponastraitors.AndwhichhonorableFilipino,askedthesamewriter,can
acceptthatcrueldeceptionunlesstheyarethehungry
ameri-canistas],whonothavingmadeanysacriceforourpeople,arecontentwith
whatevercrustisthrownthembytheirmasters?Thesespurioussonsofthe
PhilippineshaddoubtfullineageasFilipinostherebyexplainingwhytheyhad
nolovefortheircountry.(Seethediscussionoftheroleofmestizosinchapter
Apparently,distrustinmenlikePaternowasnottherevolutionariesalone.
AnAmericanobserverdescribedhimasamanwhointhe1890s:
had...
BenevolentAssimilationandFilipinoResponses
unsuccessfullytoorganizeFilipinosaroundaproposalthatwouldendhostilities
andreconcilethepartiesatwar.
WARTIMEAMNESTYANDDOUBLE-DEALING
InJune1900GeneralArthurMacArthurattemptedtoenticerevolutionaries
outofhidingbyofferingthemamnestyforpastactionsexceptforviolationsof
thelawsofwar.Buttheturnoutofrevolutionarieswasdisappointing.Alittle
morethan5,000surrenderedand,asMacArthurhimselfwoefullyadmitted,
manyofthemhadnointentionofacceptingAmericansovereignty.Attributing
theirbehaviortothepeculiarpsychologicalconditionsoftheFilipinopeople,
MacArthurnotedthattherevolutionwasputtinguplocalgovernmentsalongside
theAmerican-establishedgovernments,inmanycasesusingthesamepersonnel.
OpenlyinfavoroftheUnitedStates,thesepeopleclandestinelysupportedthe
revolution.Ironically,American-occupiedtownsservedasthebaseofrevolu-
tionaryactivitiesandaplaceofrefugeforrevolutionistsontherun.Theeasy
NewYorkHerald,
weretherevo-
lutionarieslivingwithinAmericanlinesthosefriendsbydayandenemiesby
nightwhoenjoyedthesupportofrichandpoorFilipinosalike.Whencon-
victedofdouble-dealing,someonewrote,
werewonttoassertthattheirheartswerewiththeAmericans,and
thattheyonlyservedthe
becausetheyfearedassassinationiftheydid
notdosofearsinmanycaseswellfounded,ascapturedinsurgentpapersandofcial
recordsshow.Itseemsperfectlyevident,however,thatinmanyothercasestheplea
wassimplyasubterfuge,inasmuchasFilipinos,whowereintownsstronglygarri-
sonedbyAmericantroops,mayhavecutloosefromtheirassociates,hadtheycaredto
doso.
Notunexpectedly,therevolutionwasinsultedbytheproclamationofam-
nesty,especiallybytheAmericanoffertopaythirtypesosforeverygunsur-
renderedingoodcondition,
whichtheyperceivedasapricetagonfreedom.
AFilipinosupporteroftherevolutioninSpainwastemptedtosuggestthathis
comradesathometurnintheirantiquatedgunsandusethemoneytopurchase
newones.Opposingamnesty,heconcludedthatwhenacountryasproudand
powerfulastheUnitedStatesresortedtosuchmeans,itwasevidenttheenemy
wasfarfromwinningthewar.
CultureandIdentity
THEMODERNIZINGASPECTOFAMERICANRULE
Despitetheproposedcompromises,thewarreducedFilipinooptionstoan
either-orsituation,withintermediatechoicesperceivedbyeachsideasfavoring
theother.Althoughthiseither-orframeworkdidnotcapturethecomplexityof
thesituation,thewarwasatimewhenchoiceshadtobemade.Nottotakea
standmeantinfacttakingastand.Oneposition,however,stoodoutamongall
thosepresentedbecauseitprofferedadifferentviewandinsolucidamanner
soastoswayeventhemorecommittedadvocateofindependenceorsubmission.
TrinidadPardodeTavera,amanoflearning,Hispanizedandwell-off,wasone
ofthefewtoraisetheargumentofmodernizationasthejusticationforac-
ceptingtheAmericans.Withoutmeaningto,heansweredMacArthurscriticism
thatFilipinoswerefartoooccupiedwithacademicdiscussionsofautonomy,
annexation,independence,andotherabstractionsandhardlyconcernedthem-
selveswiththemorepragmaticquestionsrelatingtotheprosperityofthepeople
andtheestablishmentofstablecivilinstitutions.
PardodeTaverapreciselydealtwiththepracticalneedforprogressandde-
velopment,forwhichheunabashedlybelievedtheAmericanizationofthePhil-
ippineswasnecessary.TheEnglishlanguage,heaverred,wasnecessarysothat
throughitsagencytheAmericanspiritmaytakepossessionofusandthatwe
maysoadoptitsprinciples,itspoliticalcustomsanditspeculiarcivilizationthat
BenevolentAssimilationandFilipinoResponses
AguinaldodeclaredPhilippineindependenceon23June1898,herepeatedly
referredtothehigherorderofgoodnessandreasononwhichthePhilippine
republicwasfounded.Guidedbytheseprinciples,therepublicaimedonlyfor
whatwasright.Thetaskoftherevolutionwastobuildanationfoundednot
onbloodandneitheroninsincereacts,butondeedandtheindividualrightof
eachone,anationfreeandunsulliedbythemudofcorruptionandgreedor
envyandself-atteryorboastfulnessanddegradingprattle.
Totherevolutionary,therefore,atruerevolutionwastotalandindivisible.To
(educatedelite)likePardodeTavera,arevolutioncouldbesplit
inpartsandplacedinsequenceifallofitcouldnotimmediatelybeattained.
Suchcompartmentalizationisnotunlikethefalsedivisionbeingpushedbysome
CultureandIdentity
DEVELOPMENTANDINDEPENDENCE
Butdesireboththeydid.AsJuanCailles,themilitarychiefofLaguanaex-
plained,inghtingfortheindependenceofthecountry,healsoaspiredfor
progress,scienceandindustryforheunderstoodthesetobe,ALONGWITH
INDEPENDENCE,thefoundationofthecountrysdevelopmentandprosper-
AwareoftheadvantagesofAmericanrule,anotherpartisanwrote:
Idonotdenythatwiththese,wewillhaveallthemodernadvances,thesteamship,
ourishingcommerceandagriculture;thatwewillseeonourlandaman-
ufacturingindustryraisedtoitshighestlevel;thatinourcitieswewilladmireperhaps
lavishandmagnicentbuilding
s...the
bestmeansofcommunicatio
hugesteam
andevenelectrictrains;thatourmineralresourceswillbeabundantlyexploited;that
beautifulshipsfromalloverwillplyourports.Butwewillbemorespectatorsofall
thesemarvelsforwewillnotbeownersofourland,neitherofourlives.Wewillsimply
betenantsonourlandandtaxpayerstothelthyrich,whowishtoextendtheirdominion
overforeigncountriesinordertoacquiregreatpowerandexpandtheirwealthmoreand
BenevolentAssimilationandFilipinoResponses
pleinMisery)(PhilippineInsurgentRecords[PIR]NewspaperNo.1),7September1899.
ThePIRwasrecentlyrenamedPhilippineRevolutionaryPapers.
4.GeneralOtis,citedinMalaFeManiesta(ShowofBadFaith),
FilipinasAnte
ThePhilippinesBeforeEurope
),vol.2,no.21(25August1900):169(hereafter
citedas
CultureandIdentity
WarswithSpainandtheFilipinos:TheLifeofAdmiralDewey
(Chicago:BookPub-
lishersUnion,1899),pp.48284.
31.SentimientomanifestadoenelmundoFilipino(Sentimentmanifestedinthe
worldofthePhilippines),PIRBoxI-37(Poems),nodate.
32.MalaFeManiesta,p.169.
33.BurlaSangrienta:Yanonosdannilaautonomiaofrecida!(Bloodymockery:
Noteventheofferofautonomyisgiven!)
,vol.2,no.8(10February1900):59.
inFilipinomeanstoeat,
(hungryfortheAmericans)beinga
punontheword
35.LeRoy,
AmericansinthePhilippines
36.Ibid.
37.CitedinDesmintamosaMac-Kinley(RefutingMcKinley),
,vol.3,no.34
(10March1901):27778.
NewYorkHerald
,17May1900,reprintedin
RecortesyTraduccionesdela
PrensaExtranjera
(Excerptsandtranslationsoftheforeignpress),PRP.
TheRoleofEducationin
AmericanizingFilipinos
AlexanderA.Calata
ThischapterexaminesAmericancolonialeducationinthePhilippines,andde-
scribescertainaspectsoftheeducationalexperienceduringtheearlyyearsof
Americanoccupation,whichincludethearrivaloftheThomasites,theestab-
lishmentofthe
program,andtheuseofEnglishlanguageinstruction
inthePhilippines.
WhentheAmericanstookpossessionofthePhilippinesin1898,theyfound
alimitedschoolsystemintheislandsthatwaslargelyinthehandsofthechurch.
Afteralmost350yearsofcolonialrule,theSpaniardshadrmlyestablishedan
educationsystemwhoseprimaryaimwastoteachtheFilipinostheChristian
doctrine,butonlytoasmallpercentageofthepopulation.
TheSpanishedu-
cationsystemcreatedasmallprivilegedclassofmostlymestizoFilipinosand
effectivelyputalidontheambitionsofthisclass(withveryfewexceptions)
topursuestudyinforeigncountries.
CultureandIdentity
oftheAmericansoldierinthePhilippineswasonewithaKragrieinone
handandaschoolbookintheother,therebybringingcivilizationtoUncle
Samstropicalwards.
ThedebateintheU.S.mainlandsprangfromthecountrysstrongdemocratic
origins.TheAmericanswereuncomfortablewiththekindofcolonialistimage
theywouldprojectontheworldscene.AndrewCarnegieandMarkTwain
supportedthecauseofthoseopposingAmericasnascentcolonialinclinations.
Inwritingabouthisclaim,Carnegiewoulduseclassroomimagestoportraythe
RoleofEducationinAmericanizingFilipinos
teachers,sendingthemtoManilaonboardconvertedcattlecruisersfromSan
Francisco.Therstlargenumberofteacherstoarriveaboardaship,the
knownasthe
camefromallovertheUnitedStatesand
representedsuchinstitutionsofhighereducationastheUniversityofCalifornia,
UniversityofMichigan,IndianaUniversity,UniversityofChicago,University
CultureandIdentity
inthePhilippinesasubstitutefortheobjectlessonsinAmericancivilization
whichtheywillreceiveinspendingthreeorfouryearsindifferentpartsofthe
UnitedStates.
ThepassageofActNo.854bythePhilippineCommissionon26August
1903,launchedthescholarshipprogramfortheFilipinosknownasthe
program.ItwastobethelargestU.S.studyprogramforFilipinos
beforetheFulbrightexchangeswereestablishedin1948.Theplanofsending
studentsfromonecountrytoanotherisanoldone,saidWilliamSutherland,
thesuperintendentofstudentswhenthe
programwaslaunched,but
mostsuchenterpriseshavebeensmall-scaleandusuallytheyarebackedby
privateenterprise.
Theadministratorsofthe
programlookedtoU.S.schoolstoshare
thecostofhostingFilipinostudents.Theuniversitieswereaskedtowaivetuition
fees;thecolonialgovernmentwouldpayfortransportationandmaintenanceof
thestudents.Theobligationofthe
wastorenderservicetothe
RoleofEducationinAmericanizingFilipinos
Laguna2Pangasinan4
LaUnion3Paragua(Palawan)1
Leyte2Rizal2
Manila5Sorsogon2
Masbate1Surigao1
NuevaEcija2Tarlac3
Occ.Negros3Tayabas2
Or.Negros2Zambales1
Pampanga2
programcontinueduntiltheoutbreakofWorldWarII.Asan
immediateresponsebythecolonialgovernmenttopressingdevelopmentneeds
inthePhilippinesatthattime,mostawardsweregivenineldssuchasteacher
education,maritimestudies,weatherforecasting,sheries,andcoastalandge-
CultureandIdentity
era,theAmericansconcludedthattherestofthepopulationshouldbecredited
withtheabilityofnomeanorder.
Theyacknowledgedthedrawbacks
underwhichFilipinoslabored.Basedonthisassessment,thecolonialgov-
RoleofEducationinAmericanizingFilipinos
videdsocialclasses.Incontrast,aprominentscholarandhighlyrespecteded-
ucatorBonifacioSibayanwouldcallitalevelerofclasses.
