МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ
МУРМАНСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ГУМАНИТАРНЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ
для студентов 1 курса направлений
45.03.02 «Лингвистика: перевод и переводоведение»,
44.03.05 «Педагогическое образование: Иностранный язык.
Второй иностранный язык (по выбору)»
Печатается по решению Совета по научно-исследовательской работе и редакционно-издательской деятельности Мурманского государственного гуманитарного университета
Рекомендовано к печати советом Социально гуманитарного института (протокол № от 2015 г.)
Автор-составитель: М.М. Кремлева, кандидат педагогических наук, доцент, доцент кафедры иностранных языков МГГУ.
Рецензенты: Е.Н. Квасюк, к.п.н., доцент кафедры иностранных языков МГГУ;
Т.П. Волкова, к.ф.н., доцент, зав. кафедрой иностранных языков МГТУ.
Family life: Учебное пособие – автор-составитель М.М. Кремлева – Мурманск: МГГУ, 2015.- 76 с.
Данное учебное пособие состоит из 3 разделов и предназначено для использования на 1 курсе направлений «Лингвистика: Перевод и переводоведение» «Педагогическое образование: Иностранный язык. Второй иностранный язык (по выбору)».
Целью пособия, наряду с усвоением и отработкой лексического материала по теме “Family life”, является приобретение и автоматизация навыков перевода, а также тренировка и расширение объёма оперативной и безассоциативной памяти.
TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u INTRODUCTORY READING AND TALK PAGEREF _Toc422168269 \h 4HOME PAGEREF _Toc422168270 \h 11FAMILY LIFE PAGEREF _Toc422168271 \h 17AN ONLY CHILD PAGEREF _Toc422168272 \h 22BOND OF BROTHERLY HATE PAGEREF _Toc422168273 \h 23ONLY CHILDREN PAGEREF _Toc422168274 \h 24A MARRIAGE OF CONVENIENCE PAGEREF _Toc422168275 \h 26LISTENING PAGEREF _Toc422168276 \h 42APPENDIX PAGEREF _Toc422168277 \h 44SUPPLEMENTARY READER PAGEREF _Toc422168278 \h 57TOPICAL VOCABULARY PAGEREF _Toc422168279 \h 61Список использованной литературы и интернет-источников PAGEREF _Toc422168280 \h 73
INTRODUCTORY READING AND TALKMarriage is a thing which only a rare person in his or her life avoids. True bachelors and spinsters make up only a small percent of the population; most single people are "alone but not lonely".
Millions of others get married because of the fun of family life. And it is fan, if one takes it with a sense of humour.
There's a lot of fun in falling in love with someone and chasing the prospective fiancee, which means dating and going out with the candidate. All the relatives (parents, grandparents and great-grandparents, brothers and sisters, cousins, aunts and uncles, nieces and nephews, stepmothers and stepfathers and all in-laws) meanwhile have the fan of criticizing your choice and giving advice. The trick here is not to listen to them but propose to your bride-to-be and somehow get her to accept your proposal. Then you may arrange the engagement and fix the day of the wedding.
What fun it is to get all those things, whose names start with the word "wedding" — dress, rings, cars, flowers, cakes, etc.! It's great fun to pay for them.
It's fun for the bride and the groom to escape from the guests and go on a honeymoon trip, especially if it is a wedding present from the parents. The guests remain with the fun of gossiping whether you married for love or for money.
It's fan to return back home with the idea that the person you are married to is somewhat different from the one you knew. But there is no time to think about it because you are newly-weds and you expect a baby.
There is no better fan for a husband than taking his wife to a maternity home alone and bringing her back with the twins or triplets.
And this is where the greatest fan starts: washing the new-born's nappies and passing away sleepless nights, earning money to keep the family, taking children to kindergarten and later to school. By all means it's fan to attend parents' meetings and to learn that your children take after you and don't do well at school.
The bigger your children grow, the more they resemble you outwardly and the less they display likeness with you inwardly. And you start grumbling at them and discussing with your old friends the problem of the "generation gap". What fan!
And when at last you and your grey-haired spouse start thinking that your family life has calmed down, you haven't divorced but preserved your union, the climax of your fan bursts out!
One of your dearest offsprings brings a long-legged blonde to your house and says that he wants to marry. And you think: 'Why do people ever get married?'
Exercise 1. a) Repeat the successions of words after the teacher / partner.
b) Translate them by ear.
c) Find the odd word in each line. Why are they odd?
1) aunts – cousins – nieces - nephews – boy- friend – grandparents – parents;
2) dress – bachelors - rings – flowers - cakes – honeymoon – cars;
3) maternity home – new-born’s nappies – twins – spinsters – triplets;
4) dating – engagement – bride – divorce – proposal – fiancée – bridegroom.
Exercise 2. “Snowball”. Work in a group. Every student names one item of family life, the others repeat the previous and add one more item. Continue working until the students can remember the succession of words.
Exercise 3. Read the following word-combinations as quickly as possible. Translate them, switching from Russian into English and vice versa.
Grey-haired spouse – принять предложение - offsprings – молодожены – keep the family – женится по любви – marry for money – водить в детский сад.
Exercise 4. a) Repeat the members of the family with additional information after the teacher / partner.
Cousins 5 and 12, aunt 45, nephew 1991, niece 23 August, grandparents 65 and72.b) Translate the text by ear.
The smile is a magic gift. It warms everybody without exception, cheers up, makes to feel happy. It is so pleasant to see a smiling person, especially, when your mum smiles. And my mum who is the dearest person in the world smiles so tenderly, sincerely and openly. It becomes lightly from her smile in the whole house. And so, you want to sing with joy!
Exercise 5. a) Repeat the items of the wedding after the teacher / partner.
Bride, proposal, engagement, groom, guests, honeymoon trip, wedding present, gossiping, newly-weds.
b) Translate them by ear.
c) Find the odd word in each line. Why are they odd?
1) guests - parents – teachers;
2) newly-weds, divorced, honey-moon;
3) presents, flowers, students.
Exercise 6. Sum up the following text in 5 sentences.
Families evacuated during a large blaze on Anglesey on Friday morning have begun to return to their homes.
Nine families had been temporarily re-housed in a primary school after the flames forced 22 homes on Nant y Felin estate to be evacuated.
It broke out at a petrol station in Pentraeth at about 04:50 BST on Friday.
The A5025 road between Menai Bridge and Amlwich has been reopened after being closed due to the fire, police have confirmed.
Sandra Robinson Clark, who lives behind the petrol station, said the fire was so close to her house as she could feel the heat from the blaze.
"I was woken by police at around five o'clock in the morning and went into a bit of a panic," she said.
"I could see huge flames from my bedroom window. It was horrendous.
"I was concerned that the petrol station would explode.
"The smell of the smoke is terrible but I'm hoping we will be able to return home soon."
Media caption Firefighter Gary Brandick, said a shop and workshop have been badly damaged
North Wales Fire and Rescue Service warned the public to stay away.
Crews are expecting to be damping down the site for much of the day and could not say when the families could return to their homes.
Gary Brandick, senior fire safety manager at the fire service, said: "Our firefighters have done a good job here this morning keeping the fire contained, especially given the close proximity of other premises."
The cause of the fire is being investigated.
Exercise 7. a) Listen to young people speaking about family life in their countries. Translate the texts.
b) Produce the main idea.
c) Reproduce the sentences as a whole adding as many details as you can.
Takumi, 18, Japan
‘I am an only child because, in 1979, the government in my country introduced a one-child-per-family policy to control China’s population explosion. In the countryside, several generations often live under one roof! In urban areas, however, housing is small and can only accommodate a nuclear family, so I live with just my parents. All my relations live close by. We care for and help each other and spend a lot of time together. Family honour is very important in Chinese society, as is respect for your elders.’
Cheung, 16, China
‘I am an only child and I live with my parents and my grandma, or ‘babushka’ as we say here in Russia. My grandpa passed away last year so Babushka left her house in the country to come and live with us here in the city. When I was young I lived with my grandparents at their dacha and in many ways they were like parents to me. I don’t see my parents as much as I would like, as they work long hours. Still, we’ve learnt to make the most of our time together, so there’s never a dull moment in our house!’
Natasha, 15, Russia
‘My parents both come from large families, but in ours there’s just my brother and I. Although the birth rate has dropped a lot here in recent years, family still takes priority. My parents make us feel special. We can express ourselves openly and have our opinions listened to. We have lots of family celebrations and we often share Sunday lunch with my grandparents, aunts, undes and cousins. Meal times are really important to us, as they are to most Italians. After dinner, we often dress up and go out for a passeggiata, or evening stroll.’
Sylvia, 19, Italy
‘My parents are separated, so my sister and I live with our mum. We spend most weekends at our father’s place though, as our parents think it is important that they both remain a big part of our lives. I don’t see much of either of my grandparents as they live in different cities. I am very close to my maternal grandmother though, and I speak to her on the phone a lot.’
Thomas, 17, England
‘My family is the centre of my life. Family hierarchy is very important in Jordan and the young show respect to the old at all times. Getting married and having a family is a top priority for me. My marriage will probably be arranged by my father, which is quite common here. I have a large family and my house is often full of relatives visiting us. Indeed, the concept of privacy is alien to us Jordanians!’
Aalia, 17, Jordan
‘The Japanese believe that the strength and support of the family is essential for reaching your full potential in life. Like all Japanese children, I was taught to obey authority and to be very polite, as poor behaviour would reflect badly on my family. Being a parent is considered a very important role. My sister and brother-in-law have just had their first child, so they have started calling each other ‘Otoosan’ and ‘Okaasan’ (Father and Mother) instead of their first names. This is very common here!’
Exercise 8. “Snowball”. A) Repeat each line after the teacher.
B) Translate every sentence.
1. I haven't got a family of my own yet, so I shall speak about my parents' family.
2. I haven't got a family of my own yet, so I shall speak about my parents' family. There are four of us: my father, Sergey Viktorovich, my mother, Irina Pavlovna, my younger brother Anton, and myself Alexandr, Alex for short.
3. I haven't got a family of my own yet, so I shall speak about my parents' family. I haven't got a family of my own yet, so I shall speak about my parents' family. There are four of us: my father, Sergey Viktorovich, my mother, Irina Pavlovna, my younger brother Anton, and myself Alexandr, Alex for short. My parents have been married for eighteen years.
4. I haven't got a family of my own yet, so I shall speak about my parents' family. There are four of us: my father, Sergey Viktorovich, my mother, Irina Pavlovna, my younger brother Anton, and myself Alexandr, Alex for short. My parents have been married for eighteen years. They have much in common, but they have different views on music, books, films, sports.
5. I haven't got a family of my own yet, so I shall speak about my parents' family. There are four of us: my father, Sergey Viktorovich, my mother, Irina Pavlovna, my younger brother Anton, and myself Alexandr, Alex for short. My parents have been married for eighteen years. They have much in common, but they have different views on music, books, films, sports. But my parents have the same opinion about my education and upbringing.
6. I haven't got a family of my own yet, so I shall speak about my parents' family. There are four of us: my father, Sergey Viktorovich, my mother, Irina Pavlovna, my younger brother Anton, and myself Alexandr, Alex for short.My parents have been married for eighteen years. They have much in common, but they have different views on music, books, films, sports. But my parents have the same opinion about my education and upbringing. My parents are hard-working people.
7. I haven't got a family of my own yet, so I shall speak about my parents' family. There are four of us: my father, Sergey Viktorovich, my mother, Irina Pavlovna, my younger brother Anton, and myself Alexandr, Alex for short. My parents have been married for eighteen years. They have much in common, but they have different views on music, books, films, sports. But my parents have the same opinion about my education and upbringing. My parents are hard-working people. We have got a lot of relatives.
8. I haven't got a family of my own yet, so I shall speak about my parents' family. There are four of us: my father, Sergey Viktorovich, my mother, Irina Pavlovna, my younger brother Anton, and myself Alexandr, Alex for short. My parents have been married for eighteen years. They have much in common, but they have different views on music, books, films, sports. But my parents have the same opinion about my education and upbringing. My parents are hard-working people. We have got a lot of relatives. We are deeply attached to each other and we get on very well.
Exercise 9. Choose one of the names in the family tree below and say how the person is related to other people. Note that the pictures of marriage partners are connected with wedding rings.
►Pattern: William Luke is Leon Luke's son, Philip Smith's nephew and Laura White's grandson
Exercise 10. Make up your family tree and speak about your family.
3. Work in pairs and talk. Imagine that:
a) you are speaking with a distant relative trying to find out what relation you are to one another;
b) you show your family album to your friend and answer all his or her questions.
Exercise11. Study Topical vocabulary. Translate into English using the word “look” and other related words and expressions.
1. В кого он пошел?
2. Она похожа на свою старшую сестру.
3. На кого похож наш сын?
4. Опишите, пожалуйста, как выглядит ваш друг. Я думаю, я с ним знаком.
5. Этот дом похож на дворец, не так ли?
6. Похоже на то, что пойдет снег.
7. Интересно, в кого пойдет его сын?
8. Когда я увидел ее в первый раз, она выглядела как маленькая девочка. Потом я узнал, что она очень похожа на свою мать, великую актрису.
9. Как выглядит твоя подруга?
10. Он пошел в своего отца внешностью и в мать – характером.
11. У тебя довольно усталый вид.
12. Эта шляпа хорошо на мне смотрится?
13. Что с тобой? Ты сегодня на себя не похожа.
14. В этом платье она выглядит превосходно.
15. Неужели ей уже за 40? Она совсем не выглядит на столько лет!
Exercise12. Translate from Russian into English using Topical vocabulary:
1. Он подросток, не так ли? – Да, ему лет 16.
2. Она только что стала совершеннолетней.
3. Она уже давно не молода – ей далеко за 40.
4. Ему больше двадцати.
5. Мальчик щ несовершеннолетний.
6. Сколько лет старику? – Под девяносто.
7. Сколько ей лет? – Она средних лет.
8. Ему только что исполнилось двадцать.
9. Он мой брат-близнец.
10. Мы с ней одного возраста.
11. Ему перевалило за 60, хотя он не выглядит на свои годы.
12. Моя старшая сестра уже совершеннолетняя.
13. Сколько вам лет? – Почти тридцать.
14. Она самая старшая в семье.
15. Мой брат старше меня на два с половиной года.
Exercise 13. Study Topical vocabulary. Paraphrase the sentences, using as many different constructions as possible.
E.g. He isn’t seventeen yet. – He is under seventeen.
He hasn’t come of age yet.,etc.
She is not twenty yet.
He is a little over thirty.
My cousin and I are both seventeen.
She is over fifty.
The boy is fifteen or sixteen.
He is almost seventy.
The girl is eighteen or nineteen.
The woman is between forty and fifty.
She is not eighteen yet.
He is already eighteen.
Exercise14 . Complete the following sentences using Topical vocabulary:
I’m about 20, my brother is 22, so he is… .My cousin is married, so she has… .Nina is a distant relative of yours, isn’t she? – No, she is… .My father is married for the second time, so his wife is my … .Helen and you are both eighteen, so … .His father is 65, so … .John is my second cousin. He is my…relative.
He is called Red, it’s his … .Our family name is Smith, I don’t know my mother’s …name.
We call our baby “Ducky”, it is his… .Exercise15 . Study Topical vocabulary. Give words or phrases for the following definitions:
To win the affections with a view of marriage;
A woman whose husband died;
A woman, who has never been married;
A second wife of one’s father;
A child of an earlier marriage of one’s stepfather or stepmother;
To take a child into one’s family (as a relation);
A man, who has never been married;
To educate, to raise children;
To put an end to a marriage by law;
The man (woman) to whom one is engaged;
Your father’s (mother’s) parents;
A jubilee after 25 years of marriage;
A circular band (often of gold) given as a token of love;
A social meeting between a boy and a girl who haven’t met before.
Exercise16. Translate into English using Topical vocabulary:
Они поженились в апреле.
Когда Джон собирается жениться на Джейн?
Мэри рано вышла замуж.
Она удачно вышла замуж за человека из состоятельной семьи.
Гарри не женился, пока ему не перевалило за сорок.
Она женила своего сына на богатой вдове.
Твоя жена замужем? – Нет, она была замужем за моим другом, но потом они развелись.
Она снова вышла замуж через два года после смерти своего первого мужа.
Они выдали свою дочь за молодого дипломата.
Он считает, что лучше быть холостяком, чем жениться на деньгах.
HOME(Story by S. Maugham)
The farm lay in a hollow among the Somersetshire hills, an old-fashioned stone house, surrounded by barns and outhouses. Over the doorway the date when it was built had been carved, 1673, and the house, grey and weather-beaten, looked as much a part of the landscape1 as the trees that surrounded it. An avenue of splendid elms led from the road to the garden. The people who lived here were as stolid, sturdy and unpretentious as the house. Their only boast was that ever since the house was built from father to son they had been born and died in it. For three hundred years they had farmed the surrounding land.
George Meadows was now a man of fifty and his wife was a year or two younger. They were both fine, upstanding people in the prime of life2 and their children, two sons and three girls, were handsome and strong. I have never seen a more united family. They were merry, industrious and kindly. Their life was patriarchal. They were happy and they deserved their happiness.
But the master of the house was not George Meadows; it was his mother. She was a woman of seventy, tall, upright and dignified, with grey hair, and though her face was much wrinkled, her eyes were bright and shrewd. Her word was law in the house and on the farm; but she had humor, and if her rule was despotic it was also kindly. People laughed at her jokes and repeated them.
One day Mrs. George3 stopped me on my way home. She was all in flutter.4 (Her mother-in-law was the only Mrs. Meadows we knew: George’s wife was only known as Mrs. George.)
“Who do you think is coming here today?” she asked me. “Uncle George Meadows. You know, the one that was in China.”
“Why,5 I thought he was dead.”
“We all thought he was dead.”
I had heard the story of Uncle George Meadows a dozen times, and it had amused me because it was like an old ballad: it was touching to come across it in real life. For Uncle George Meadows and Tom had both courted Mrs. Meadows when she was Emily Green, fifty years and more ago, and when she married Tom, Geoему лет 6.rge had gone away to sea.
They heard of him on the China coast.6 For twenty years now and then he sent them presents; then there was no news of him. When Tom Meadows died his widow wrote and told him, but received no answer, and at last they came to conclusion that he must be dead. But two or three years ago to their astonishment they had received a letter from the matron of sailor’s home7 at Portsmouth saying that for the last ten years George Meadows, crippled with rheumatism, had been living there and feeling that he had not much longer to live, wanted to see once more the house in which he was born. Albert Meadows, his great nephew, had gone over to Portsmouth in the car to fetch him and he was to arrive that afternoon.
“Just fancy,” said Mrs. George, “he’s not been here for more than fifty years. He’s never even seen my George, who’s fifty-one next birthday.”
“And what does Mrs. Meadows think of it?” I asked.
“Well, you know what she is. She sits there and smiles to herself. All she says is, “He was a good-looking young fellow when he left, but not so steady as his brother." That’s why she chose my George’s father. “But he‘s probably quietened down by now,” she says.
Mrs. George asked me to look in and see him. With the simplicity of a country woman who had never been further from her home than London, she thought that because we had both been in China we must have something in common. Of course I went to see him. I found the whole family assembled when I arrived; they were sitting in the great old kitchen, with its stone floor, Mrs. Meadows in her usual chair by the fire, very upright, and I was amused to see that she had put on her best silk dress, while her son and his wife sat at the table with their children. On the other side of the fireplace sat an old man. He was very thin and his skin hung on his bones like an old suit much too large for him; his face was wrinkled and yellow and he had lost nearly all his teeth.
I shook hands with him.
“Well, I’m glad to see you’ve got here safely, Mr. Meadows,” I said.
“Captain,” he corrected.
“He walked here,” Albert, his great nephew, told me. “When he got to the gate he made me stop the car and said he wanted to walk.”
“And mind you,8 I’ve not been out of my bed for two years.
They carried me down and put me in the car. I thought I’d never walk again, but when I saw those elm-trees, I felt I could walk. I walked down that drive fifty-two years ago when I went away and now I’ve walked back again.”
“Silly, I call it,” said Mrs. Meadows.
“It’s done me good. I feel better and stronger than I have felt for ten years. I’ll see you out yet,9Emily!”
“Don’t be too sure,” she answered.