CultureandIdentity
notwithstandingmostofthesearenotconformedbymotiveoftheexceptions;andbe-
RoleofEducationinAmericanizingFilipinos
KayumanggiversusMaputi:
100YearsofAmericas
CultureandIdentity
femalepersonatoldofafairmaiden(120)whocapturedtheheartofaman
KayumanggiversusMaputi
Philippinedrama.However,FilipinosrebelledagainstthearroganceoftheWest
astheygraduallyworkedtowardthefashioningoftheirbrownidentity.Hence,
atthecloseoftheSpanishera,therewerefemalewriterslikeLeonaFlorentino
whoextolledthe
(brown-skinned)beautyinTheFilipinaWoman.In
CultureandIdentity
try.HewarnedAmericansofthelingeringhatredthatwouldnestlewithinthe
FilipinoheartifAmericacontinuedtoravagetheland.Interestinglyenough,the
mentionedstanzaperceivedtheracialissuebehindAmericasannexationofthe
Philippines.Thepoembellowed:
Jamas!CuandolafuerzaNever,whenmight,
conlatraicionylainjusticiapacta,joinswithtreasonandinjustice
paraaplastarlosfueros,tocrushthelawsandrights
lossacrosantosfuerosdeunaraza;(106)thesacredrightsofarace,(107)
TranslatedbyNicanorG.Tiongson
Ineffect,Filipinowritershadnotimetoassociatebeautywithcolorduringthe
earlybelligerentyearsofAmericanrule.However,theydidspeculateonracial
issuesasthe
raisonde
tre
ofimperialism.
RafaelPalma,whowasastalwartmemberoftheNacionalistaparty,tackled
theracialissueinthe
ElNuevoDia
newspaperonMay5,1900.InhisSpanish
essayElAlmaDeEspan
KayumanggiversusMaputi
theMalayanraceofwhichtheFilipinowasproud.Moreover,theycarriedthe
bloodoftheenemyintheirgenes.The
sanimositytowardthemwasnot
unfounded.Historically,the
oftencollaboratedwiththecolonizers.It
wasin1899whentheyrenegedontheirghtforindependenceandsidedwith
theAmericans(Teodoro,1978:1673).Still,asprogenyofcolonialancestry,they
nagingbantilawansahalipmasunog:itwashalf-bakedandnotburnt:
itoangKastilaatKanoputlain.theyretheSpaniardsandAmeri-
canssowhite.
CultureandIdentity
Nangmagsalanguli,upangdimahilaw,Hecookedagain,
Hurnoypinagbagasadagdagnagatongatandthistimetobesurethatitwill
bene
angnilulutoylaongtinayantang,headdedmorere,
Kayatnanghanguiyparanamangkarbon.butwhenhelookedatit,itwasas
blackascarbon.
YamotnaangDiyosnasiyaynatuladDispleasedinthinkingthathewillbe
sabagongkinasalnatangangmagluto,tonewly-wedswhodontknow
howtocook,
saikatlongsalangaynagpakaingat:forthethirdtime,hediditwithcare:
nanghanguiyanonginamnghinango.whenhewithdrewitfromthere,
itwaswell-doneandne.
Kulaydinnglupangsadyangkayumanggi,Itwasthecolorofclaywhichistruly
anganyoattindigaykatangi-tangi:whosegureandpostureareexcep-
tionallyspecial:
Kunglalakiywalangtatanggingbabae,ifman,nowomanwouldrefuse,
Kungbabaenamaymakalaglag-pari.ifawoman,evenapriestwould
Ikaw,Pilipino,aydapatmagsayaYou,Filipino,youshouldcelebrate
atipagmalakiangbalatmotkulay:beproudofyourskinandcolor:
angItimatPutiykamalianpala,BlackandWhitearemistakenenti-
KayumanggiversusMaputi
Anotherpoem,thatgloriedthe
intheearly1900s,wasBenigno
RamosspoemAngKayumanggi(TheBrownRace).
AngKayumanggiTheBrownRace
Sang-ayonkayRizal,nanggawinangtao,AccordingtoRizal,alegendsaid,
Diyosaykumuhangputiksapunso;theLordformedmanfrommud;
mayisangkawalinglutuan,umano,andinawok,hestirredandbaked,
atditoangputikaypinagpaghust
o...and
patientlywaite
AngunangnilutoayinalisagadFearingitmightbeoverdone
satakotnabakamasunogangbalat;heremoveditfromthewok;
nangkanyanghanguin,hilawnanamalasonlytondoutitwaswan
atitoangTaongPutingtinatawa
fromthistheWhiteRacebega
SumunodnalutoykanyangtinagalanHetriedforthesecondtime
battledagainstcolonialrepression.In1901,itcraftedSection10oftheSedition
Lawthatbannedallinitiatives,includingliteraryactivities,gearedtowardin-
CultureandIdentity
dependence.Fortunately,Filipinowriterswerenotcowedbysuchdraconian
measures.Theyusedthetheaterasthefermentinggroundforpoliticalrevolt.
Someofthem,however,paidthepricefortheirboldness.TheplaywrightJuan
Abadwrote
TanikalangGinto
thatwasstagedonJuly7,1902.Throughits
symbolism,the
ofhisplayimplicatedtheUnitedStatesasaforeign
aggressor.Consequently,Abadwasjailedandwasmadetopayahugesumof
$2,000afteraperformanceinBatangasonMay10,1903.Luckily,hewas
eventuallyexoneratedforhiscrime.TheSupremeCourt,whichconsistedof
prudentAmericanjusticeslikeCharlesA.Willard,overruledthepunitivede-
cisionoftheCourtofFirstInstance.Anotherwriter,AurelioTolentino,wrote
atripartitedramathatallegoricallyportrayedtheUnitedStatesasatreacherous
colonizer.Theplayhewrotewas
Kahapon,NgayonatBukas
(1903).Tolentino
wasarrestedninetimesforitsproduction.In1904,hewassentencedinitially
tolifeimprisonment.ThetermwasnallyshortenedtofteenyearswhenGov-
ernorGeneralWilliamCameronForbes
reducedTolentinospunishmentto
eightyears(Cervantes,1978,228990).AmeliaLapen
aBonifaciomentioned
otherrestricteddramasinherbook
TheSeditiousTagalogPlaywrights:Early
AmericanOccupation
(1972).Thebannedplayswere
HindiAcoPatay
byJuanCruz,
KalayaangHindiNatupad
(1903)byananonymouswriter,
longPinaglahuan
(1904)byMarianoMartinez,
DahasnaPilak
(1904)byMax-
imoReyes,and
(1904)byGabrielBeatoFrancisco(24).Theywere
KayumanggiversusMaputi
Thepanegyric,whichwasinditedinIlonggo,lionizedRizalsquintessential
character.Bydoingso,theMalayanracewasgloried.RafaelPalmahimself
CultureandIdentity
ios(MyLastFarewell).Thelaststanzapositedaxenophobicanti-American
strainwithoutdirectlyalludingtotheAmericans:
Oh!tierrademisamores,Ohlandofmyloves,
santamadredemivida,holymotherofmylife,
quevertisteenmialmaheridawhopouredintomywoundedsoul,
elaromadetusoresthearomaofyourowers,
Llora,sitienesdolores,weep,ifyouhavesorrows,
sisuen
assergrande,espera,wait,ifyourdreamsbegreat;
perotejuroquefuerabutIswearitshallbe
paramisuerteafrentosa,ignominiousluckforme
vernacidasenmifosatoseebloomingonmygrave
hierbasdesaviaextranjera.(284)plantsofaforeignsap.(286b)
TranslatedbyNicanorTiongson
EARLYAMERICANTUTELAGE:1920s1934
WhenPresidentWilliamMcKinleyannexedthePhilippinesintheguiseof
civilization,therewasafurorintheUnitedStates.Annexationwasdiscordant
KayumanggiversusMaputi
whitemenaspurveyorsofcultureanddemigodsofmodernthought.Itwas
likewiseapotentmediumtoadvancetheAmericancredoofdemocracyand
civicgovernment.Anewspaperarticleinthe
SanFranciscoChronicle
CultureandIdentity
ManiwalakasakadalubhasaanniRudyardKipling!Hindiakonaniniwalasakasabihan
AngSilanganaySilangan,
AngKanluranaykanluran;
Magkapatidsilangkambal,
Magkalayohabangbuhay.
Ayawkongipahalatasakausapkoangmalakingpagkamanghasapagpapasinungaling
niyasasumulatngTheBalladofEastandWest.(Rosario,1971:333)
(BelieveinthegreatnessofRudyardKipling!Idontbelieveinhissaying:
KayumanggiversusMaputi
RamosandValerosrecountedin
PhilippineHarvest
howtheFanslersinstilled
intheirstudentsasenseofprideovertheirnativeculture.TheFanslersreminded
theirpupilsoftheneedtowriteaboutthemselvestruthfully.Theyweretheones
whoinitiatedthe
U.P.Folio
thatwasrstreleasedin1910.Thepublication
eventuallyfeaturedtheinchoatewritingsofVicenteHilario,GodofredoRivera,
FranciscoAfrica,L.B.Uichangco,ManuelGallego,andNicolasZafra(Serrano
andAmes,1975:2123).
Quiteanumberofliteraryjournalssurfacedinthe1920sapartfromthe
PhilippineHerald
releaseditsmaidenissueandprintedcreativeworksin
CultureandIdentity
quipped:WellAmericansareratheressentialtomyentertainment(41).Ju-
liasreactionwastolaugh.Bythistime,itwasevidentthatFilipinosceasedto
KayumanggiversusMaputi
ruary8,1935,aconstitutionalconventioncomposedof202electeddelegates
andheadedbyClaroM.Rectoapprovedtheconstitutionthatwasdraftedby
FilemonSotto,ManuelA.Roxas,NorbertoRomualdez,ManuelC.Briones,
ConradoBenitez,MiguelCuaderno,andVicenteSingsonEncarnacion.Thecon-
stitutionwasapprovedbyPresidentRooseveltonMarch22,1935,andwas
ratiedbytheFilipinosintheplebisciteofMay4,1935.Later,thepublicvoted
forManuelL.QuezonandSergioOsmen
aaspresidentandvicepresidentof
theCommonwealth.OnApril30,1937,Filipinowomenweregrantedsuffrage
rights.Later,theInstituteofNationalLanguagewaserected.Itstudiedthedif-
ferentFilipinodialectsandrecommendedTagalogasthenationallanguage.On
December30,1937,PresidentManuelL.QuezondeclaredTagalogasthena-
tionallanguageinExecutiveOrderNo.134(Leogardo,Leogardo,andJacobo,
1995:16669).
TheCommonwealthgovernmentfosteredliteraryactivity.Quezoninitiated
theCommonwealthLiteraryAwardsin1939thatgavenationalrecognitionto
writersofEnglish,Tagalog,andSpanishliterature.Theawardsencouragedwrit-
erstoperfecttheircraftsmanship.In1940,therstCommonwealthLiterary
CultureandIdentity
Jacinto,AntonioLuna,MarceloH.DelPilar,PedroPaterno,andGracianoLo-
pezJaenawroteintheSpanishlanguagebywhichtheywereschooled.
Ontheculturallevel,PhilippineAmericanententehastenedtheAmericani-
zationoftheFilipinos.ThelittlebrownbrothersreadilyimitatedWesternculture
andlife.TwomediaofWesternacculturationweredramaandlm.Thesegenres
revivedthecultofthewhitebeautyamongFilipinos.Somehow,Filipinossub-
liminallyequatedthestageandthemovieswiththetranscendentals.Hence,
whatevertheysawonstageandonlmbecamethecriteriaforthetrue,the
good,andthebeautiful.Thestageandlmactorsbecamethenewdeitiesof
KayumanggiversusMaputi
CultureandIdentity
wherewhiteactorsinsteadofFilipinonationalistsbecameheridols.Thisprocess
KayumanggiversusMaputi
otherwhitemen.Obviously,theracistculturewasdeeplyentrenchedintothe
Filipinopsycheinawaythatmaderacialsegregationseemmorenaturalthan
racialintegration.Consequently,theFilipinosinthestoryfearedtheWesterner
evenwhenheaddressedthemasmyfriend(281).Attheendofthestory,the
narratorbrieyexplainedthewhitemansdeportment:Nextmorning,Iwoke
CultureandIdentity
KayumanggiversusMaputi
pregnantwitharecreantloverthathemusteredthecouragetoaskhertomarry
him.Aftertheymarried,hetreatedHelenschildashisown.Theyseemedlike
anormalfamilyexceptwhentheyweredenigratedbywhitepeople.Thestory
endedtragicallybecauseHeleneventuallyreunitedwithherwhitelover.