I suppose no one had called Mrs. Meadows by her first name for a generation. It gave me a little shock, as though the old man were taking the liberty10with her. She looked at him with a shrewd smile in her eyes and he, talking to her, grinned with his toothless gums. It was strange to look at them, these two old people who had not seen one another for half a century, and to think that all that long time ago he had loved her and she had loved another. I wondered if it seemed to him strange now that because of that old woman he had left the home of his fathers, and lived an exile’s life.
“Have you ever been married, Captain Meadows?” I asked.
“Not me,” he answered with a grin. “I know too much about women for that.”
“That’s what you say,”11retorted Mrs. Meadows. “If the truth was known I shouldn’t be surprised12to here that you had half-a-dozen black wives in your day.”
“They’re not black in China, Emily, you ought to know better than that,13 they’re yellow.”
“Perhaps that’s why you’ve got so yellow yourself. When I saw you, I said to myself, why, he’s got jaundice.”
“I said I’d never marry anyone but you, Emily, and I never have.”
He said it very simply, as a man might say, ”I said I’d walk twenty miles and I’ve done it.” There was a trace of satisfaction in his speech.
“Well, you might have regretted it if you had,14 she answered.
I talked a little with the old man about China.
“There’s not a port in China that I don’t know better than you know your coat pocket. Where a ship can go I’ve been. I could keep you sitting here all day long for six months and not tell you half the things I’ve seen in my day.”
“Well, one thing you’ve done, George, as far as I can see,” said Mrs. Meadows, the smile still in her blue eyes, “and that’s to make a fortune.”
“I am not a man to save money.15Make it and spend it; that’s my motto. But one thing I can say for myself: if I had a chance of going through my life again, I’d take it. And not many men can say that.”
“No, indeed,” I said.
I looked at him with admiration and respect. He was a toothless, crippled, penniless old man, but he had made a success of his life,16for he had enjoyed it. When I left him he asked me to come and see him again next day. If I was interested in China he would tell me all the stories I wanted to hear.
Next morning I thought I would go and ask if the old man would like to see me. I walked down the beautiful avenue of elm-trees and when I came to the garden saw Mrs. Meadows picking flowers. I said good morning and she raised herself. She had a huge armful of white flowers. I glanced at the house and saw that the blinds were drawn: I was surprised, for Mrs. Meadows liked the sun shine.
“Time enough to live in the dark when you’re buried,” she always said.
“How’s Captain Meadows?” I asked her.
“He always was a harum-scarum fellow,” she answered. “When Lizzie brought him a cup of tea this morning she found he was dead.”
“Dead?” “Yes. Died in his sleep. I was just picking these flowers to put in the room. Well, I’m glad he died in that old house. It always means a lot to the Meadows to do that.”
They had had a good deal of difficulty in persuading him to go to bed. He had talked to them of all things that had happened to him in his long life. He was happy to be back in his old home. He was proud that he had walked up the drive without assistance, and he boasted that he would live for another twenty years. But fate had been kind: death had written the full stop in the right place.
Mrs. Meadows smelt the white flowers that she held in her arms.
“Well, I’m glad he came back,” she said. “After I married Tom Meadows and George went away, the fact is I was never quite sure that I’d married the right one.”
Home is the place where one lives, especially with one’s family. What is home and family to you? Do you know any proverbs about home and family? Write them down if you do.
Practise the pronunciation of the words from the story.
Somersetshire, landscape, avenue, unpretentious, Meadows, handsome, patriarchal, shrewd, dozen, matron, rheumatism, jaundice, harum-scarum.
Vocabulary and Grammar TaskFind in the story the English for:
Трудолюбивый, заслуживать чего-либо, хозяин дома, проницательный, ухаживать за кем-либо, стать моряком, прийти к заключению, сходить (съездить) за кем-либо, уравновешенный, иметь что-либо общее, успокаиваться, пойти кому-либо на пользу, ухмыляться, сожалеть о чем-либо, насколько я понимаю, нажить состояние, копить деньги, интересоваться чем-либо, уговаривать кого-либо, хвастаться.Use one of the words or word combinations from the box in an appropriate form to fill each gap.
to go to sea, to have smth in common, as far as I can see,
to deserve, to come to the conclusion, to grin, to boast, to court
They were happy and they __________ their happiness.
When Emily Green married Tom, George __________ .At last they __________ that he must be dead.
She thought that because we had both been in China we must _______.
He, talking to her, __________ with his toothless gums.
Well, one thing you haven’t done, George, _________ , and that’s to make a fortune.
He __________ that he would live for another twenty years.
George Meadows and Tom __________ Mrs. Meadows when she was Emily Green.
Say the opposite of:
lazydullunbalancedto do smb harm
to go broke.
to spend money
Choose the right word and use it in an appropriate form.
landladythe master of the house
He owned his _________ a month’s rent.
As Mrs. Hill was away, Jane, the eldest daughter, acted as ________ at the dinner party.
But the __________ was Geogre’s mother.
to take care of
George Meadows and Tom both __________ Mrs. Meadows when she was Emily Green.
The officers ___________ Loise as though they were all her husbands.
to be interested
He will ___________ to know what the old man has seen in his life.
I ____________ if they remembered what they had felt then and what they had said to one another.
They had a good deal of difficulty in ___________ him to go to bed.
The old man’s words _________ him that he made a success of his life.
Ask “do you think questions” as in the example:
EXAMPLE: Who do you think is coming here today?
They deserved their happiness. (general)
Mrs. Meadows was the master of the house. (Who?)
They remembered what they had said to one another. (What?)
He didn’t make a fortune. (Why?)
For the last ten years he had been living in the sailor’s home. (Where?)
He would tell all the stories I wanted to hear. (What?)
Fate was kind to him. (general)
“I’m glad he came back,” she said. (Why?)
Reading Comprehension and Discussion Tasks
Answer the following questions:
What was the farm like?
What kind of people lived in the house and farmed the land? What was their only boast?
Who was the master of the house? What did she look like?
What was she like?
What was the story of George Meadows? Why had he gone to sea? How had he spent fifty years of his exile’s life?
Why had the matron of the sailor’s home written to them?
What did the old man look like?
How had he got to the house? Why was he proud he could walk?
Why was it strange to look at the old people, Emily Meadows and George Meadows?
Why had the old man never married?
Why hadn’t he made a fortune?
Why did the author look at the old man with admiration and respect?
What did the author see when he came the next morning?
Why does the author say fate was kind to the old man?
What was Mrs. Meadow never quite sure of ?Match the adjective on the left with the nouns on the right according to the story. Say which character of the story each word combination refers to.
stolid, sturdy and unpretentious life
patriarchal old man
tall, upright and dignified eyes
bright and shrewd people
despotic but kindly woman
toothless, crippled, penniless rule
Tell the story of George Meadows according to the outline below:
The old man and his home.
The old man and Emily Meadows.
The old man and his exile’s life.
The old man back home.
Discuss the following:
Why does the author call the life of the Meadows patriarchal? What kind of life is patriarchal to you?
Why do you think they were a happy family? What makes a family happy?
Why do you think George Meadows had gone to sea?
Do you think he was a one-woman man? What do you think there was about Emily Meadows that he would never marry anyone but her?
Why had he never visited them during his exile’s life?
Make guesses about the things he had seen in his day.
What is your main impression of the story?
Read out the proverbs you wrote down in the pre-reading task. Do you remember the proverbs:
East or West – home is best.
There’s no place like home?
Comment on the proverbs with reference to the stoText-based activities
Read the text below.
FAMILY LIFEThere are many different views on family life. Some people could not do without the support and love of their families. Others say it is the source of most of our problems and anxieties. Whatever the truth is, the family is definitely a powerful symbol. There is no definition of a “normal” family. Broadly speaking, the family is a group of people related by blood or law, living together or associating with one another for a common purpose. That purpose is usually to provide shelter and food, and to bring up children. The nature of the family keeps changing: there are a number of types of family that exist in a society at any one time. Sociologists divide families into two general types: the nuclear family and the extended family, which may include three or more generations living together. In industrialized countries, and increasingly in the large cities of developing countries, the nuclear family is regarded as normal. Most people think of it as consisting of two parents and two children.
The first thing most Western people notice in the Far, Middle and Near East is the respect everyone has for old people. Elderly men and women live with their married children and are important members of the family. They look after the children, help with cooking, give advice and often rule family life. Living in an extended family has advantages for everyone. A small child, for example, knows many people from the very beginning, not just his mother and father. When his mother goes out, it doesn’t matter. He’ll stay with someone who loves him - an aunt, sister or grandmother.
For a young mother and father there are also advantages. They can go out to work, and grandmother will look after the house and children. This is especially important in farming communities, where both men and women work in the fields.
And the older woman, for example, has something important to do. She sees how her children and grandchildren grow up. She is needed and loved.
The nuclear family is a product of the West. If the mother goes out to work, she must leave her children with a stranger – someone who looks after them as a job, for money. If there is a divorce, the child’s life will change completely.
And as for the elder people, too many of them live alone – in special flats or homes. They hardly ever see their children and grandchildren. They have nothing important to do. They are often poor and lonely. In the winter many older people die of cold or from falls in the house, because there is no one to look after them.
Years ago in Great Britain it was also important to have large families. The best Victorian mother was the mother who had the most children. The proudest Victorian father was the father who had the most sons. It was important, to have many children so that the family remained strong. If you were rich, you needed sons to inherit your property. If you were poor, you needed sons to help with your work and take it over when you were old. Rich or poor, you needed daughters to help with the running of a large household and to make good marriages with other families.
Not only children were important. Everybody in the family was important: grandmother, aunts, uncle, cousins, and cousins of cousins. Even when branches of (he family quarreled (and they often did) at least they were still there, and that gave people a sense of stability and order.
Nowadays, things are quite different. Young people move away from where they were born, and young couples often leave their hometown to work, and take their immediate family (wife and children) with them, so the family becomes scattered. Slowly, people lose touch with their distant cousins and their great-aunts. Their family unit becomes more and more important, as they see less of their other relatives than they used to.
In general each generation is keen on becoming independent of parents in establishing its own family unit. However, Christmas is a traditional, though probably the only season for family reunion, and trying to keep in touch with distant relatives, people often travel many miles in order to spend the holiday together.
There is one more reason why families in Britain have been getting smaller and smaller. People have fewer children because children are expensive and they take up room. Who can afford a large house? Who can afford food for more than three children when the cost of living is so high? And now, there is the problem of overpopulation, too. We are always being told in Britain that a family should have no more than two children. Britain is a small island (93,026 sq. miles) and it has a population of more than 58 million. Nearly 8 million of those live in London. People can’t have big families when they are living in a small space. Their homes are not big enough to take in such extra members as grandparents. So they live in tiny houses or flats and they get more and more isolated. Sometimes they live very close to other people but they don’t get to know each other. They have hundreds of neighbors but they are lonely. They only have each other to talk to, so they get bored and cross with each other. What is to be done?
In recent years there have been many other changes in family life. Some of these have been caused by new laws, and others are the result of changes in society. The nuclear family, a manned couple with perhaps two children, is still considered the ideal social unit, and most young people still aspire to this idea of their own future. Yet, as a picture of the way most British people live, it is increasingly unrealistic.
The traditional idea of the man going out to work while the wife stays at home is true of less than 10 per cent of households. More and more frequently men are not the only breadwinners. Women’s role in the family has changed as they go out to work to support financially the family budget.
Since 1971, when the law made it easier to get a divorce, the divorce rate has increased greatly and now Britain has the largest rate of divorce in Europe except Denmark. In fact one marriage in every three now ends in divorce, and only 40 per cent of the population live in nuclear family households, and even within this group a large proportion of parents are in their second marriage with children from a previous marriage. On the whole society is now more tolerant than it used to be of unmarried people, unmarried couples and single parents. There are a lot of one-headed families (with mostly the mother as the single parent) as well as men and women living together before marriage or without any marriage. More and more children are born outside marriage, either to cohabiting couples or to single mothers. In addition Britain has the highest rate of teenage pregnancies in Europe, and teenage families are not unusual.
Relationships within the family are different now. Parents treat their children more as equals than they used to and children have more freedom to make their own decisions. Parents are less strict with children, they talk to, listen to them and explain house rules instead of imposing them on the child, and children are more involved in family decisions. The father is also more involved in bringing up children because the mother goes out to work. Increased leisure facilities and more money mean that there are greater opportunities for the individual to take part in activities outside the home. Although the family holiday is still an important part of family life (usually taken in August and often abroad) many children have holidays away from their parents, often with a school party or other organized group.
There are people who think that the family unit in Britain is in crisis and that traditional family life is a thing of the past. They see many indications that the family is in decline. Some politicians blame social problems, such as drug taking and juvenile crime, on a disintegrating family life. There are also economical reasons for the changes in family patterns, and all this is a great concern to those who think a healthy society is dependent upon a stable family life.
However, although people are marrying later (the average woman gets married at 26 to a man who is just over two years older), marriage and the family haven’t gone out of fashion.
Family life in Britain is changing - for better or worse?
Complete these sentences. Not only one variant is possible.
1. The nuclear family consists of...
2. The extended family includes ...3. In the extended family older men and women ...4. In the nuclear family older people ...5. In the extended family a young mother and father …
6. In the nuclear family the children …
7. In Victorian times it was important...
8. Changes in family life are caused by ...9. Nowadays families are getting …
10. According to the traditional idea, the man .,.
11. The woman’s role in the family has ...12. In modern families the breadwinners are ...13. Britain has the largest...
14. The majority of divorced people ..., and they take responsibility for ...15. Society is now more tolerant of…
16. Besides the traditional nuclear family, there also exist other patterns, such as
17. The decline of the family can be proved by …
18. People in Great Britain can’t afford …
19. Young people are keen on ...20. Many older people live ...Exercise 2
Answer the questions:
1) What group of people do we call “a family”? What is the role of the family in the life of a person?
2) What are the general types of families?
3) Which part of the world is every type of family characteristic of?
4) What are the advantages of living in an extended family?
5) How is family life organized in a nuclear family?
6) What was the ideal for a family in Victorian times?
7) Why do young people nowadays lose touch with their relations?
8) What are the consequences of the fact that Britain is a small island?
9) What new patterns of family life have appeared in recent years?
10) How have the relationships between parents and children changed?
11) What are some reasons for the changes in family life nowadays?
12) Is the family life in Britain in crisis now?
Speak about family life in Great Britain in the past and nowadays.
Use the expression “used to”.
Model: In Victorian times families used to ...Before the World War II people used to ...In the past there used to be less ...Some time ago parents used to ...Now ...Exercise 4
a) Carry out a sociological survey. Ask your fellow students:
what type of family unit they live in;
how many children there are in their families;
if their parents lived in nuclear or extended or any other kind of family;
who makes money in the family, and if their mothers go out to work;
who runs the house, and how they share the household chores;
the place where grandparents live;
if they have any distant relatives and if they keep in touch with them;
how often they have family reunions;
if their parents are very strict with them;
Add more questions which might interest you.
b) Make notes and analyse the results of the investigation. Write a short report giving the results of your survey.Use words and expressions like these:
None of the ...A great many of...
Hardly any of...Some of...
Very few of...A large number of...
Not many of...A lot of,..The majority of...
Use the following phrases for summarizing or generalizing:
On the whole,..Apparently,..Generally,..At first glance,..It seems / appears that...
c) Discuss your reports with your fellow students.
How can you describe the family life in Russia?
Do we have extended or nuclear families?
What patterns of family life exist in Russia?
Are working mothers unusual in modern Russia?
Do men and women have equal roles in the family?
Who looks after the children?
Are elderly people in Russia happy or miserable?
Are children free to make their own decisions?
Is family life in Russia changing for better or for worse?
Exercise1 Before reading, make sure you understand the meaning of the following words:
siblings to cope with ...
a firstborn to share things with ...
a non-only jealousy
an achiever rivalry
a self-confident being to make fuss of...
minute examination to play on one’s own
Exercise 2 Split into 3 groups and read text A, В or C each.
Which of the phrases describes the subject of the text you’ve read best?
relationships between children in a family;
the difference between only children and “non-onlies”;
a dreadful fate of an only child.
Exercise 3 After you’ve read decide whether the statements after “your” text are true or false
Text A.AN ONLY CHILDI was one of six children. I have two younger brothers and three elder sisters. My father was not a wealthy man and we lived in a three-bedroomed house, so conditions at home were always quite cramped and there was little privacy. Yet I consider that I was extremely fortunate. The house was on the outskirts of a small town. Meadows, woods and even a friendly stream lay within walking distance of our home. My mother and father were far too busy to occupy themselves with my affairs, so the greater part of my upbringing was left to my sisters. If I am now a comparatively calm and placid person, able to cope tolerably well with those problems that life presents us with, it is, I firmly believe, due to the fact that I was allowed to grow up without too much fuss being made of me.
The most dreadful fate that I can imagine would be that of growing up as an only child. All mothers and fathers experiment on their unfortunate firstborn. They read the latest baby books, they attend clinics and courses of lectures. They listen to the advice of maiden aunts.
They debate the exact moment to present him or her with solid food. What they find extremely difficult to do is to allow their child to grow up at his own pace, to make his own mistakes and quietly learn from them.
As soon as the second baby is on the way, the first escapes from this period of close attention. He begins to get away with things. He discovers that even if he does eat sandwiches with dirty hands, or unripe apples that have fallen from the tree, he may not be sick in the night. He acquires a sense of proportion regarding his own importance.
But what happens to an only child? Never, or at least not until it is far too late to do anything about it, does he or she escape from the minute examination of his every action. It is a miracle if he does not grow up a nervous person constantly worrying about his health, a wholly self-centred being, who shivers at the sight of his own reflection in the mirror.
True or false?The author was taken great care of.
He was fortunate because his relatives didn’t make much fuss of him.
According to the author the firstborn is not rarely unhappy because he is less loved.
An only child often grows a wholly self-centered being.
An only child hardly escapes from his parents’ attention and that’s why isn’t able to cope with problems
Getting away with things is a way to learn yourself and the world around you
The author is a calm and placid person because his parents provided him with perfect living conditions and learning facilities.
BOND OF BROTHERLY HATEJealousy between brothers and sisters is very often unavoidable, especially when a new baby is born into the family.
Mary, fifteen months old, would brush her newborn brother's head so hard that she almost drew blood. Three-year-old Bobby sang nursery rhymes and gave four-month-old Eliza's cradle such a hard push that she fell out on several occasions.
Sibling rivalry can often be caused by one child feeling, rightly or wrongly, that the parents prefer the other child or children in the family to them. An eight-year-old girl started having asthma attacks because she felt her mother was devoting more time and attention to her two younger sisters, aged five and seven.
A teenage boy of religious parents dropped out and adopted a "hippie" lifestyle because he believed his parents preferred his younger sister.
According to research, the arrival of a new baby causes most trouble in families where the mother is particularly close to an elder daughter. But where the child has a close relationship with the father, there is usually far less conflict after the new birth. Temperament, too, is important. Children who are irritable or difficult react most strongly to the birth of a sibling.
Not surprisingly it is often when mothers are attending to the new baby that siblings play up. Rosie Summers recalls: "Literally, no sooner had I started to feed the baby than Lisa, then two, would announce that she wanted a drink or would go into another room and start dropping things. It was extremely irritating."
What families forget is that not only is sibling rivalry normal, it can also have a positive side. It is important to remember Freud's view that if you cannot hate you cannot love. In most families, sibling rivalry and sibling affection are two sides of the same coin. A mother of two boys aged sixteen and ten has this experience: "My kids will be at each other's throats, complaining to me about what the other has done or has got. Yet if someone is unpleasant to one, or if either hurts himself, nobody could be more caring or concerned than the other."
True or false?When a new baby is born into a family, the firstborn often does harm to his younger brother or sister, on purpose or not.
Children are sometimes right felling that the parents prefer the other child or children to them.
Children don’t usually expose (show) their sufferings when they feel jealous towards their younger brothers or sisters.
A close relationship with one of the parents often influences the firstborn’s attitude to the new baby.
Sibling rivalry is quite normal.
Children can be very caring and concerned about their brothers’ or sisters’ problems, in spite of the rivalry between them.
ONLY CHILDRENIs an "only child" special in some way? If children have no brothers and sisters, do they develop differently? Are they likely to be more intelligent? Or less confident? Or shier? Or more selfish? Or are they just the same as children from large families?
Statistics often show that only children are "achievers" — people who become very successful in their careers. But firstborn children in general (not just only children) tend to be "achievers".