WhenNicanorwrotethenovel,heintendedtoforewarnFilipinoswhodesired
totraveltotheUnitedStatesabouttheharshrealitiesofAmericanlife.The
objectofhisexpose
wasAmericassocialdisavowalofmiscegenation.Inhis
foreword,hewroteabouthowhesoughttodisseminatethetruthwhich,be-
causeofourracialpride,hasthusfarbeenundisclosed.Hefurtherexplained:
WhenFilipinosintermarrywithwhites,asoftenhappens,alltoooftentheyare
happyonlywhilewithintheirownfourwalls.Themomenttheystepoutfrom
thisshelte
theymustbeconstantlyonthealertexpecting,fearingallman-
nerofsnubsandslightingremarks.Resentfulofthemtheywillbe,buthelpless
inthefaceofalmostuniversalprejudice.Inthislight,onewouldunderstand
whyDavidofConradoPedrochesTheManWhoPlayedforDavidsympa-
thizedwithJoetheblackman.FilipinoswereostracizedjustlikeAfricanAmer-
icansintheUnitedStates.Thus,Nicanorsnovelportrayedtheplightofthe
Filipinopariah.
TheFilipinosromancewithAmericafurtherburgeonedinthe1960s.The
coldwardeepenedtheFilipinosloyaltytotheUnitedStates.Themediapor-
trayedAmericaastheglobalprotagonistragingacosmicbattleagainstthe
USSR.Inevitably,FilipinosagainviewedAmericansasmodernheroeswho
shieldedtheworldagainsttheonslaughtofcommunism.In1960,Bienvenido
SantossTheme:CourageintroducedthecharacterGloriaasawomanwho
believedinthepowerofmusicandthesurvivalofdemocracy(127).Theuse
ofAmericanpersonalitiesasareferencepointwasalsoarticulatedbythechar-
acterEsterwhensheremarked:IwashopingournewEnglishteacherwould
besomebodylikeRobertTaylor,buthelookslikearstcousin,Filipinolineage,
ofCharlieMcCarthy(128).Inanothershortstory,TheDaytheDancers
Came,whichwaspublishedin1967,Santosunderscoredthecomplexanddual
identityofFilipinoswhobecamenaturalizedAmericancitizens.Inthestory,
thecharacterFilemonAcayaneagerlyawaitedthevisitofFilipinodancersto
theUnitedStatesonlytobeignoredbythem.HisAmericancitizenshipsevered
hisafnitywithhiscountrymen.Hisbriefencounterwiththemwasacontre-
tempsthatseverelybruisedhim.InBrother,MyBrother(1960),Bienvenido
SantosdepictedaFilipinoprofessorsnostalgiaforAmerica.Hebrieymen-
tionedtheintermarriagesofFilipinosoldiersandAmericanladiesduringWorld
WarII.UnlikePreciosoNicanors
IMarriedanAmerican
,hedidnotdwellon
thepitfallsofinterracialunions.ItisinTheLittleMaid(1960),however,that
SantosprojectedtheencroachmentofAmericaswhiteapotheosisinthemind
ofahospitalcleaninglady.Intheshortstory,heportrayedayoungmaids
fascinationwithabeautiful
whohadbrownhairandfairskin.
Inthe1970s,theworshipofAmericacontinued.N.V.M.GonzalezsInthe
Twilight(1978)reinforcedthisinonesentence:InAmeric
a...the
vanished(153).LikeSantossTheDaytheDancersCame,thestoryfocused
CultureandIdentity
onFilipinoAmericans.Inthiscase,however,thenaturalizedAmericanswere
lessnostalgicoflocalculture.InAmadorT.DaguiosClothesLine(1973),
eventhenative-bornFilipinospreferredforeignlmstolocalones.Inthestory,
KayumanggiversusMaputi
inthiscountrythereseemtobesubtledistinctionsaboutcolor(32).Inother
words,Americanswhowereprejudicedagainstcertainminoritiescouldbetol-
eranttoothers.ForCindy,theracialissuesankdeeplyintoherconsciousness.
CultureandIdentity
leadership.Philippinedemocracywasrestoredandjournalisticcensorshipwas
mitigated.ThepeacefulEdsarevoltshiftedwritersattentiontowardpolitical
themes.Unfortunately,italsosomehowslackenedthewritersimpulsetowrite.
FranciscoArcellananotedthisinhisarticlePhilippineLiterature,1989,which
waspublishedin
TheFookienTimes1989.PhilippineYearbook
.Hestatedthat
theFilipinowrite
[was]dazzledbytherichnessoftheworldthathisction
...[was]notquitecatching(206).Fortunately,writingcircleslikePANULAT,
UMPIL,PENInternational,PLUMA,WICCA,REAPS,andCapasFoundation
continuedtheirwritersworkshops,conferences,andpublicationstoinspirebud-
dingwriters.
Meanwhile,thePhilippineswasapproachinganewepochinitshistory.
Globaltrendsluredthecountrytowardtransatlanticmultilateralrelations.The
PhilippinesfounditselfanactivememberoftheAsia-PacicEconomicCoop-
eration(APEC),theAssociationofSoutheastAsianNations(ASEAN),andthe
WorldTradeOrganization(WTO).Throughtheseregionalblocs,thecriesof
theFrenchRevolutiondidnotseemanachronistic.Internationalismmodernized
theutopianprinciplesof
,egalite
,andfraternite
intheNewWorldOrder.
However,asinterstatecooperationburgeoned,theincursionofforeignvalues
intoPhilippinecultureaccelerated.
Peoplesattitudestowardemergentpoliticalandeconomictrendsweresome-
howreectedinPhilippineliterature.Writersobservedthecontinuedskepticism
heldbyFilipinosonPhilippine-Americanrelations.InTheGeckoandtheMer-
maid(1988)writtenbyN.V.M.Gonzalez,themaincharacterwasaFilipino
scholarwhosepaperwasonthePatternsofDeceptioninPhilippine-American
Relations.InAntonioEnriquezsshortstoryPablo-Pedro(1989),apeasant
mockedwomensattemptstohidetheirbrowncomplexionthroughmake-up.
Globalism,however,didnotintendtoaffectonlytheFilipinos.Increasedcontact
withbrownpeopleinevitablyresultedinablurringoftheAmericansdistinc-
tionsofcolor.InEdilbertoK.TiemposEmily(1988),anAmericanwoman,
foundtheFilipinosbrowncomplexionattractive.HerexposuretoFilipinosin
theUnitedStatesledhertoconcludethattheywerenotphysicallydisadvan-
ThegirlnamedFewasnotevenbeautiful.Rogerwasconvincedthatshewas
notworthabother(52).Butsuddenly,hesawhowthewoman[Fe]emerged
frombehindthebendtrudgingalongthesandbarinherbleached,whitedress
KayumanggiversusMaputi
(54).Inshort,shelookedwhiteandsheworewhite.Herpowerwasdoubly
bewitchingtotheromantichero.ThewriterLeoncioP.Deriadarevealedawhite
CultureandIdentity
FilipinoAmericanswhotraversedtoAmericaforemployment.Newimmigrants
sufferedhunger,cold,andexhaustionastheytoiledforsurvival.Theyabhorred
theirconditionbuttheyalsoabsorbedtheveryculturetheyspurned.JoseDal-
isaysWeGlobalMen(1995),exposedtheFilipinosfutileattemptstobe
respectedintheglobalarena.TheherowasasuccessfulFilipinoprofessional
fromGermanyandwaswelltraveled.Hisprofessionaltripsbroughthimto
China,India,Bangkok,Seoul,Scotland,andtheUnitedStates.Hewasbasically
amanoftheworld.DuringhistriptoScotland,however,hefeltthattheFilipino
peopleatlargehadnotreallyprogressedsincethecolonialera.Hededucedthis
whenaforeigncolleagueadmittedthattheonlyFilipinosheknewwerethe
dancersinOsaka.TheFilipinoprotagonistfeltoffendedbytheremark.How-
ever,thecommentdidmakehimrealizethatforaslongasFilipinosdenigrated
themselvesinthesextrade,hewouldcontinuetolookasprimitiveasthenative
Filipinoshesawona1910postcardembellishedbyaWilliamMcKinleystamp.
KayumanggiversusMaputi
AmericansannexedthePhilippines,Palmarevealedtheprevalentantipathyto-
wardthe
.TheFilipinostookprideintheirMalayanancestrymore
thantheirWesternafliations.Thus,the1920sstillshowedtheirunequivocal
rejectionofWesternracialsuperiority.Inthelatterpartofthedecade,
heroinesweredeemedattractivealthoughtheywereneverdescribedas
Meanwhile,AmericascolorcultureinsidiouslyencroacheduponPhilippine
CultureandIdentity
TheWeekoftheWhalesandOtherStories
,LeoncioP.Deriadadescribedall
KayumanggiversusMaputi
UnitedStatesfrom1903to1927throughscholarshipsofferedbythePhilippinegovern-
10.TheenlightenedFilipinointellectualsduringtheSpanishregime.
11.EDSAstandsforEpifanioDeLosSantosAvenue.In1986,millionsofFilipinos
convergedinEDSAtoprotesttheelectionresultsthatdeclaredFerdinandMarcosasthe
presidentialwinner.The
enmasse
CultureandIdentity
Cervantes,Behn.TheSeditiousTheater.
FilipinoHeritage
.Vol.9.Ed.AlfredoR.
Roces.N.p.:LahingPilipinoPublishingInc.,1978.228990.
Concepcion,MarceladeGracia.Lonely.In
ASurveyofPhilippineLiteratureinEn-
.PartI.Ed.RodolfoDulaandRichardCroghan.Manila:JesuitEducational
Association,1971.83.
Corpuz,O.D.
TheRootsoftheFilipinoNation
.2vols.QuezonCity:AklahiFoundation,
Inc.,1989.
Cruz,AndresCristobal,ed.
TheRavens:ASelectionofPhilippineWriting
.Manila:Phil-
ippineEducationCo.,Inc.,1980.
Cruz-Lucero,Rosario.AngRebolusyon1896:SaImahinasyongPampanitikangIlonggo.
DilimanReview
45,no.4,46,no.1(19971998):3438.
Daguio,AmadorT.ClothesLine.In
StorymastersII
.Ed.AlbertoFlorentino.Mandal-
uyong:CachoHermanosInc.,1973.16.
Dalisay,Jose.WeGlobalMen.In
PenmanshipandOtherStories
.Mandaluyong:Ca-
choPublishingHouse,1995.4758.
David-Maramba,Asuncion,ed.
EarlyPhilippineLiterature:FromAncientTimesto1940
Manila:NationalBookStore,Inc.,1971.
DeJesus,Angel.Exile.In
PhilippineShortStories:19251940
.Ed.LeopoldoYabes.
QuezonCity:UniversityofthePhilippinesPress,1997.27583.
DeLosReyes,J.P.WeAreFilipinos,FirstandLast.In
TheMakingoftheFilipino
NationandRepublic
.Ed.JoseV.Abueva.QuezonCity:UniversityofthePhil-
ippinesPress,1998.174.
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Gonzalez,N.V.M.IntheTwilight.In
TheBreadofSaltandOtherStories
.Quezon
City:UniversityofthePhilippinesPress,1998.15255.
.TheGeckoandtheMermaid.In
TheBreadofSaltandOtherStories
.Quezon
City:UniversityofthePhilippinesPress,1998.15664.
Guerrero,FernandoMa.MiPatria.Trans.NicanorTiongson.In
PhilippineEarlyPhil-
ippineLiterature:FromAncientTimesto1940
.Ed.AsuncionDavid-Maramba.
Manila:NationalBookStore,Inc.,1971.284,286ab.
Hamada,Sinai.KintanaandHerMan.In
StorymastersII
.Ed.AlbertoFlorentino.
Mandaluyong:CachoHermanosInc.,1973.1823.
Hernandez,Amado.AngKulayNgPilipino.In
ParnasongTagalogniA.G.Abadilla
Ed.EfrenAbueg.Maynila:MCSEnterprises,Inc.,1973.11112.
Jocano,LandaF.LabawDonggon.In
EarlyPhilippineLiterature:FromAncientTimes
to1940
.Ed.AsuncionDavid-Maramba.Manila:NationalBookStore,Inc.,1971.
Kipling,Rudyard.TheBalladofEastandWest.In
Kipling:ASelectionofHisStories
andPoems
,Vol.2.Ed.JohnBeecroft.NewYork:Doubleday&Company,1892.
Lardizabal,Santamaria.PioneerAmericanTeachersandPhilippineEducation.Ph.D.
diss.,StanfordUniversity,1956.
Latorena,Paz.Desire.In
PhilippineShortStories:19251940
.Ed.LeopoldoYabes.