In the 1920s and 1930s the child experts used to say, "Being an only child is a disease in itself'. In fact, of course, it's impossible to support this. Only children naturally have a very different experience in childhood. They are always the centre of attention. No younger brother or sister arrives to challenge this, and to share his or her childhood with them.
One modern-day child expert believes they may be more dependent. They may be less willing to share things. They may have more difficulty getting used to school. But the phrase "an only child" does not necessarily mean "a lonely child".
The professor of Child Care at Sheffield Hospital, Ronald Illingworth, says: "There is one great advantage for an only child. He or she receives all the love parents have to offer. A loved child usually grows up into a loving adult".
So the general opinion of the experts is: Only children are not very different from "non-onlies" in either emotions or intelligence.
The journalist Angela Lewis interviewed several famous and successful people who were only children. Among them Noel Edmonds (a BBC radio disc jockey and TV presenter), Sally Oppenheim (a Conservative MP), and Chris Bonnington (the Everest climber).Sally Oppenheim: "My parents didn't spoil me. In fact, they were stricter than many parents. As a child I used to talk to my dog for hours. (I think pets are very important to only children). Mostly I was bored. This has made me work hard in my career. 1 like to be busy. I married young — as an only child, I think I needed a close relationship with another adult. Even now I still don't like being an only child. I have a horror of being alone".
Noel Edmonds: "I was shy at school. I didn't make many friends. I wasn't used to being with other children. In the school holidays I used to play on my own. But I had a very good relationship with my parents. I don't remember feeling lonely as a child, but I used to invent my own dream world. And I decided very early that I was going to be successful".
Chris Bonnington: "I was shy. At times I was very unhappy especially when I was sent to a boarding school at five. I didn't make close friends until I was about thirteen. I became very good at being by myself. I had no one to rely on, and no one to ask for advice. That made me independent, and I've always solved my problems myself. My wife and I have two sons. We didn’t want an only child, because I felt I had missed a lot of things."
True or false?Only children are as often “achievers” as firstborns in general.
Only children are often more intelligent than “non-onlies”.
Only children are in general very different from “non-onlies” in their emotions (as experts say).
Only children are different from children in large families, because they have a very different experience in childhood.
The phrase “an only child” never means “a lonely child”.
An only child’s relationship with his parents is always warm and close,
Exercise 4 In your groups try to answer the questions. You may not be able to answer all the questions.
Who brings up children in large families?
Do loving parents often experiment on their firstborn? What do they do?
What is an only child (or a firstborn) often not allowed to do?
When can a child’s life change?
When is jealousy between siblings especially unavoidable?
Why are children jealous of their brothers or sisters?
What positive sides does sibling rivalry have? Who substantiated this point of view?
Why can a child grow up a nervous wholly self-centred being but not a calm person, able to cope with numerous problems?
What can an only child receive in the family?
What does an only child often lack in childhood?
What can help an only child avoid loneliness?
What traits of character may only children lack in some experts’ opinion? What can develop in an only child as years pass?
In what way is an only child’s experience in childhood different from that of a “non-oniy’s”?
In what cases is there less conflict between the siblings after the arrival of the new baby?
How can a child acquire a sense of proportion and his own importance?
Exercise 5 Find partners from the other groups. Compare your answers and swap information. List the advantages and disadvantages of being an only child and growing up with several brothers and sisters.
Exercise 6 Return to your original groups and discuss the following points. Use the words in the box above (see №1)
a) An only child: spoilt or unhappy?
b) Having and being a brother or a sister is great!
Exercise 7 Write an essay on the following topic:
“When I have a family of my own, I’m going to have ... children.”
A MARRIAGE OF CONVENIENCE(Story by W. S. Maugham. Abridged.)I left Bangkok on a shabby little ship. I had gone on board early in the morning and soon discovered that I was thrown amid the oddest collection of persons I had ever encountered. There were two French traders and a Belgian colonel, an Italian tenor, the American proprietor of a circus with his wife, and a retired French official with his.
The French official had been accompanied on board by the French minister at Bangkok, one or two secretaries and a prince of a royal family. He was evidently a person of consequence.1 I had heard the captain address him as Monsieur le Gouverneur.
Monsieur le Gouverneur was a little man, well below the average height, and smally made, with a very ugly little face; he had a bushy grey head, bushy grey eyebrows, and a bushy grey moustache. He did look a little like a poodle2 and he had the poodle's soft, intelligent and shining eyes.
The Governor's wife was a large woman, tall and of a robust build. She towered over her diminutive husband like a skyscraper over a shack. He talked incessantly, with vivacity and wit, and when he said anything amusing her heavy features relaxed into a large fond smile.
In such a small ship having once made the acquaintance of my fellow passengers, it would have been impossible, even had I wished it, not to pass with them every moment of the day that I was not in my cabin.
Talking of one thing and another we watched the day decline, we dined, and then we sat out again on deck under the stars. Soon, influenced perhaps by the night, the Italian tenor, accompanying himself on his guitar began to sing. He had the real Italian voice, and he sang the Neapolitan songs.
I saw that the little French Governor had been holding the hand of his large wife and the sight was absurd and touching.
'Do you know that this is the anniversary of the day on which I first saw my wife?' he said, suddenly breaking the silence. 'It is also the anniversary of the day on which she promised to be my wife. And, which will surprise you, they were one and the same.'
'You see, ours was a marriage of convenience pure and simple.'3
'C'est vrai,'4 said the lady. 'But sometimes love comes after marriage and not before, and then it is better. It lasts longer.'
'You see, I had been in the navy, and when I retired I was forty-nine. I was strong and active and I was very anxious to find an occupation. And presently I was sent for by the minister to the Colonies and offered the post of Governor in a certain colony. The minister told me that I must be ready to start in a month. I told him that would be easy for an old bachelor.'
'You are a bachelor?'
'Certainly,' I answered.
'In that case I am afraid I must withdraw my offer. For this position it is essential that you should be married.'
'It is too long a story to tell you, but the gist of it was that owing to the scandal my predecessor had caused, it had been decided that the next Governor must be a model of respectability. I expostulated. I argued. Nothing would serve. The minister was adamant.'
'Well, think it over’ said the minister. 'If you can find a wife in a month you can go, but no wife no job.'
I walked away from the ministry with death in my heart.5 Suddenly I made up my mind.6 I walked to the offices of the Figaro, composed an advertisement, and handed it in for insertion. You will never believe it, but I had four thousand three hundred and seventy-two replies. It was an avalanche. It was hopeless, I had less than a month now and I could not see over four thousand aspirants to my hand in that time. I gave it up as a bad job.7 I went out of my room hideous with all those photographs and littered papers and to drive care away8 went on to the boulevard and sat down at the Cafe de la Paix. After a time I saw a friend passing. My friend stopped and coming up to me sat down.
'What is making you lookso glum?' he asked me.
I was glad to havesomeone in whom I could confide my troubles and told him the whole story. He laughed. Controlling his mirth as best he could, he said to me: 'But, my dear fellow, do you really want to marry?' At this I entirely lost my temper.9
'You are completely idiotic,' I said. 'If I did not want to marry, do you imagine that I should have spent three days reading love letters from women I have never set eyes on?'10
'Calm yourself and listen to me,' he replied. 'I have a cousin who lives in Geneva. She is Swiss. Her morals are without reproach, she is of a suitable age, a spinster, for she has spent the last fifteen years nursing an invalid mother who has lately died, she is well educated and she is not ugly.'
'There is one thing you forget. What inducement would there be for her to give up her accustomed life to accompany in exile a man of forty-nine who is by no means a beauty?'
When I made this remark to my friend he replied: 'One can never tell with women.11 There is something about marriage that wonderfully attracts them. There would be no harm in asking her. '
'But I do not know your cousin and I don't see how I am to make her acquaintance.'
'I will tell you what to do,' said my friend. 'Go to Geneva and take her a box of chocolates from me. You can have a little talk and then if you do not like the look of her you take your leave and no harm is done.'
That night I took the train to Geneva. No sooner had I arrived than I sent her a letter to say that I was the bearer of a gift from her cousin. Within an hour I received her reply to the effect that she would be pleased to receive me at four o'clock in the afternoon. As the clock struck four I presented myself at the door other house. She was waiting for me. Imagine my surprise to see a young woman with the dignity of Juno, the features of Venus, and in her expression the intelligence of Minerva. I was so taken aback that I nearly dropped the box of chocolates. We talked for a quarter of an hour. And then I said to her.
'Mademoiselle,121 must tell you that I did not come here merely to give you a box of chocolates. I came to ask you to do me the honour of marrying me.'
She gave a start.13
'But, monsieur, you are mad,' she said.
Then I repeated my offer.
'I will not deny that your offer has come as a surprise. I had not thought of marrying, I have passed the age. I must consult my friends and my family.'
'What have they got to do with it? You are of full age. The matter is pressing. I cannot wait. '
'You are not asking me to say yes or no this very minute? That is outrageous.'
'That is exactly what I am asking.'
'You are quite evidently a lunatic.'
'Well, which is it to be? ' I said. 'Yes or no?'She shrugged her shoulders. She waited a minute and I was on tenterhooks.14
And there she is. We were married in a fortnight and I became Governor of a colony. 'I married a jewel, my dear sirs, one in a thousand.'
He turned to the Belgian colonel.
'Are you a bachelor? If so I strongly recommend you to go to Geneva. It is a nest of the most adorable young women.'
It was she who summed up the story.
'The fact is that in a marriage of convenience you expect less and so you are less likely to be disappointed. Passion is all very well,15 but it is not a proper foundation for marriage. For two people to be happy in marriage they must be able to respect one another, and their interests must be alike; then if they are decent people and are willing to give and take, to live and let live, there is no reason why their union should not be as happy as ours.' She paused. 'But, of course, my husband is a very remarkable man.'
William Somerset Maugham — Уильям Сомерсег Моэм
Bangkok — Бангкок
Belgian — бельгиец
Monsieur le Gourvemeur — мсье губернатор
Neapolitan — неаполитанский
Figaro — Фигаро (Прим.: популярная французская газета)
Cafe de la Paix — кафе де ля Пэ
Geneva — Женева
Juno (Latin) — Юнона (Прим.: супруга Юпитера, богиня брака)
Venus (Latin) — Венера (Прим.: богиня любви и красоты)
Minerva (Latin) — Минерва (Прим.: богиня мудрости)
1. ... a person of consequence. — ... важная персона.2. He did look a little like a poodle... — Очень уж он был похож на пуделя (Прим.: В данном случае имеет место так называемая эмфатическая, т.е. усилительная конструкция. В обычную структуру утвердительного предложения вводится вспомогательный глагол. При переводе подобных конструкции на русский употребляются слова типа «именно», «уж», «очень» и т. п. Подобные конструкции неоднократно встречаются в текстах данного учебника).3. Ours was a marriage of convenience pure and simple. — Наш брак был, без сомнения, браком по расчёту.