QuezonCity:UniversityofthePhilippinesPress,1997.7379.
CultureandIdentity
Palma,Rafael.ElAlmaDeEspan
a.In
LatidosDelAlmaFilipina
.Ed.EdgardoTiam-
sonMendoza.Manila:Bookmark,1984.1034.
Pedroche,Conrado.TheManWhoPlayedforDavid.In
PhilippineShortStories:
.Ed.LeopoldoYabes.QuezonCity:UniversityofthePhilippines
Press,1997.398403.
Pelaez,Emmanuel.OurEssentialIdentity.In
TheMakingoftheFilipinoNationand
.Ed.JoseV.Abueva.QuezonCity:UniversityofthePhilippinesPress,
1998.578.
Pilar,SantiagoA.TheOldMovieMelonsandLemons.In
FilipinoHeritage
.Vol.9.
Ed.AlfredoR.Roces.N.p.:LahingPilipinoPublishingInc.,1978.247077.
KayumanggiversusMaputi
Villa,JoseGarcia.TheFence.In
PhilippineShortStories:19251940
.Ed.Leopoldo
Yabes.QuezonCity:UniversityofthePhilippinesPress,1997.4349.
.UntitledStory.In
PhilippineShortStories:19251940
.Ed.LeopoldoYabes.
QuezonCity:UniversityofthePhilippinesPress,1997.17280.
Villa,Lilia.EducatingJosena.In
ShortPlaysofthePhilippines
.Ed.JeanEdades.
Manila:BenipayoPress,1958.18.
Worcester,Dean.
ThePhilippinesPastandPresent
.NewYork:TheMacmillanCom-
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.Vol.1.Manila:Philippine
EducationCompany,1957.
TheauthorofthischapterwishestothankAbigaildeLeonforhervaluableresearch
PARTII
TheAmericanInuenceon
PhilippinePoliticaland
ConstitutionalTradition
WilfridoV.Villacorta
Thequestionhasalwaysbeenasked:HasAmericanmentorshipofthePhilip-
pinesinthewaysofdemocracybeenablessing?Onbalance,theU.S.demo-
craticcontributionhasbeenlargelypositive,althoughtherewereindeedsome
weakpoints.TheAmericanscouldhaveaddressedfurthertheagrarianproblem,
whichhadbeentheprimarygrievanceofmostFilipinos.Theycouldalsohave
strengthenedthecivilserviceasmuchastheBritishhadintheircolonies.In
bothcases,theAmericanauthoritiesfounddifcultyininsulatingthepolitical
economyandthecivilservicefromthedominantinuenceofthetraditional
landedelite.Thelatter,whichwasthecarryoverfromtheSpanishperiod,easily
foundtheirwayintotheleadershipofthepoliticalsystemandthebureaucracy.
AmericanInuence
AmericanInuence
salariedandpropertied,hadappearedtobetheprimarybeneciariesofAmer-
icaneducational,commercialandagrarianpolicies,thosewhoalreadyhadsu-
periorwealth,education,[arethe]menwhosepoliticalpowergrewrapidlyunder
Americantutelage(Wurfel,1988:12).
ENDURINGAMERICANCONTRIBUTIONS
Despitetheseshortcomings,IbelievethatthelastingAmericaninuenceon
thePhilippinepoliticalsystemcanbefoundinthreeinstitutions:(1)commitment
tocivilrights,(2)thepresidentialformofgovernment,and(3)constitutional
Civilrights,whichareanchoredonthedignityandequalityofallindividual
persons,haveremainedasafoundationofPhilippinedemocracy.Freedomof
expressionisthemostcherishedofcivilrights.Despitetherepressionduring
theMarcosregime,demonstrations,rallies,theundergroundpress,andopen
rebellioncontinued.Tothisday,anyleaderwhohasdictatorialaspirations
wouldhavetocontendwiththeFilipinosjealousprotectionoffreedomsand
civilrights.
TheFilipinohasalsogottenusedtochoosingdirectlythechiefexecutive.
Foralmostsixtyyears,thecountryhasbeenoperatingunderapresidentialform
ofgovernment.Itwouldbedifcultfortheelectoratetoappreciatetheparlia-
mentarysysteminwhichtherighttoselecttheheadofgovernmentisleftin
thehandsofaselectgroupoflegislators.FortheFilipino,thisistantamountto
violatingthebirthrightfornootherwayofelectingaleaderisknown.The
presidentialsystemisdeeplyingrainedinFilipinopoliticalculture,datingback
tothedaysofthe
whenthefreemenchosetheir
Sotoowould
itbeunthinkableforAmericanstoadoptaparliamentarysystembecausethey
werefearfulofastrongexecutive.
TheU.S.Constitutionprovidesthatnopersonmayholdofcesimultaneously
inmorethanoneofthethreebranchesofgovernment.TheframersoftheU.S.
ConstitutiondidnotlookkindlyattheBritishparliamentarymodelinwhichthe
primeministeristheheadofboththeexecutiveandlegislativebranches.James
Madisontooktheleadincallingforagovernmentthatwassufcientlystrong
tomaintainlawandorderbutdividedenoughtopreventtheriseoftyranny:
Nopoliticaltruthiscertainlyofgreaterintrinsicvalue,orisstampedwiththe
authorityofmoreenlightenedpatronsofliberty,thanthatoftheaccumulation
AmericanInuence
Section1.ThePhilippinesisademocraticandrepublicanState.Sovereigntyresidesin
thepeopleandallgovernmentauthorityemanatesfromthem.
Section3.Civilianauthorityis,atalltimes,supremeoverthemilitary.
Section4.TheprimedutyoftheGovernmentistoserveandprotectthepeople.
Section5.Themaintenanceofpeaceandorder,theprotectionoflife,libertyandproperty,
andthepromotionofthegeneralwelfareareessentialtotheenjoymentbyallthe
peopleoftheblessingsofdemocracy.
BasiccivilrightsaremandatedinArticleIII(BillofRights).Inaddition,
therearesomeinnovativeprovisionsthathavebeenincorporatedthatinother
democraticcountriesarenotfoundintheirconstitutionsbutintheirlaws:
Section7.Therightofthepeopletoinformationonmattersofpublicconcernshallbe
recognized.Accesstoofcialrecords,andtodocuments,andpaperspertainingto
ofcialacts,transactions,ordecisions,aswellastogovernmentresearchdataused
asthebasisforpolicydevelopment,shallbeaffordedthecitizen,subjecttosuch
limitationsasmaybeprovidedbylaw.
Section12.(1)Anypersonunderinvestigationforthecommissionofanoffenseshall
AmericanInuence
Agoncillo,Teodoro.1960.
Malolos:TheCrisisoftheRepublic
.QuezonCity:University
ofthePhilippinesPress.
ShapingtheFilipinoNation:
WomeninPhilippinePolitics
Howdidwomenmakethegreat
leapforwardfromreceivingonlythebarefundamentalsofeducationattheend
intothelivesofwomen.Forthersttimewomenweretobegivenaspaceinthe
publicsphere.Colonialpolicygavewomenthechancetobecomeleadersinthe
eldsofeducation(wherewomenweregivenscholarshipsonequalparwith
mentogototheUnitedStatesforhighereducation),andcivicwork(thefor-
mationofwomensclubswasalsoinuencedbyAmericanwomeninthePhil-
ippines).Inthepoliticalarena,Americangovernor-generalsupportedwomens
suffrageandpressuredFilipinopoliticianstopassthesuffragebill.Inthissense,
Americancolonialpolicywasindeedbenecialtowomensstatus(inkeeping
withthisvolumesthemeofmixedblessings).Butamoreintriguingquestionre-
mains:HowhaveFilipinowomennegotiatedthatnewspace?Despitethebarri-
ersofcolonialauthoritarianrule,Filipinowomenatthistimewereclearlyagents
whowereproactiveininventingwhatwastobecomethemodernFilipina.
Thischapterrepresentsthersttentativesteptowardansweringtheabove
questionasitgrappleswithwomensresponsestothesenewchangesthrough
therstplace.
Bythepostcolonialera,thegenderingofpoliticsandpowerbecamemoreor
lessestablished,withmenexercisingofcialpowerandwomenexercising
powerunofciallythroughtheirconnectionswithmalepoliticians.
Oncemale
politicianswereelected,theirfemalekinhadtheoptiontoexercisepowerbehind
thescenes.SuchagenderingofpowerhaditsrootsintheAmericancolonial
erawhereforthersttime,Filipinosweregiventheopportunitytorunforlocal
andnationalofceabovetheleveloftownmayor.
Inthissense,womenal-
readybegantoexploreunofcialpowerandofcialpowerintheearlydecades
(shame),and
nolongerexperiencethesamehighregardthatFilipinomenhaveforher.Shewillbe
loweringherselffromtheshrinewheresheislordofallshesurveysonlytobeplaced
onthelevelofmenamongwhomthespiritofhonorandvalorarenolongertobefound.
Shewillundergosufferingtolosethepotencyofallthatmenhaveconferredonher
overmanycenturiesandthesplendorthatgoeshandinhandwithherhistorywillcom-
Itwasalsoarguedthatsuffrageforwomenwouldresultinthedestructionof
thehomeandneglectofthewelfareofchildren.
Atthesametimetheother
argumentbrandishedagainstsuffragewasthatthewomenthemselvesdidnot
wantit.
Bythe1920s,however,womenbegantogivepoliticsequalimportancealong
withcivicandcharitywork.In1922
LaLigaNacionaldeDamasdeFilipinas
wasorganizedtolobbyforsuffrage,withDraPazMendozaGuazonaspresi-
dent.MariaVenturaformedtheWomensCitizensLeaguein1928forasimilar
purpose.Womenbegantogivespeechesandparticipateinpoliticaldebateson
thesuffrageissue.TwoofthemorevocalsuffragistswerePazPolicarpioMen-
dez(whoalreadyhadareputationasawritersincehershortstorieshadbeen
publishedinwhatwasconsideredtheprimeperiodical
thePhilippinesFree
)andhistorianEncarnacionAlzona.
theywouldagreethatthesewomenweremodern.Filipinowomenmusthave
AmericanRuleinthe
MuslimSouthandthe
PhilippineHinterlands
RaulPertierraandEduardoF.Ugarte
Inthischapter,weassessthecharacteristicsandsuccessofAmericancoloni-
zationinthePhilippinehinterlands.Bythis,wemeanregionsandprovinces
whoseinhabitantstraditionallyhadhadminimalandoftenhostilecontactwith
thecentralgovernment.DuringnearlyfourcenturiesofSpanishrule,largeareas
ofthePhilippinesremainedrelativelyuncontrolled,despiterepeatedattemptsto
subduetheirinhabitants.ThehighlanddwellersoftheCordilleramountainsin
northernLuzonandvariouspeoplesinMindanaoandSulu,particularlythe
edlycomplex,butwecanidentifycertainsignicantelements.Onewasits
increasingambitionsasaglobalpoweranditsconsequentchallengeofBritish
MuslimSouthandPhilippineHinterlands
acceptabletotheAmericanauthorities,thehinterlandsremainedasamajor
justicationforacolonialpresence.
In1913,Worcester,aprominentbureaucratandscholarwrote:
Filipinocontrolwouldindeedbeaverydreadfulthingforthepeopleofthehills,butI
havesomelittlehopethattheyhavenowprogressedfarenoughsothattheywouldbe
abletotakecareofthemselvesandkeeptheirFilipinoneighborsoutoftheirterritory
THESCIENCEOFCLASSIFICATION
TheclassicationofFilipinosintoreligiouscategoriespartlyfollowedthe
earlierSpanishpracticebutwaspremisedonverydifferentends.Whilethe
Spaniardsconsideredreligiousconversiontobeoneoftheirmajorcolonialaims,
theAmericans,comingfromamoresecularbackground,sawtheirnewsubjects
asrequiringtutelageinthemodernartofdemocraticgovernment.Tobeginthis
task,theyrsthadtoclassifyFilipinosintoappropriatestagesofculturaland
politicaldevelopment.Followingconventionalevolutionarymodelsofthetime,
Filipinoswereclassied,inorderofascendingcivilization,intoNegritos,In-
donesians(MorosandpeoplefromtheCordillera),andlowlandMalayans(Sul-
livan,1991).Therstgroupwasseenasvestigialandaremnantofabygone
past.Thesecond,whileadheringtoobjectionablepracticessuchasheadhunting
andslavery,neverthelesshadredeemingfeatures,ofwhichadevelopedloveof
freedomexpressedinaprimitivedemocracywasthemostlaudable.Thelast
group,whileoutwardlymostdeveloped,followingcenturiesofcolonialrule,
includingintermarriageswithAsiansandEuropeanswere,asaresult,lessau-
thentic.Thislastgroupwas,however,themostvocalandsuccessfulincon-
vincingtheAmericansthattheymeritedpoliticalautonomy.
In1914,Worcesterproudlyclaimedthathewasabletoreducetotwenty-
seventheeighty-twonon-ChristiantribesearlieridentiedbyFerdinandBlu-
MuslimSouthandPhilippineHinterlands
MuslimSouthandPhilippineHinterlands
AMERICANRULEINMOROLAND
ThegovernanceoftheMuslimFilipinosduringtheAmericaninterlude
(18981946)canbedividedintotheperiodofdirectAmericanrule(18991920)
andthelaterperiodofChristianFilipinocontrol.TheperiodofdirectAmerican
MuslimSouthandPhilippineHinterlands
aswellasthepotentialopportunitytheyprovidedthecolonialgovernment,
Americancapital,andimmigrants,wereleitmotifsinAmericanwritingthrough-
outtheAmericaninterludeinMoroland.Byatleast1902theregionscom-
mercialpromisewasapparenttoAmericancommentators.Ina
ManilaTimes
articlefromFebruaryofthatyear,onesuchobserverreportedofMindanaothat,
Richinitsnaturalresources,ithaspossibilitiesofcultivationthatwarrantits
beingregardedthemostfertileofalltheislands.Theislandspossibilitieswere
enumeratedbyMajorGeneralLeonardWoodinhisFirstAnnualReportas
governoroftheMoroprovincein1904.WritingspecicallyoftheLanaoDis-
trict,heremarkedthat
theProvincehasgreatnaturalresources,whicharealmostentirelyundeveloped.There
isanalmostunlimitedamountofvaluabletimber,agreatdealofiteasilyaccessible,
andthereisaverylargeamountofneagriculturalland,welladaptedtococonut,hemp,
rice,inshortmostoftheislandproducts.Rubberplantsandrubbertreesexistinlarge
numbers,alsoguttatrees,althoughacomparativelysmallamountofthisisatpresent
beingbroughtout.Nearlyalltropicalfruitsgrowwellintheprovince.Allthatiswanted
issomeonetodevelopandmakeuseofitsalmostinexhaustibleresources.
Commentatorsagreedthatbeforethegreatnaturalwealthandlatentresources
ofthissouthernarchipelagocouldbedevelopedproperly,anumberofproblems
hadtoberesolved:publicsanitation,laborsupply,transportation,telegraphand
postalcommunication,bringingthewildtribesundertheinuenceofgovern-
ment,improvingthepoliticalandindustrialconditionforthosealreadyunder
governmentinuence.Andperhapsthemostseriousofthesedifcultieswas
thatofsecurity,whichremainedasourceofconcernuntilatleast1913.Asa
ManilaTimes
articlenotedin1908,followingthemurdersoftwoAmericans
inMindanao,adangerousconditionexistsinmanydistrictsintheMorocoun-
try.Anditcannotbesaidthatwearegivingthecountrygoodgovernmentuntil
wehaveestablishedthatprimaryrequisiteofgovernmentsecurity.
ThegreatestthreattothesecurityofbothAmericansandnativesinMoroland
washeldtobethoseMuslimFilipinoswhowereunabletoacceptthesover-
eigntyoftheAmericanadministration.Theirneutralizationwashencerequired
ifAmericanbusinessmenweretoinvestintheregionandthebulkofpeace-
lovingMorosweretotillthesoilforthemselvesorlaborforAmericaninterests
(Gowing,1985).Accordingtoa
CablenewsAmerican
(1904)report,itwasthe
recalcitranceoftheMuslimFilipinosthatconstitutedtheonlyobstacletothe
MuslimSouthandPhilippineHinterlands
MuslimSouthandPhilippineHinterlands
MuslimSouthandPhilippineHinterlands
wereheldforthecolonyofanationwhoseimperialprojectsweremeanttobe
exceptional.Unfortunately,theAmericancolonialprojectneverattainedtheun-
realisticexpectationsofitsplanners.Thereweretoomanycontradictionsforit
tosucceed.Goodintentionsattimesmaskedduplicityorself-interest.Inmost
casestheAmericancolonizerssupportedeliteinterests,thusensuringthecon-
tinuingbasisofexploitiverelationshipsthateventuallyeruptedintotheHuk
rebellion.Evenwell-motivatedprogramssuchastheCulionLeperColonycon-
MuslimSouthandPhilippineHinterlands
andNaturalResourcesthatthemovementofFilipinosintotheareawouldbeencouraged
CaciqueDemocracyandFuture
ProspectsinthePhilippines
JulioReyB.Hidalgo
Theword
originallyreferredtoanIndianchiefoftheWestIndiesor
CaciqueDemocracy
order,thecolonialpastcontinuestoshapetheFilipinopeoplesvaluehierarchy,
(cooperation),and
wasapersonindebtedtoanother.Hissubordinationwasobligatoryin
thesensethattheotherwasonescreditorandnotlord.Therstkindofslave
hadlandrightsandwascalled
(householder).Thesecondsubclass,
alipingsagigilid
(hearthslave),includedthosewhohadlosttheseland
CaciqueDemocracy
rightsascaptivestakeninwarsorraidselsewhere,orthosepurchasedfrom
outsidethecommunity.
Apersonenteredthe
statusbyinheritance(e.g.,thedebt,inden-
ture,orsentencepassedfromonesparents),bydroppingdownfromthe
(villageelitebelowthechieftain)class,orbyrisingupfromthe
andhiscreditoragreedonthedurationofbondageandtheequivalent
cashvalueforitsredemption.Frompre-Hispanictimes,onecanclearlyseethe
CaciqueDemocracy
thephysicalmovementoflocalinhabitantswithinandmigrationacrossterri-
Anotherinstitution,whichhadfar-reachingeffectsinthelifeoftheindios
wasthe
fromtheSpanishwordencomendar,meaningtoen-
trustunderonescustody.Asmentionedearlier,itwasthroughthissystemthat
thekingrewardedcertainfavoredSpaniardsbyallocatingterritoriesandgrant-
ingthemtherighttoimposequotasoflaborandproduceonthepeopleliving
intheseareas.Thelaborcomponentunderthe
wascalled
polosy
(literallyservicesrenderedunderayoke).Underthe
,thebar-
angaysweregivenquotasofmanpowertodeliverforpublicprojectssuchas
buildingchurches,governmentedices,androadrepairs.The
tomenialworkinthehomesofSpaniardsandinthefriarresidences.Because
oftheseonerousimpositions,arbitrarilyenforcedbycorruptofcials,proteer-
ingindividuals,andeventheSpanishfriars,thenativesbecameadeptinavoid-
ancetactics.Curiously,thereisacolloquialwitticismtodaythatsays
mayguso
t,mayloso
t
(Wheretheresahitch,theresawayout),which
revealsthisingrainedsubliminalbehaviortendencyoftryingtoputoneover
thelaw,theestablishment,orthoseinhighersocialpositions.
Theabusesthataccompaniedtheimplementationoftheencomiendasystem
andtherepartimiento,theexcessiveandoftentimesarbitrarytaxes,quotas,and
leviesimposedbytheSpanishauthoritiesandtheirnativealter-egosonthe
people,combinedwiththeill-concealedattitudeofracialsuperioritythatthe
Spanishfriarsandgovernmentofcialstreatedallindios,slowlybutsteadily
builtuptoashpointsinvariouspartsofthecountry.Somerebellionsresulted
invariousareasoflimitedsuccessandtemporarygains.None,however,went
beyondtheirprovincesorregionsorsucceededinmobilizingthenationalpop-
ulation,aswhathappenedduringtherevolutionof18961898,whichnally
endedoverthreecenturiesofSpanishrule.
MANILA-ACAPULCOGALLEONTRADE
theconscripteitherworkeditoff,endedupasaservant,ortotallylosthis
property.Duetoseverehardshipsandfamilydislocation,manynativesedfrom
.ThosewhodidwereregardedbytheSpaniardsaslawless
(bandits).Thissystemofforcedlaborwasoneofthe
factorsthatledtotheearlyuprisingsagainstSpanishrule.
WHYTHEEARLYREBELLIONSFAILED
Thefailureofthevariousrebellionsduringthe17thcenturyuptothemid-
eighteenthcenturywasnotlosttotheFilipinosintheotherprovinces.The
resultingcropfailures,massstarvation,andseverehardshipsthatwerethedirect
offshootofthe
cortesdemadera
,the
realescompras
(leviesimposedbySpanish
authoritiesovertheFilipinosagriculturalproduce),andtheobligatorytribute
collectionsimpressedupontheearlyFilipinosthefutilityofattemptingany
large-scalerevolt.Dividedbyinsulargeography,unabletoforgeacommon
causeandplanofactionbecauseoftheirdiverseregionaldialects,prevented
fromlearningtheSpanishlanguageorevolvinganational
linguafranca
,and
pittedagainstoneanotherbytheSpaniardsthroughthecunninguseofnative
collaboratorsfromotherprovincesorregions,thepeoplesufferedseparately.
Thevariousleadersofthepreviousuprisingswererespectedonlybytheir
localpeopleandnotbyanationalfollowing.Asinthedaysofthepre-Hispanic
barangays,theconceptoflawandleadershipremainedparochial,kinship-based,
andnarrowinobjectives.Thebasisoforiginalinteractionamongtheearlytribal
communitieswerepremisedontheirownlocalconcernsandneeds,lackingany
appreciationoftheconceptofnationalcitizenshipandobligationstoawider
communityoutsideoftheirhabitualscopeofrelationships.Theconceptofna-
tionhood,sharedcommoninterest,andofthenecessityforuniedactiontran-
scendingfamilytiesandregionalgroupingsstillhadnottakenrootintheminds
CaciqueDemocracy
nities.Althoughthedoctrinawasnotaformalunitofcolonialgovernment,it
was,intermsofitseffectsonthepeople,themostpowerfulandinuential
administrativeinstitutionoftheregime.
Theschoolsinthedoctrinaswerenotreallyschoolsinthefullacademicsense
innumerableinstanceswhichhaveoccurred,ofthecurasofthedoctrinespunishingthe
IndianswhotalkedwiththeSpaniardsinourlanguage.
InthevillagesclosetothiscapitaltherearemanyIndianswhounderstandthesaid
languageverywell,butwhentheyareinthepresenceofanyreligioustheyreplyintheir
ownTagallanguagetotheSpaniardswhoaskthemquestionsinCastilian,throughtheir
fearofthefather;andthelatterneverspeakstotheIndiansinSpanish,eventhoughthey
maybeprocientinit.
Thisisconvincingthattheintentionofthereligiousordersiscertainandevident,that
theIndiansshallnotknowourlanguage,sothattheymaybemoresecureofthedoctrines
notbeingtakenawayfromthem,ofthebishopsnotattemptingtovisitthem,ofthenon-
enforcementofthelaws(noneofwhichareenforced)oftheroyalpatronage,andofthe
CaciqueDemocracy
1860s.Staunchlyrefusingtoacknowledgethevisitorialauthorityofthediocesan
bishopoverparishesunderitsjurisdiction,thefriarsthreatenedtoabandonthe
doctrinasiftheywerecompelledtoabidebyecclesiasticalrules.Thisbrought
thesubjectofthesecularpriestsintotheforeground.Thelackofsecularpriests
toreplacethefriarswouldnotonlyresultinneglectofdoctrinalwork.Moreto
thepointandperhapsofgreaterpracticalreason,ifthefriarslefttheirposts,
whowouldcollectthetributesfromthepueblos?Thestrugglealsoreecteda
CaciqueDemocracy
ilustradoswereopentoanysuggestionofagrarianreformandthediminution
ofestablishedpowertheyalreadyenjoyed.
Theideaofrevolutionarychangewasjustasunpalatabletotheeducatedclass.
Historyhadshownthatnouprisingcouldsucceedwithoutthenecessaryarms
withwhichtoghttheenemy.Indeed,therstCubanrevolutionagainstSpain
failedpreciselybecauseofalackofarms.Neithercouldviolentchangealone
leadtoanyfruitfuloutcomeandimproveapeopleswell-beingbecause,without
aguidingphilosophytochannelpopularindignation,arevolutionwouldonly
succeedindestroyingeverythinginitspath.