4. C'est vrai [se:'vre:] (French) — Верно.
5. ... with death in my heart. — ... с тяжёлым сердцем.6. Suddenly I made up my mind. — Неожиданно у меня созрело решение.
7. I gave it up as a bad job. — Я бросил это безнадёжное дело.
8. ... to drive care away ... — ... чтобы развеяться ...9. At this I entirely lost my temper. — И тут я совсем вышел из себя.
10. ... from women I have never set eyes on? — ... от женщин, которых я в глаза не видел?11. One can never tell with women. — Кто их разберёт, женщин.
12. mademoiselle — мадемуазель
13. She gave a start. — Она вздрогнула.
14. ... I was on tenterhooks. — ... я был как на иголках.
15. Passion is all very well, but... — Страсть — это прекрасно, но ...Comprehension Check
1.What kind of people were there on board the ship?
2.How did the author guess that the Governor was a person of consequence?
3.What did the Governor and his wife look like?
4.How did it happen that the Governor started telling his story?
5.What impulse did the Governor have to marry?
6.Why was it essential for the next Governor to be married?
7.What did the Governor suddenly decide to do?
8.What kind of response did the Governor get after he had handed in the advertisement?
9.Why did he give up reading letters?
10. Where did the Governor meet his friend?
11. What did his friend suggest?
12. Did the Governor agree to follow his advice? How?
13. What impression did the lady produce upon the Governor?
14. What reaction did the lady have to his proposal?
15. Was the Governor persistent? Support your opinion.
16. What happened in the end?
17. What piece of advice did the Governor give to the Belgian colonel?
18. How did the lady sum up the story?
Phonetic Text Drills
Transcribe and pronounce correctly the words given below.
To encounter, colonel, tenor, proprietor, to accompany, consequence, moustache, diminutive, skyscraper, guitar, convenience, to withdraw, predecessor, to expostulate, adamant, avalanche, aspirant, hideous, boulevard, inducement, exile, quarter, outrageous, lunatic, adorable, to pause.
Pronounce the words or phrases where the following clusters occur.
1. plosive + plosive
Left Bangkok, had gone, had been, not to pass, watched, not before, should be, had caused, must be, bad job, sat down, remark to, dropped, must consult, got to do, shrugged, respect.
2. plosive + 1
Little, evidently, did look, poodle, husband like, decline, hopeless, glad, suitable, lately, accustomed life, replied, likely, let live, remarkable.
3. plosive + r
Trader, proprietor, secretaries, grey, eyebrows, skyscraper, promised, hundred, photographs, drive, troubles, controlling, reproach, struck, presented, expression, outrageous, proper.
4. plosive + m/n
Told me, could not, confide my troubles, invalid mother, about marriage, did not, had not, should not.
5. consonant + w
Sight was, ours was, must withdraw, it was, did not want, is well, tell with women, was waiting, that wonderfully attracts.
Say what kind of false assimilation one should avoid in the following clusters.
Was thrown, had heard, wife was, is the anniversary, was strong, was sent, is something, was so, is pressing, was she.
I. Listen to the following sentences with enumeration. Pronounce after the announcer, transcribe and intone the sentences.
There were 'two 'French /traders | and a 'Belgian /colonel, | an I'talian /tenor, | the A'merican proprietor of a 'circus with his /wife, | and a re'tired 'French official with \his. ||
The 'French official had been accompanied on /board by the 'French 'minister at Bang/kok, | one or two /secretaries | and a 'prince of a 'royal \family. ||
Talking of 'one 'thing and a/nother | we 'watched the 'day de/cline, | we /dined, | and 'then we 'sat 'out a'gain on 'deck under the \stairs. ||
II. Find other sentences with enumeration in the text and read them aloud.
Find in the text words similar in meaning to the following:
A human being, an owner, a statesman, getting to know someone, the celebration of a date, a single man, a post, bad public gossip, a person who strives for getting something, a single lady, stimulus, a present, a madman, a precious stone.Verbs:
To meet by chance, to travel together with somebody, to call somebody, to cease employment, to take back, to protest, to give to somebody, to finish abruptly, to ask for advice, to give instructions, to summarize.
In bad condition, bad-looking, full-bodied, tiny, tender, silly, firm, appropriate, urgent, admirable, good enough, moving.Exercise 2
Explain in other words the following phrases.
To confide troubles, to lose temper, without reproach, of a suitable age, to nurse somebody, to be taken aback, to do someone the honour of marrying him, to be on tenterhooks, to give a start, to come as a surprise, to pass the age, to be of full age, a proper foundation for marriage, a person of consequence, an aspirant to someone's hand, to be adamant, a marriage of convenience.
Find in the text the English equivalents for the following Russian words and phrases.
Брак по расчёту; годовщина; составить объявление; претендент(ка) на чью-либо руку; поделиться с кем-либо своими проблемами; любовное послание; подходящего возраста; незамужняя женщина; преподнести коробку конфет от чьего-либо имени; оказать честь выйти замуж; выйти из определённого возраста; быть совершеннолетним; один на тысячу; страсть — это прекрасно, но...; хорошая основа для брака; быть счастливым в браке; уважать друг друга; союз.
Сопровождать; важная персона; обращаться к кому-либо; намного ниже среднего роста; возвышаться над кем-либо; познакомиться; говорить о том, о сём; на палубе; нарушить тишину; служить во флоте; ничего не помогало; решить; развеяться; изо всех сил; выйти из себя; в глаза не видеть кого-либо; никоим образом; быть удивлённым; уронить; вздрогнуть; дело безотлагательное; по
жать плечами; быть как на иголках; очень рекомендовать; закончить рассказ.
Find in the text sentences with the following expressions and read them aloud. Translate them into Russian and let your classmates translate them back into English without a textbook.
to tower over somebody,
with death in one's heart,
to find an occupation,
to lose one's temper,
to relax into a smile,
to be ready to start in a month,
to control one's mirth,
to make up one's mind,
to withdraw one's offer,
to set eyes on somebody,
to be by no means a beauty,
to come as a surprise,
to be on tenterhooks,
no harm to be done,
to get to do with something,
to be less likely.
Complete the sentences the way the author puts it in the text.
1.Passion is all very well, but...
2.I had gone on board early in the morning and soon discovered that...
3.The Governor's wife was a large woman, tall and ...4.I saw that the little French Governor had been holding ...5.'You see, ours was a marriage ...'
6.In that case I am afraid I must withdraw ...7.It is too long a story to tell you, but ...8.I walked to the offices of Figaro ...9.You will never believe it but ...10. I was glad to have someone to whom I could ...11. Her morals are without reproach, she is of...
12. One can never tell with women. There is something about marriage ...13. If you do not like the look of her...
14. I was so taken aback that...
15. I came to ask you
16. I will not deny ...
17. The fact is that in a marriage
Express the same idea using different wording and grammar.
1.Ours was a marriage of convenience pure and simple.
2.But sometimes love comes after marriage and not before, and then it is better. It lasts longer.
3.I was strong and active and I was very anxious to find an occupation.
4.I told him that would be easy for an old bachelor.
5.I expostulated. I argued. Nothing would serve.
6.I had four thousand and three hundred and seventy-two re plies. It was an avalanche.
7.I gave it up as a bad job.
8.What is making you look so glum?
9.What inducement would there be for her to give up her ac customed life to accompany in exile a man of forty-nine who is by no means a beauty?
10. There would be no harm in asking her.
11. If you do not like the look of her you take your leave and no harm is done.
12. Within an hour I received her reply to the effect that she would be pleased to receive me at four o'clock in the afternoon.
13. I was so taken aback that I nearly dropped the box of chocolates.
14. You are of full age. The matter is pressing. I cannot wait.
15. For two people to be happy in marriage they must be able to respect one another, and their interests must be alike; then if they are decent people and willing to give and take, to live and let live, there is no reason why their union should not be as happy as ours.
Translate the following verbal phrases into Russian. Mind the difference in the use of prepositions in the two languages if any.
1. To consult somebody, to address somebody, to pass the age, to shrug one's shoulders, to encounter somebody, to many somebody, to nurse somebody.
2. To sum up, to be taken aback, to give up, to hand in, to sit down, to come up.
Put in the missing prepositions or postpositions if necessary.
1. I felt deep sorrow and wanted to confide my troubles ... somebody.
2. The children were so much taken ... that they could not speak for a while; then they decided to think it... .3. You don't need to consult ... anybody, you have already passed ... the age when people depend on others.
4. The best way to drive care ... is to sit... a cafe.
5. One never knows how to address ... young ladies — Miss or Mrs.
6. A lot of people have never set eyes ... skyscrapers.
7. The lady at the table shrugged ... her shoulders and sent... the waiter.
8. Not everyone has enough tolerance to nurse ... elderly people but those who have, never give it... .9. I encountered ... my old friend in the street, we went to a cafe and talked ... so many things.
10. The most difficult thing for a young author is to hand ... his manuscript to the editor.
11. Younger people are easily influenced ... all sorts of things they see or hear.
12. When the lady was pleased her lips relaxed ... a smile.
13. Quite often the students are asked to sum ... the story.
14. The tenor sang and his assistant accompanied him ... the guitar.
Translate the sentences into English using the vocabulary of the text.
1. Кто сможет в сорок лет отказаться от привычной жизни и уехать куда-нибудь далеко, чтобы начать всё сначала?
2. Я думаю, не будет никакого вреда, если мы подробно обо всём поговорим.
3. Я прошу ответить сию секунду.
4. Хотя мне хотелось чем-нибудь заняться и мне предложили хорошую работу, я всё же не был готов начать через день.
5. Говорят, Наполеон был намного ниже среднего роста.
6.Решение пришло неожиданно. Я ушел и отправился побродить, чтобы развеяться.
7.Союз двух людей не сбудет счастливым, если они не уважают друг друга.
8.В этой семье каждый год празднуют годовщину свадьбы.