OnRizalsperceptionofand
attitudetowardrevolutionarychange,Corpuzcommentslengthily:
RizalregardedtheRevolutioninitswholeness.Arevolutionwouldentailacontestof
armsthat,ifsuccessful,winsnationalliberty.Butghtingisonlypartoftherevolution;
theotherpartisthebuildingofcivicstructurestoestablishthejusticethatthepeople
hadfoughtfor.ToRizaltheFilipinoRevolutionwasastruggletowinbothlibertyfor
thenation,andaftervictory,toensurethatthemasseswhofoughtinbattlearegoverned
CaciqueDemocracy
Headdedthatarevolutionagainstanonalien(i.e.,presumablyaFilipino)gov-
ernmentwasalsojustiedintheeventthatsuchgovernmentabusedthepowers
entrustedtoitbyitspeople.ThissecondpointfullysupportsoneofMabinis
preceptsinTheTrueDecaloguewhichsaidthatapeoplewereboundto
politicalobedienceonlytoagovernmentthatrepresentedthedeliberatechoice
andconsentofthepeople.
ThethirddocumentwasMabinis
Programaconstituciona
ldelarepu
blica
(TheConstitutionofthePhilippineRepublic).Consistingof130ar-
ticlesgroupedintotentitles,thepaperdenedcitizenshipandindividualrights,
thenationalterritoryandgeneralstructureoftherepublic,Congress,theSenate,
provincialandlocalgovernments,theexecutive,thejudiciary,taxation,themil-
itary,andpublicinstruction.Itdrewheavilyfromthemovingspiritandphilos-
ophythatwascontainedinthe
DeclarationoftheRightsofManandCitizen
theFrenchRevolutionandembodiedtheliberalpoliticalideologiesofthere-
publicansinSpain.
Itissignicanttonotethat,asaformerteacher,Mabinidevotedanentire
titleonthematterofpublicinstruction.ForMabini,educationwasnotmerely
supposedtoequipthepeoplewithbasicliteracyandacademicqualicationsfor
privateenterpriseorpublicservice.Inhisproposedconstitution,morethanjust
deningtheindividualrightsofallFilipinocitizens,hestressedthattheState
mustmakethepeoplemoreawareoftheircivicdutiesandresponsibilities,as
CaciqueDemocracy
theAsianpracticeofprearrangedmarriages,whereinthegroomandbridedo
nothaveanymeaningfulsayorchoiceonalifetheywillhavetoshare,anda
futurethatisdecidedforthembytheirrespectiveparentsorelders.
TheTreatyofParis,signedonDecember10,1898,demandedformalcession
fullindependence.ThisclashedwiththebusinessobjectivesofpowerfulAmer-
icanindustrialistswholookedatthePacic,especiallyChina,asavastuntapped
CaciqueDemocracy
rance,tendencytogambling,andfatalism.Fortheirpart,theAmericancolonial
administratorscouldhavetakeneffectivestepstoresolvetheagrarianproblem,
buttheydidnot,forthementheyplacedatthehelmofthegovernmentwere,
ingeneral,ofthe
class,theclasswhichlearnedfromandinheritedthe
Spanishcolonialstechniqueofmassexploitation.
AmericascolonialpresenceinthePhilippinesbecameamixedblessing.
Thecountryseducationalsystemvastlyimproved,makingFilipinosthemost
literatethroughoutAsia.Agriculturalexportsandtheextractivesectorsgrew
Samsopensupport,ifnottacitendorsement.Mattersconcerningforeignpolicy,
trade,andinvestmentswereusuallytakenupduringsuchofcialtrips.Tothe
Filipinopoliticians,theunwrittenandgenerallyapplicabletruismwas(topar-
CaciqueDemocracy
ershipofthistime:TheFilipinoleadershipisdrawnfromlandowningfamilies.
HencefewFilipinoleadersfeelanystrongcommitmenttomajorchangeinthe
CaciqueDemocracy
armedgroups),monitoringofpublicstatementsandstancesbythecandidates
`-visspecicissues,reviewoftheirlegislativeperformance,andthecoor-
dinateddisseminationofgatheredinformationtoparish-basedorganizations,
suchasthelocalBasicEcclesialCommunities(BEC)andlayministries(e.g.,
CatholicCharismaticgroups),leftnodoubtthattheChurchconsideredthiseffort
CaciqueDemocracy
mulationandimplementationoflawsgoverningtrade,nance,andtaxation.
Meanwhile,asthecommonindiohadbeenduringtheSpanishandAmerican
colonialeras,theirattentionremainsconnedtothechainofeconomicnecessity
andtheproblemofdailysurvival.Inthisdarkswirlofsocial,economic,and
politicalforces,thereisnoindicationofanyinternalguidancesystem,no
frameworkonhowtobegintocraftacoherentvisionandplanfornation-
CaciqueDemocracy
concerned,andinvolvedFilipinosthatwillsustainandreplicateitselfoverthe
longhaul.
ESSENTIALQUALIFICATIONSOFNATIONAL
Allhumanorganizationshaveapublicandvisibleface.Itisthroughthis
externalmaskorpersonathattheworldatlargelooksatthegroupandjudges
itsactivities.Fortunatelyorunfortunately,eachleaderbringstothetablethe
CaciqueDemocracy
andpolicypapersonvitalissuesaffectingPhilippineaffairs.Thiscanbedone
throughtwoprincipalmodesofpropagation:(1)Organizedpublicfora(e.g.,
symposia,lectures,luncheons,dinners,conventions)and(2)Printpublications
CaciqueDemocracy
1.JohnJ.Schumacher,S.J.,
Appendix1:Annotated
ChronologyofSelectedEventsin
Philippine-AmericanRelations
HazelM.McFerson
February15ExplosionsinksthebattleshipUSS
inHavanaHarbor.
April2125U.S.CongressdeclareswarwithSpain;formaloutbreakofthe
Appendix1
untilthetimewhentheseIsland
AnnotatedChronology
August18
MerrittreceivesinstructionsfromWashingtonnottogiveintoFil-
ipinodemandsforjointoccupationofManilaandtomakethemrec-
ognizeAmericanauthorityandmilitaryoccupationofthecity.
August22
MerrittisreplacedbyElwellS.Otiswhobecametherstmilitary
governorofthePhilippines.
EstablishmentofrstAmericanSchoolforFilipinosatCorregidor,
Philippines,byAmericansoldiers.Anarmylieutenantbecamethe
rstsuperintendentofschoolsinManila,August1898.
September8
OtisdeclinestoacceptAguinaldosrequestforjointoccupation;Otis
warnsthathewouldbeobligedtotakeactio
withinaveryshort
spaceoftimeshouldyoudeclinetocomplywithmygovernments
September15
InaccordancewiththedecreesofJune18and23MalolosCongress
convenesattheBasilicaofBarasoainforthepurposeofdrawingup
aconstitutionforthenewrepublic.PedroA.Paternoiselectedhead
oftheCongress.TheMalolosCongresscreatesaFilipinoRepublic
whosegovernmentispopular,representativeandresponsiblewith
threedistinctbranches:theexecutive,thelegislative,andthejudicial.
Thenewrepublicestablishesschools,amilitaryacademy,andthe
LiteraryUniversityofthePhilippines.Governmentnancesareor-
ganizedandnewcurrencyisissued.Thearmyandnavyareestab-
lishedonaregularbasis,havingregionalcommands.
Appendix1
CarlSchurz,novelistMarkTwainandphilosopherWilliamJames,
laborleaderSamuelGompersandindustrialistAndrewCarnegie.All
opposethecolonialmission,believingitwillproveruinoustothe
pursuitofAmericanidealsathome.
December10
TheTreatyofParisissigned.
SpaincededthePhilippinestothe
UnitedStatesfor$20millionunderArticleIIIoftheTreaty.Treaty
issubmittedtotheU.S.Senateforratication.
LaIndependencia
(Independence),anewspaperpublishedinManilabyarevolutionary,
GeneralAntonioLuna,statespeoplearenottobeboughtandsold
likehorsesandhouses.Iftheaimhasbeentoabolishthetrafcin
Negroes[intheUnitedStates]becauseitmeantthesaleofpersons,
whyistherestillmaintainedthesaleofthecountrieswithinhabi-
tants?(Seeappendix2forTreatyofPeacedocument.)TheU.S.
governmentagreedtoprotectthepropertyrightsofCatholicfriars.
Formorethan300yearsunderSpain,theRomanCatholicChurch
hadacquiredaboutone-tenthofallimprovedlandinthePhilippines.
ThediscontentofFilipinopeasantsoverthelandissuecontributed
tothePhilippineRevolutionof18961897againstSpain.
December21
PresidentMcKinleyissuesaproclamationtoextendAmericansov-
ereigntyoverthePhilippinesandcallsforbenevolentassimilation
(seeappendix3).
EstablishmentoftheBureauofInsularAffairsintheWarDepartment
toadministerAmericancolonialpolicy.
January1
GeneralAguinaldodeclaredpresidentofthenewPhilippineRepub-
lic;theUnitedStatesrefusestorecognizethenewgovernment.
January4
TheBenevolentAssimilationproclamationispublishedinthePhil-
ippines,promptingAguinaldotoissuehisownproclamationcon-
demningviolentandaggressiveseizurebytheUnitedStatesand
threateningwar.
January5
AguinaldourgesFilipinostodeclareindependencefromtheUnited
January8
GeneralElwellS.Otis,themilitarygovernor,beginsnegotiations
withAguinaldosemissariestonegotiatethePhilippinecompromise
proposalforindependencewithlimitations.
January20
PresidentMcKinleyappointstherstPhilippineCommission(the
SchurmanCommission),ave-persongroupheadedbyDr.Jacob
Schurman,presidentofCornellUniversity,andincludingAdmiral
DeweyandGeneralOtis,toinvestigateconditionsintheislandsand
makerecommendations.Inthereportthattheyissuetothepresident
thefollowingyear,thecommissionersacknowledgeFilipinoaspira-
tionsforindependence;theydeclare,however,thatFilipinosarenot
readyforit.Thecommissionrecommendstheestablishmentofcivil
AnnotatedChronology
governmentandthereplacementofthemilitarygovernorwithaci-
viliangovernor,establishingabicamerallegislature,autonomousmu-
nicipalandprovincialgovernment,andasystemoffreepublic
January23
TheMalolosconstitutionispromulgated,whichestablishesanew
independentPhilippineRepublic.MalolosCongressratiesthein-
dependenceproclamationofJune12.TheConstitutioncreatesaFil-
ipinostatewithapopular,representativeandresponsible
governmentconsistingofthreebranches:theexecutive,thelegisla-
tive,andthejudicial.LegislativepowerswerevestedintheAssembly
composedofelecteddelegates.Aguinaldoiselectedpresidentofthe
governmentbytheconstituentassembly.
January29
Cancellationoftheseventhsessionofnegotiationscoincidentwith
thearrivalinManilaofthelastofsixregimentsoftheU.S.Army.
February4
Americansoldiers,underthecommandofPrivateWillieW.Grayson,
reuponandkillFilipinosoldiersattheSanJuanBridge,thereby
beginningthePhilippine-AmericanWarforIndependence.
Thefol-
lowingday,GeneralArthurMacArthurissuedanordertoadvance
againsttheFilipinotroops.Thewarlastsformorethantwoyears.
TheAmericanscommit126,000soldiers;thefatalitiesare4,234
Americansand16,000Filipinosoldiers.Famineanddiseaseclaimas
manyas200,000civiliansbytheendofthewar.
February6
TheU.S.CongressratiedtheTreatyofPeace,with57votingyes
Appendix1
March19
TheQueenRegentofSpainratiestheTreatyofParis.
March21
AnnotatedChronology
Appendix1
ippines,offersamnestytotheFilipinonationaliststobringanendto
therebellionthatbeganinoppositiontoSpanishrule.Theamnesty
willgrantfullpardontoallFilipinostakingpartintherebellion,on
theconditionthattheytakeanoathofallegianceandacknowledge
thesovereigntyoftheAmericangovernment.
July19DepartmentofStatememorandumdeniestheAmericancitizenship
ofFilipinoseamen,rulingthatamanmaybeacitizeninonesense
oftheword,orfromcertainpointsofview,orforcertainpurposes,
AnnotatedChronology
Appendix1
July4MacArthurtransfershisresponsibilityasgovernortoWilliamHow-
ardTaft,whoisinauguratedastherstcivilgovernorofthePhil-
ippines.Thisbringstoanendmilitaryruleonmostoftheislands.
Taft,whoservedaspresidentoftheU.S.PhilippineCommissionthis
year,indicatesthathefavorsindependencefortheFilipinos,whom
hecallshislittlebrownbrothers.
July18PassingofPhilippineCommissionActNo.175providingforan
armed,equippedanddisciplinedforceof150menperprovince
undersupervisionofAmericanofcers.
July21TheUSS
carryingtherstgroupofAmericanteachers,the
Thomasites,arrivesinthePhilippines.