9.Смотреть на супругов, проживших вместе пятьдесят лет — это трогательное зрелище.
10. В этом доме всегда с радостью принимают гостей.
11. Я очень рекомендую Вам отправиться в путешествие на корабле.
12. Спустя какое-то время ко мне подошёл старый приятель.
13. Подавая брачные объявления в газету, люди чаще всего ищут партнёров подходящего возраста.
14. Кто их разберёт, женщин? Они всё делают по-своему.
15. Изо всех сил стараясь сдержать смех, дама в ответ просто пожала плечами.
Dramatize the dialogues between:
1.the narrator and the French Governor;
2.the minister and the prospective Governor;
3.the prospective Governor and his friend;
4.the prospective Governor and his future wife.
Retell the Governor's story:
1. in the third person;
2. in the person of the Governor;
3. in the person of the Governor's wife;
4. in the person of the Governor's friend.
Discussion points.1. What do you think of the main characters — the Governor and his wife?
2. The characters' appearances are so different. Is it a plus or a minus?
3. Does their story sound true to life, in your opinion? Prove your point.
4. Was it really a marriage of convenience? Could it be a case of love at first sight?
5. Are you for or against marriages of convenience?
6. Do you think acquaintance services and marriage advertisements can be of help?
Express your opinion about the following words of the characters in the text.
'But sometimes love comes after marriage and not before, and then it is better. It lasts longer.'
'One can never tell with women. There is something about marriage that wonderfully attracts them.'
'For two people to be happy in marriage they must be able to respect one another, and their interests must be alike ...'
1. The Governor's wife had been a spinster and he had been a bachelor before they married. What other terms do you know to denote the marital status of a person? Consult the Topical Vocabulary.
an unmarried person —
a person, having a spouse —
a person, who divorced his or her spouse —
2. The characters' marriage is called "a marriage of convenience". What other types of marriages do you know?
marriage, when people love each other —
marriage of people who are distantly related —
marriage of people with different social status —
3. The Governor and his wife celebrated the anniversary of their wedding. Do you know what we call the most often celebrated anniversaries?
25 years of family life —
50 years of family life —
75 years of family life —
Imagine the following situation. Your parents have chosen a mate for you. They insist that you should marry the person they have found. How would you react? What do you think of arranged marriages in India and other oriental countries? Can an arranged marriage work?
Use the following expressions:
It is all very well, but...
One can never tell with ...
What have/has they/it got to do with ...
There would be no harm in ...
I don't see how ...
Imagine my surprise to ...
Even had I wished it ...
No wife, no ...Exercise 15
Read the following short passage and compare the wedding traditions in Russia and Great Britain. Say what is different and what they have in common. Speak about interesting wedding ceremonies in other countries.
In England the wedding preparations, ceremony and feast have all become loaded with ritual practices to ward off evil and bless the marriage with fortune and fertility.
The choice of date is important. May is traditionally unlucky for weddings. The tradition that the bride's parents should pay for the wedding dates from two or three centuries ago, when wealthy families would pay an eligible bachelor to take an unmarried daughter off their hands in exchange for a large dowry. At most formal weddings, brides still get married in vilginal white — many other colours are considered unlucky.
A bride will also ensure that her wedding outfit includes "something old, something new, something borrowed, something blue". "Old" maintains her link with the past; "new" symbolizes the future; "borrowed" gives her a link with the present; and "blue" symbolizes her purity.
Even a modem bride will observe the taboos about wearing her dress before the ceremony. The groom mustn't see her in it until she enters the church. The veil should be put on for the first time as she leaves for the church.
It's a lucky omen if the bride should see a chimney sweep on her way to church. Sometimes a sweep is paid to attend the ceremony and kiss the bride - a relic of the idea that soot and ashes are symbols of fertility.
After the ceremony, the couple are showered with confetti. One old custom was for the bride and sometimes the groom to negotiate some obstacle as they left the church — guests would impede them with ropes of flowers, for example, or with sticks that had to be jumped over.
After that the bride is faced with the feast. The most important item is the wedding cake, whose richness symbolizes fertility, just as it has done since Roman times. Today, the first slice is cut by the bride to ensure a fruitful marriage.
(from "Reader's Digest")
Agree or disagree with the following statements. Give your reasons.
1. The husband should be more intelligent than the wife.
2. Spouses should be alike.
3. Money often keeps people together.
4. Marriage should be compulsory for everybody.
5. The best wife is a housewife.
6. The marriage contract is incompatible with romantic love.
I couldn't agree more ...That's just what I was thinking...
You know, that's exactly what
I agree entirely...
That's a good point ...For disagreement:
Yes, that's quite true, but...
I'm not sure I quite agree ...
Perhaps, but don't you think
that ...Well, you have a point there,
I see what you mean, but,..For more categorical and informal disagreement:
I can't agree with you there.
You can't be serious!
Come off it!
Don't be so silly!
Bring pictures of your close or distant relatives. Show them to the class. Tell the class about a memorable event in the life of your relatives.
Make up a list of positive and negative sides of family life. Compare your lists with those of your classmates. Comment on the results.
I. Translate the text.
Я ищу себе жену. Какой она должна быть?
Я не требую от неё интересной внешности. Пусть у неё будет только стройная фигура и красивое лицо.
Она должна быть весёлой, когда я шучу. И шутить, когда я прихожу домой навеселе.
Меня не интересует её жилплощадь. Главное — чтобы она была большая.
Не интересует меня и её зарплата. Лишь бы она была больше моей.
А вот расходы на свадьбу — поровну; половину внесёт она, а другую — её родители.
Я уверен: когда мы поженимся, у нас появятся общие интересы. Если, например, она не захочет идти со мной на футбол, то мы останемся дома и будем смотреть по телевизору хоккей.
Я буду заботиться о её здоровье. Чтобы к ней не попадало спиртное, табачное, мучное и сладкое, я буду всё это уничтожать сам.
Она будет у меня одеваться как богиня: просто и недорого.
Я возьму на себя часть её работы, если, конечно, она возьмёт на себя всю мою.
Мне не важно, как она будет готовить. Лишь бы это было вкусно. И необязательно, чтобы это была только русская кухня. Здесь у неё полная свобода: сегодня кухня грузинская, а завтра — венгерская утром и китайская вечером.
Я ищу себе жену.
Я готов отдать ей полжизни, если она отдаст мне свою целиком.
Если её не будут удовлетворять мои требования, пусть ищет себе нового мужа.
Вот уже много лет я ищу себе жену.
(из "Литературной Газеты")
II. Say what you think of this man looking for an ideal wife. Does he strike you as an ideal husband?
Study the following marriage advertisements and write one of your own.
1. Red-haired green-eyed lovely lady 33, busy social life, lots of friends, is looking for a special man to love and marry with style, sense of fun and who is likely to enjoy the same.
2. Cheerful professional female, 30, seeks intelligent humorous, preferably tall male (similar age) for hopefully long-term relationship.
3. Tall, generously constructed attractive woman (36) graduate professional keen on history, music, smoking seeks tall, attractive, cultured man for friendship, perhaps more.
4. Non-boring accountant (39), divorced with two (b + g)* children in house — seeks lady in similar circumstances. Object: to live life to the full.
* b + g—boy+girl.5. Workaholic professional seeks good woman 25—40 to cure him. 5.5'11",* unattached, non-smoker, likes travel, languages, music, theatre, sailing, flying. Photograph appreciated.
* 5.5'11''' — five and a half feet, eleven inches.
6. Professional male, 24, tall, cheerful, presentable, solvent seeks female for caring and lasting relationship.
Make up dialogues discussing the following problems:
1. Teenage marriage.
2. Leadership in the family.
3. Marriage contracts and romantic love.
4. Divorce and one-parent families.
5. A white wedding or no wedding?
You can start your dialogues with the following expressions:
Would you agree that...
Do you think it's right to say that...
Ask your classmates to explain their point of view more precisely by saying:
I didn't quite follow what you were saying about ...
I don't quite see what you are getting at, I am afraid.
If you need to rephrase your own statement, say:
Let me put it another way.
Sorry, let me explain.
That's not quite what I meant.
Look at the excerpts from some letters to friends and imagine how they can be finished.
Match the English idioms in the left column with their Russian equivalents in the right column. Use them in a proper context.
1.a maiden name А. маменькин сынок
2.extremes meetВ. быть под каблуком
3.a mother's boyС. с глаз долой, из сердца вон
4.to be out of hand D. строить глазки
5.to be under smb.'s thumbЕ. блудный сын
6.out of sight, out of mindF. плоть и кровь
7.to make eyes at smb.G. жить как кошка с собакой
8.the prodigal sonН. отбиться от рук
9.one's own flesh and bloodI. девичья фамилия
10. to lead a cat and a dog lifeJ. противоположности сходятся
Explain the meanings of the proverbs given below. Make up five-sentence stories of your own to highlight their meanings.
1. Marriages arc made in heaven.
2. Faint heart never won a fair maiden.
3. Birds of a feather flock together.
5. Every family has a skeleton in the cupboard.
6. Spare the rod and spoil the child.
7. When children stand still they have done some ill.
8. Like father like son.
9. A good husband makes a good wife.
10. He that would the daughter win, must with the mother first begin.
11. A tree is known by its fruit.
Translate the following quotations and comment upon them.
'Though women are angels, yet wedlock is the devil.'
George Gordon Byron
'The dread of loneliness is greater than the fear of bondage, so we get married.'
Cyril Connolty'Every woman should many — and no man.'
'Keep your eyes wide open before marriage, half shut after.'
'A man should be taller, older, heavier, uglier, and hoarser than his wife.'
Edgar Watson Howe
'Marrying a man is like buying something you've been admiring for a long time in a shop window. You may love it when you get it home, but it does not always go with everything else in the house.'
'An ideal wife is any woman who has an ideal husband.'
Role-Play "Handing in Marriage Advertisements".
Setting: The office of the "Lonely Hearts Column" of a popular magazine.
Situation: Diferent people come to the office and leave their advertisements. The journalists give advice on how to write an advertisement for the acquaintance service.
Card I — Amanda, a 16 year-old girl who wants to get acquainted with a "blue-eyed prince" or a pop star.
Card II — Miranda, the girl's older female friend who tries to talk her out of writing the advertisement.