September1Uponhisrecommendation,PardodeTavera,
andtwootherFilipi-
nos(BenitoLegardaandJoseRuizDeLuzuriaga)areappointedthe
nativemembersoftheUnitedStatesPhilippineCommissionby
GovernorTaft.Thisisthesolelegislativebodypermitteduntilthe
inaugurationofthePhilippineAssemblyonOctober16,1907.
NovemberTheSedition/TreasonLawpassedbytheU.S.PhilippineCommission
discouragestheorganizationofallpoliticalpartiesadvocatinginde-
DecemberCreationoftheBoardofPublicHealth.
AnnotatedChronology
consistingofthePhilippineCommission,whichistobeappointed
bythepresidentoftheUnitedStates.Thetwohousessharelegislative
powers,althoughtheupperhousepasseslawsrelatingtotheMoros
andothernon-Christianpeoples.TheactalsoextendstheU.S.Bill
ofRightstoFilipinosandsendstwononvotingFilipinoresidentcom-
missionerstoWashingtontoattendsessionsoftheU.S.Congress.
TheOrganicActdisestablishestheCatholicChurchasthestatere-
July4PeaceProclamationandAmnestyGrantissuedbyPresidentTheodore
RooseveltofciallyclosingthePhilippineInsurrection.United
StatesArmyofciallypaciedthePhilippines.
Warofciallyends.Thethree-and-a-halfyearFilipino-AmericanWar
costtheUnitedStates7,000combatdeadandwounded,acashpay-
mentof$170million(variouslycitedashighas$600million),and
abilliondollarsinsoldierspensions.Itisestimatedthatabout
20,000Filipinosoldiersdied.Theciviliandeadwasclosetoaquarter
ofamillionfromdisease,pestilence,andbrutality.
PassageofthePhilippineOrganicActconrmedtheactsofthepres-
identasCommander-in-Chiefofthearmedforcesinprovidingfor
thegovernmentofthePhilippines,andgavetheexistingPhilippine
Commissionpermanenceandlegitimacy.TheOrganicActalsocon-
rmedthecommissionsorganizationsandfunctionsandconferred
uponitthestatusofacivilgovernment.
August1TheVaticanagreestoU.S.demandstoremoveSpanishfriarsfrom
thePhilippines.PhilippineGovernmentActestablishesFilipinosas
citizensoftheirowncountry,andnotascitizensoftheUnitedStates.
September8ThePhilippineCommissionfalselycertiestotheU.S.presidentthat
theinsurrectionhasceasedexceptinMuslimterritoryandthat
Appendix1
residentsofoutlyingvillagessuspectedofaidingthe
DecemberGovernorTaftnegotiatesanagreementwiththeVaticantopurchase
410millionacresoflandforasumof$7million.Thelandwasto
besoldtotenantfarmersonaninstallmentbasis.Attheendofthe
century,thelandissueinthePhilippinesissuchthat75percentof
farmerswhotillthelanddonotowntheland,while20percentof
theruralpopulationcontrols80percentofthetotalarableland.A
landedeliteownsthemajorityofruralland.
March21BatesTreatyisabrogated.
December16AmericantroopssufferheavylossestoFilipinosatSamar,Philip-
May14MorosattackU.S.troops;7Americansand300Filipinosarekilled.
PassingofPhilippineCommissionActNo.1123makingEnglishthe
ofciallanguageofthePhilippines.
March9FifteenAmericansand600Morosarekilledintwodaysofghting.
Anelectivelegislativebody,thePhilippineAssembly,isestablished,
therstinSoutheastAsia.
MarchTheNationalistaPartyestablishedundertheleadershipofManuel
QuezonandSergioOsmena.Thepartycallsforimmediateindepen-
July30FirstelectionsforthePhilippineAssemblyareheld.TheNationalista
Partywinsaresoundingvictory.
AnnotatedChronology
May14ManuelL.Quezon,majorityoorleader,PhilippineAssembly,de-
livershisrstspeechtotheU.S.CongressinWashington,D.C.
PassageoftheUnderwoodTariffActremovesrestrictionsimposed
bythePayneAldrichTariffAct.Theprincipalresultofbothacts
wastomakethePhilippinesincreasinglydependentonAmerican
Appendix1
Startofpeasantrebellions,suchastheSakdalsincentralLuzon.
FoundingoftheSakdalistas,byBenignoRamos,aformerNacion-
alistaPartymember.TheSakdalParty(Sakdalmeanstoaccuse)ran
AnnotatedChronology
dentswereenrolledinprivateeducationalinstitutions.Newlegisla-
tion,replacingtheJonesAct,ispassedbytheU.S.Congressin1934
andbecomeseffectivein1935,establishingtheCommonwealthof
thePhilippines.AlthoughtheJonesActdidnottransferresponsibility
fortheMororegions(reorganizedin1914undertheDepartmentof
MindanaoandSulu)fromtheAmericangovernortotheFilipino-
controlledlegislature,MuslimsfearthatChristianswilldominatean
independentPhilippines.Americanpolicyfrom1903hadbeento
breakdownthehistoricalautonomyoftheMuslimterritories.Im-
Appendix1
AprilThesurrenderofUnitedStatesPhilippineforcesontheBataanPen-
insula.EightythousandprisonersofwarcapturedbytheJapaneseat
BataanareforcedtoundertaketheinfamousDeathMarchtoa
AnnotatedChronology
M.VergaraJr.,
DisplayingFilipinos:PhotographyandColonialisminEarly20thCen-
turyPhilippines
(Diliman:UniversityofthePhilippinesPress,1995).Alsosee
AWorld
onDisplay
,written,directed,andproducedbyEricBreitbartandMannyLance,New
DealFilms,Inc.,VHSvideo,1996;and
BontocEulogy
,produced,written,directed,and
narratedbyMarlonFuentes,aFilipino,VHSvideo,1995.Twovideodocumentaries
releasedbytheCinemaGuild,presentcontrastingviewsofthe1904St.LouisWorlds
Fair.ForareviewofthesevideosseeJimZwick,RememberingSt.Louis,1904:A
WorldonDisplayandBontocEulogy,
Appendix1
thatthePhilippinesbeAmericanizedanideawhichtheAmericansthemselves,from
withthecapacityandsituationofourpeople,thegovernmentofthePhilippinesmaygo
thatitwouldhavebeennecessarytoorganizeagovernmentlikethat,whichhasbeen
giventoPortoRicoandtoHawaii.Weunderstandthatthewarhascreatedforusa
differentsituation.(AguinaldosCaseAgainsttheUnitedStates,
NorthAmericanRe-
169,no.514[September1899]:42526.)
14.MorgantoElihuRoot,December27,1901andJanuary5,1902,ElihuRoot
Papers,TheLibraryofCongress;alsoseeJosephO.BaylenandJohnHammondMoore,
SenatorJohnTylerMorganandNegroColonizationinthePhilippines,1901to1902,
(June1982).
15.Cf.congressionalhearingsonAmericanbrutalitytoFilipinosduringthewar;also
seeStanleyKarnow,
InOurImage:AmericasEmpireinthePhilippines
(NewYork:
RandomHouse,1989);StuartC.Miller,OurMyLaiof1900:AmericansinthePhil-
ippinesInsurrection,
7,no.19(1970);LuzvimindaFrancisco,TheFirst
AnnotatedChronology
chasedbytheU.S.fromVatican,
PhilippineIslands
;alsosee,SenateDocumentNo.112,56thCongress(December4,1899
March3,1901),2ndSession;andSenateDocumentNo.331,PartI,57thCongress
(December2,1901March3,1903),1stSession(Washington,D.C.:GovernmentPrint-
ingOfce,1903).Alsoseeforthecurrentlandtenuresituation,JimmyR.Escano,Land
TiltingandTenure:ThePhilippinesExperience
17.ForacomprehensivediscussionofthegoalsoftheMission,seeHonestoA.
Villanueva,TheIndependenceMission1919:IndependenceLiesAhead,
AsianStudies
9,no.3(December1971).
18.TheodoreFriend,
Appendix2:TreatyofPeace
Appendix2
ArticleIII
SpaincedestotheUnitedStatesthearchipelagoknownasthePhilippineIslands,and
comprehendingtheislandslyingwithinthefollowingline:
TreatyofPeace
ArticleVI
Spainwill,uponthesignatureofthepresenttreaty,releaseallprisonersofwar,and
handsoftheinsurgentsinCubaandthePhilippines.
Appendix2
bythepresenttreatyrelinquishesorcedeshersovereignty,mayremaininsuchterritory
TreatyofPeace
territories,thesovereigntyoverwhichhasbeeneitherrelinquishedorcededbythepres-
enttreaty.
ArticleXV
TheGovernmentofeachcountrywill,forthetermoftenyears,accordtothemerchant
vesselsoftheothercountrythesametreatmentinrespectofallportcharges,including
entranceandclearancedues,lightdues,andtonnageduties,asitaccordstoitsown
merchantvessels,notengagedinthecoastwisetrade.
ArticleXVI
ItisunderstoodthatanyobligationsassumedinthistreatybytheUnitedStateswith
respecttoCubaarelimitedtothetimeofitsoccupancythereof;butitwilluponter-
minationofsuchoccupancy,adviseanyGovernmentestablishedintheislandtoassume
thesameobligations.
ArticleXVII
ThepresenttreatyshallberatiedbythePresidentoftheUnitedStates,byandwith
theadviceandconsentoftheSenatethereof,andbyHerMajestytheQueenRegentof
Spain;andtheraticationsshallbeexchangedatWashingtonwithinsixmonthsfrom
thedatehereof,orearlierifpossible.
Infaithwhereof,we,therespectivePlenipotentiaries,havesignedthistreatyandhave
hereuntoafxedourseals.
DoneinduplicateatParis,thetenthdayofDecember,intheyearofOurLordone
Appendix3:Benevolent
AssimilationProclamationby
PresidentWilliamMcKinley,
December21,1898
Appendix3
legislationoftheUnitedStatesshallotherwiseprovide,themunicipallawsoftheterritory
inrespecttoprivaterightsandpropertyandtherepressionofcrimearetobeconsidered
ascontinuinginforce,andtobeadministeredbytheordinarytribunals,sofarasprac-
ticable.Theoperationsofcivilandmunicipalgovernmentaretobeperformedbysuch
ofcersasmayacceptthesupremacyoftheUnitedStatesbytakingtheoathofallegiance,
orbyofcerschosen,asfaraspracticable,fromtheinhabitantsoftheIslands.While
thecontrolofallthepublicpropertyandtherevenuesofthestatepasseswiththecession,
andwhiletheuseandmanagementofallpublicmeansoftransportationarenecessarily
Appendix4:PhilippineExhibitions
atU.S.WorldsFairsand
FilipinosareexhibitedatvariousWorldsFairsandExpositionsintheUnitedStates,
asdescribedinthefollowingaccounts.Reactionstotheexhibitarecontainedinthe
CharlesB.Spahr,ThePhilippineEducationalExhibit(atthePan-American
TheOutlook
69(September7,1901)
Appendix4
ThePhilippinesatthePanamaExposition:RemarkableInsularExhibit,
TheFilipino
,March3,1915.
TheFilipinoreactionisreportedinMr.QuezonsRemarksatSanFrancisco,
FilipinoPeople
,March3,1915.ThenCommissionerQuezon,wholaterbecamepresident
ofthePhilippines,rebuttedtheimagescreatedatthefairs:TheFilipinosareanenter-
prisingandprogressivepeople;theyarefullyawarethattheonlywaybywhichthey
canoccupyaplaceininternationalaffairssuchastheyareentitledto,isthatofmingling
withotherpeoplesandofshowingthemwhattheythemselvesare
Strangeasitmay
seem,afterfteenyearsofAmericanoccupationintheIslands,theyarehardlyknown
eventotheAmericanpeopleatlarge.
1.Itisnotedonp.178oftheaccount:TheFilipinoexhibitionwasonethatattracted
agreatdealofattentionandgavemuchsatisfaction.Theconcertthatthecivilizedresi-
dentsorVisayansgavedrewneaudiencesalldaylong.Theygaveexhibitionsoftheir
nationaldances,sangtheirnativesongs,accompaniedbytheirownorchestra.Filipinos
fromtheCordillerasregionweredisplayedatWorldsFairsinverygoodtime,andacted
littlepantomimeplays.WhentheywounduptheirshowbyplayingandsingingtheStar-
SpangledBannerinverygoodEnglishandperfecttime,theyarousedtheiraudiencesto
anenthusiasticpitch.WhenyouwereinformedthattheperformersknewnoEnglishsix
monthspreviouslytheirpresentattemptsseemedreallyremarkable.Thiscontrastswith
PhilippineExhibitions
moreforthewomen.Thereismuchtattooing,especiallyontheirbreasts,whichtellsof
theirhead-huntingraids,andsomeworestrungaroundtheirneckstheredbeakofabird,
signifyingthatthewearerhastakenatleasttwentyheads.HeadhuntingamongtheBontog
Igorotsisnotonlyameansofself-defence,butalsoapastime.Afteramemberofthe
pueblohastakenhomeahumanhead,amonthisgiventocelebration.AllIgorotmen
eatdogs.Itisatribaldish,andtwentydogswerefurnishedthesemeneachweekbythe
UnitedStatesgovernment.AnaccompanyingimagewascaptionedTheIgorotpre-
paringandcookingadogfortheirdailymealattheWorldsFair,St.Louis,1904.
3.Theinvidiousnatureofthecommentaryiscapturedinthefollowing:Fromthe
Moros,themostwarlikeanduncivilizedoftheinhabitantsoftheisland,totheTagalos
sic]thetribetowhichAguinaldobelongs,andwhichisthemostenlightenedofthem
all,almosteveryphaseoflifeinthePhilippinesisshown.Ofthelatteritwaswritten
theTagalosrepresentthemostadvancedcivilizationinthePhilippines.Theydressmore
likeAmericansanddevotemostoftheirtimetotheirhouseholdduties.Theylookwith
contemptontheirneighborsanddonotliketohavethemreferredtoasFilipinos.The
foodoftheTagalosislikethatofanycivilizedpeople.
Appendix5:TheLandTenancy
Amajorproblem,whichbeganundertheSpanish,wasthelandownershipofthefriars
andthetenancyproblem,whichdevelopedduringtheAmericanperiod.Theeconomic
positionofthereligiousorders(theDominicans,Franciscans,andAugustinians,known
collectivelyasthefriars),
wassecuredbytheirextensivelandholdings,whichgenerally
hadbeendonatedtothemforthesupportoftheirchurches,schools,andotherestablish-
ments.Inaddition,
orlargeranches,whichdevelopedfromlandgrantsmade
bytheSpanishCrownto
Appendix5
werenoseriousattemptsatagrarianreform,eventhoughTaftsuccessfullynegotiated
withtheVaticanforthesaleoffriarlands.In1903theTaftadministrationboughtfor
$7millionthemajorpartofthefriarsholdings,amountingtosome166,000hectares,
ofwhichone-halfwasinthevicinityofManila.Thelandwaseventuallyresoldto
Filipinos,someofthemtenantsbutthemajorityofthemestateowners.
TherstOrganicActpassedin1902bytheU.S.CongressandthePhilippineCom-
missionlimitedthesizeofpubliclandsthatcouldbeownedbyindividualsto16hectares,
andthiswaslateramendedto100hectares,andcorporationswerelimitedto1,024
Originally,GovernorTaftandtheU.S.businesslobbyinManilasoughtto
limitcorporateownershipoflandto20,000acres.ButtheAmericanfarmlobbythrough
itscongressionalalliesdefeatedthisproposal.ThePublicLandsActpassedinOctober
1903wasdesignedtoallowthelandlessandland-poorpeasantstoacquiretheirown
dependentonadvancesmadebythelandownerandhavetopaysteepinterestrates.It
wasestimatedin1924thattheaveragetenantfamilywouldhavetolaboruninterruptedly
for163yearstopayoffdebtsandacquiretitletothelandtheywork.
systemhascreatedaclassofpeonsorserfs;childreninheritthedebtsoftheirparents
andovergenerationsfamiliesweretiedinbondagetoestateowners.
TheComprehensiveAgrarianReformProgram(CARP),establishedin1988ischarged
withleadingagrarianreforminthePhilippines.By2000,CARPhadaccomplishedthe
following:(1)redistributionof4.8millionhectaresofbothprivateandpubliclands,
comprising47percentofthecountrystotalfarmlandandrepresenting60percentof
totalCARPscopeand(2)directlybenetingabout2.1millionruralpoorhouseholds,
thatconstituteroughly41percentofthetotalpeasantpopulation.
CARPhasexpropri-
ationpowersand,intheory,coversallagriculturallandsinthePhilippines,privateand
public,regardlessoftenurialrelations.About80percentofthepeasantpopulationare
landlessandland-poorhouseholds.
LandunderthedomainofCARPincludesIdleandAbandonedLand(privateestates),
Voluntary-Offer-to-Sell(VOS),SequesteredMarcosCrony(PCGG)Lands,
Government-OwnedLands,PublicAlienableandDisposableLands,IntegratedSocial
TheLandTenancyIssue
Abad,Juan,106
Abella,Domingo,45,52
Abellana,Martino,29
AcademiadeDibujoyPintura,23
Advocacygroups,failureof,23334;
scopeforstudy,23638
Index
Commonwealthliterature(19351939),
CommunityChestFund,152
Concubinage,19
Constantino,Renato,94
Constitution,democraticprinciplesof,4,
14042;supremacyof,139
Contemporaryculture:beautypageants
forupwardmobility,3132;contrasts
Fernandez,DoreenG.,31
Fernandez,Trining,173
Feudalsystem,137
Filipinization,76,219
Filipino-AmericanWar,4,22
Filipinoculture:classicationof,194;lo-
Kipling,Rudyard,26,29,1089
Kolko,Gabriel,227
KoreanWar,232
Lacson,Rose,30
LadyofEdsa
,29
Laguio,PerfectoE.,175
Landtenancyissue/distribution,5,136,
Larawan,BenedictoCabrera,29
Laya,JuanC.,118
LeagueofFilipinoStudents(LFS),153
Legarda,TriningFernandez,174
Lepercolony,2034
LiberalParty,152
LifewiththeEarlyAmericanTeachers
(Marquardt),90
Limpiezadesangre
,51
Lluch,Julie,29
Lopez,AngelicaRizal,167
Lovingv.Virginia
,24
Mabanglo,Ruth,123
Mabini,Apolinario,76,8082,191,204,
21823,231
Macapagal-Arroyo,Gloria,7
Macapagal,Diosdado,7,22728
MacArthur,GeneralDouglas,8384
McFerson,HazelM.,209
McGloin,LindaAcupanda,29
McKinley,William,65,75,90,108,197,
MadonnaoftheSlums
(Manasala),28
,172
Magsaysay-Ho,Anita,29
Majul,CesarAdib,22223
TheMakingofaNation
Malantic,Antonio,23
Malayans,2829,124,194
Mallat,Jean,53
MalolosCongress,237
Malvar,Gen.Jose,150
Manasala,Vincente,28
Manifestdestiny,65,192,226
Manila-Acapulogalleontrade,21516
(fair-skinned),99101,122,125
Marcos,FerdinandE.,58,29,140,212
Marcos,Imelda,30
Marcosdictatorship,121,22829;social
developmentorganizations,15253
MariaClaramyth,27,30,163,166
Marquardt,FredericS.,90
Marquez,Paz,173
MartialLawyears(19721980),15253,
Mendez,PazPolicarpio,177
Mercado,Leonard,172
Merritt,GeneralWesley,224
Mestizaideal,13,21,52,112;American
movieindustryand,31,117;contem-
porarycultureand,2932;feminine
mystique,30;MariaClaraprototype,
27,30,163,166;Rizaland,2728;
whitebiasof,28
(personsofmixedraces),102
3,125
Mestizoclass,4,20,51,82,148;Chinese
mestizos(
),22,23;socialdomi-
nanceof,2627;Spanishmestizos(
),23
Militaryforces,191
Millard,Thomas,198
Miscegenation,20,100,119
Modernism,16768,170,174
,161,168
Montelibano,Miguela,107
Montes,TimothyR.,122,125
(brown-skinned),1015
Moroland,Americanrulein,19798;
ChristianFilipinomigration,2012
MoroProvince,196,198200;responses
of,200201
MunicipalandProvincialCodes(1901),
MuslimFilipinos,19798
MyDream(Montelibano),107
Myths,creationmyths,1516;Maria
Clarabeautymyth,27.
Seealso
pinofolklore
Nash,Frederick,108
NationalAssociationofManufacturers
(NAM),225
NationalFederationofWomensClubs
(NFWC),17374
Nationalidentity,221;raceand,45,64
Nationalism,4445,54,58,6263,76,
149;economicnationalism,232
NationalistaParty,152
Nationalleadership,23536
NationalYouthAdministration,151
Nation-building,22123,231
Naturalresources,192
Negritos,194
Negrophobia,26
ANegroSlavemyth,17
NewPeoplesArmy(NPA),152
Nicanor,Precioso,11819,125
Nongovernmentorganizations(NGOs),
145,212
Novales(Andres)mutiny,54
NuestraSenoradelCarmen,22
Ocampo,GaloB.,28
Ocampo,Pablo,76
OrdenanzasdelasRevolucio
n(Struc-
turesoftheRevolution),222
Palma,Rafael,1023,107,125,177
PardodeTavera,Trinidad,8486
Parker,MaudNeal,173
PartidoKomunistangPilipinas(PKP)
(CommunistPartyofthePhilippines),
Paternalism,49
Paterno,Pedro,7982
Pedroche,Conrado,116,125
Pelaez,Emmanuel,124
,53,148,213
programs,89,9194,109
10,138,16869
PeoplePowerRevolution,3,5,29,153
54,21112,230
Peoplesorganizations(POs),212
Pertierra,Raul,5
Phelan,JohnL.,46,49
Philippine-Americanrelations,chronology
of,24156
Philippine-AmericanWar,65,192,197
PhilippineAssociationofUniversity
Women(PAUW),175,177
Race:Americantraditionof,2325;in
Filipinofolklore,1519;nationaliden-
tityand,45;Negritovs.Europeanste-
reotypes,1819;principalracialtypes,
15;Spanishcolonialiconographyand,
2223;Spanishracialtradition,1922;
economicexploitation,21415;tribu-
tarysystem,4647;whitesupremacy,
100101;womenin,16267
Spanishnativism(
),58
Spanishracialtradition,4,1923,53;
civilizedvs.uncivilizedclassications,
20;colorand,20;cultureandclass,20;
phenotypiccriteria,1920;socioracial
hierarchy,20
Suffragists,16162,17479
SummaTheologia
(Aquinas),146
Sutherland,William,92
Taft,WilliamHoward,5,8,26,7980,
Tagalogs,2021,60,106,113
Tangco,Marcelo,15
Taruc,Luis,228
TausogofJolo,196
Taxcollections,214
Thomasites,4,8991,108,209
Tiempo,EdilbertoK.,120,122,125
Timberman,David,137
Tiongson,Nicanor,163
Tocqueville,Alexisde,150,155
Tolentino,Aurelio,106
Tradeandbarter,147,215
TreatyofParis,24,81,101,225,26165
Tributary(colonial)system,4648
Twain,Mark,90,108
TydingsMcDufeLaw(1934),112
Ugarte,EduardoF.,5,191
Value-AddedTax(VAT),230
ElVerdaderoDecalogo
(TheTrueDeca-
logue),22123
AbouttheEditorandContributors
AlexanderA.Calata
isExecutiveDirectorofthePhilippine-AmericanEdu-
cationFoundation/FulbrightScholars,Makati,Manila.
AbouttheEditorandContributors
anthologyprojectthatgleansontheFilipinooverseasexperiencevialiterary
expression.Thisbookisscheduledforpublicationin2002.
RaulPertierra
isProfessorofAnthropology,theUniversityofNewSouth
Wales,Sydney,Australia.Hislatestbookis
Religion,PoliticsandRationality
inaPhilippinesCommunity
Hon.FidelV.Ramos
wasPresidentoftheRepublicofthePhilippinesfrom
1992to1998.
MinaC.Roces
teachesintheSchoolofHistory,theUniversityofNewSouth
Wales,Australia.Sheistheauthorof
Women,PowerandKinshipPolitics:
FemalePowerinPost-WarPhilippines
(Praeger,1998),and
KinshipPoliticsin
Post-WarPhilippines:TheLopezFamily,19452000
EduardoF.Ugarte
isAssociateProfessorandChairoftheDepartmentof
InternationalStudies,DeLaSalleUniversity,Manila,Philippines.
WilfridoV.Villacorta
isPresident,theYuchengcoCenterforEastAsia,and
ProfessorofPoliticalScienceatDeLaSalleUniversity,Manila.Hewasrecently
appointedbyPopePaulIIasanAcademicianofthePonticalAcademyof
SocialSciences.
MIXEDBLESSING
MIXEDBLESSING:
TheImpactofthe
AmericanColonial
ExperienceonPoliticsan

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