Card III — Belinda, a middle-aged woman who is a frequenter of the "Lonely Hearts Column" because her expectations of the financial position of her prospective fiance are too high.
Card IV — Donald, a very shy young man.
Card V — Ronald, an old bachelor.
Card VI — Archibald, a divorcee with 3 children.
Card VII—VIII — Millard and Lynda, a couple who are happily married thanks to the "Lonely Hearts Column" and who came to thank the journalist for his/her help and to share the news that they are expecting a baby.
Card IX—X — Harold and Brenda, a young man and a young woman who fall in love at first sight and decide to get married. They wish to publish the announcement of their wedding instead of the advertisements which they have brought to the magazine.
Card XI—XII — the journalist who give advice on writing marriage advertisements.*
* Cards with roles are handed out to the students. The students are supposed to think of the details of the dialogues in the role-play they are going to enact.
Listen to four people talking about a friendship. How well do they know the person they are talking about? Write A, B or C in the gaps.
Speaker1 Speaker2 Speaker3 Speaker4
A very well B quite well C not well at all
Listen to the conversation between two women – Beth and Salma. They are talking about Mark, a friend of theirs. As you listen, decide how each of them knows Mark.
Discuss these questions with a partner. Can you remember the answers?
1. How long have Beth and Mark been going out?
2. What does Mark do for a living?
3. How do Beth’s parents feel about Mark?
4. How did Beth’s grandmother die?
5. Did Beth get on well with her?
Now listen again and check your answers.
Prepare to write a dictation. Learn the spelling of the italicized words from Introductory Reading and the words from exercise 1 on page 15.
Prepare a written translation of the following text:
По мнению многих сегодняшних мужчин, идеальная жена должна обладать следующими качествами: хозяйственностью, верностью, внешней привлекательностью, добротой, снисходительностью, опрятностью. А как должен вести себя обходительный муж? Вот некоторые из современных правил этикета.
1. Муж должен подавать пальто жене, причем как дома, так и в общественном месте.
2. Муж не должен читать во время еды за общим столом.
3. Вопреки взглядам, что обычай целовать женщине руку устарел, жене в порядке исключения можно и даже нужно целовать руку.
4. На дружеской вечеринке первый танец принадлежит жене. Отступить от этого правила можно лишь в исключительных случаях.
5. Муж должен всегда обращать внимание на новое платье жены, говорить ей по этому поводу что-нибудь приятное и вообще не скупиться на комплименты.
6. Муж должен делать жене подарки даже без особого повода, преподносить ей время от времени цветы.
7. Муж не должен заглядываться на других женщин в присутствии жены.
8. Муж не должен ходить по квартире неопрятно одетым.
9. Муж должен благодарить жену за вкусный обед.
10. Муж должен иногда спрашивать жену, что она сделала в его отсутствие, в общем, разговаривать с женой не только о делах. Но, как сказал один старик, если жена не разговаривает с вами весь выходной, значит, ей есть что сказать.
(из "Литературной Газеты ")
Write a composition on one of the following topics. Discuss your compositions in class.
1. Families with Many Children Versus Families with One Child.
2. The Effect of Divorce on Children.
3. Grandparents. A Blessing or a Burden?4. How to Bridge the Generation Gap.
5. The Ideal Family of the Future.
In England the practice of setting out written work varies considerably, but college and university students are expected to present their written works neatly and in accordance with certain basic standards.
Students draw a margin on the left-hand side of each page, about three centimetres wide usually in pencil. The margin is left free for the teacher's marking.
The date is usually written in the top right-hand comer, and often underlined. If the day of the week is included, it is always put at the beginning (e.g. 1 September, 1999 or: Monday, 1st. September).
The title of the composition is usually written in the middle of the page, often on the line below the date. Sometimes it is put on the left, against the margin. The first word of a heading and all the following words except articles and prepositions should be written with a capital letter.
Each paragraph should be indented, which means that it should begin a little way in from the margin.
Present your composition in the following form.
APPENDIXText 1 The children’s questions that parents find it toughest to answer
Practice translating the text in pairs: One student should close one column and translate the text (from Russian into English or from English into Russian). The other student checks the correctness.
“Where does water come from?”, “why is the sky blue?” and “what is infinity?” are among the questions that parents struggle to answer for their children. Откуда берется вода? Почему небо голубое? Что такое бесконечность? Это те вопросы, на которые родители пытаются найти ответы для детей.
tough [tʌf] – трудный, сложный для выполненияstruggle [‘strʌgl] – бороться, делать усилия
Another query that has tripped up mothers and fathers for generations is, “where do babies come from?”.Ну и конечно, главный вопрос всех поколений для мам и пап, – это “Откуда берутся дети?”
query [‘kwɪərɪ] – вопросtrip up – ставить подножку; спотыкаться
Basic questions from children about the planet, outer space and the human body leave most parents unable to give a correct answer, according to a survey of 2,500 parents. Согласно опросу примерно 2500 родителей, большинство из них, затрудняются адекватно ответить на основные вопросы детей о планете, космическом пространстве и человеческом теле.
It also reveals some of the strategies and concocted stories parents use to tackle tough questions.Top of the list is “how is electricity made?”, “what are black holes?” and “what is infinity?”.Чтобы ответить на сложнейшие вопросы родители иногда сочиняют истории. К ним относятся такие вопросы, как: “Как получается электричество?”, “Что такое черные дыры?”, “Что такое бесконечность?”.
concoct [kən’kɔkt] – выдумывать, сочинятьtackle [‘tækl] – биться (над какой-л. задачей)
Other baffling questions in the top ten include “why is the sky blue?” “why do we have a leap year?” and “how do birds fly?” and “where do babies come from?”. Вот еще сложные вопросы из первой десятки: “Почему небо голубое?”, “Почему бывает високосный год?”, “Как птицы летают?” и “Откуда берутся дети?”
baffle [‘bæfl] – ставить в тупик; сбивать с толку
Of those who opt for myths instead of truths, seven in ten parents use the explanation that “babies are delivered by storks” and 23 per cent say “babies are found under gooseberry bushes”. Среди тех, кто придумывает мифы в ответ на последний вопрос, семь из десяти человек говорят, что “детей приносят аисты”, и 23% отвечают, что “Младенцев находят в кустах крыжовника”.
opt for – выбиратьstork [stɔːk] – аистgooseberry [‘guzb(ə)rɪ] – крыжовник (куст; ягода)
Other popular answers include “babies come out of your tummy button”, “I found them” and “babies are bought in Tesco at night on the top shelf by mums and dads only.” Среди популярных ответов есть и такие: “Малыши выходят из пупка”, “Я их нашел”, “Младенцев продают только мамам и папам в большом универмаге по ночам на самой верхней полке”.
tummy [‘tʌmɪ] -животикTesco — британская компания, крупнейшая розничная сеть в Великобритании
The survey also reveals the common age for parents to tell their children the truth about reproduction is 10 years old. Как показывает опрос, средний возраст детей, которым родители рассказывают правду о репродуктивной системе человека, – примерно 10 лет.
It also shows that parents find moral questions about God and religion hard to answer. Статистика также указывает на то, что на вопросы о Боге и религии, тоже непросто отвечать родителям.
When asked “where do you go when you die?” four in ten parents told their children they go to either heaven or hell, with 25 per cent of parents saying that “you become an angel”. На вопрос: “Что с тобой происходит, когда ты умираешь?” 4 из 10 взрослых говорят, что они попадают в рай или ад, и 25% говорят: “Ты становишься ангелом”.
Meanwhile, one in six parents refuse to give their children a spiritual answer by telling them dead people are buried or cremated. В то же время, 1 из 6 родителей отказывается объяснять существование после смерти, и говорят, что умерших хоронят или кремируют.
Other morally difficult questions included “why do people kill each other?”, “why are some people born with disabilities?” and “why are people gay?”.Другие сложные моральные вопросы звучат как: “Почему люди друг друга убивают?”, “Почему некоторые люди рождаются инвалидами?” и “Почему люди бывают гомосексуалистами?”
disability [ˌdɪsə’bɪlətɪ] – нетрудоспособность; инвалидность
The study reveals that modern day parents are increasingly turning to the internet to answer difficult questions from their children -56 per cent said they use the web. Исследование показало, что в наши дни родители все больше ищут ответы для своих детей в интернете, – 56% признаются, что обращаются во всемирную сеть за помощью.
One in ten parents admit to making up the answers as they feel too embarrassed to be shown up academically. ??? Может в комментариях кто-то подскажет, как это правильно перевести ???
Four in ten parents confess to feeling inadequate when they don’t know an answer and 63 per cent answer on a whim even if they think the answer may be wrong. Четверо из десяти родителей испытывают неудовлетворение, когда они не знают ответа и 63 процента отвечают на вопрос, даже если они думают, что ответ может быть неправильным.
confess [kən’fes] – признаватьwhim [(h)wɪm] – прихоть, каприз
Paul Moreton, head of Watch, said: “It’s fascinating to see how parents tackle difficult questions brought to them by youngsters and how many of us will actually make something up rather than deal with the truth.Our programme aims to help viewers find out a little more about how kids minds work and shows the size of the knowledge gap between adults and children.” Организаторы опроса сообщили: “Это занимательно видеть, как родители энергично пытаются ответить на вопросы, заданные им детьми, и как многие из нас сочиняют что-то, вместо того, чтобы ответить честно. Наша программа стремится помочь зрителям понимать немного больше о том, как работает детское сознание и показать величину разрыва в знаниях взрослых и детей.
Top 20 children’s questions which baffle parents:1 How is electricity made?2 What are black holes?3 What is infinity?4 Why is the sky blue?5 Why do we have a leap year?6 How do birds fly?7 Why does cutting onions make you cry?8 Where does the wind come from?9 Why is the sea salty?10 How big is the world?11 What happens to us when we die?12 What is a prime number?13 Is God real?14 What makes thunder?15 Why do you blink?16 Where do babies come from?17 How do planes fly?18 What is time?19 How does Father Christmas get down the chimney?20 Where does water come from? Топ 20 вопросов, которые ставят в тупик родителей:Как работает электричество?Что такое черные дыры?Что такое бесконечность?Почему небо голубое?Для чего нужен високосный год?Как летают птицы?Почему при резке лука появляются слезы?Откуда берется ветер?Почему море соленоеНасколько огромен мир?Что с нами случается, когда мы умираем?Что такое простое число?Существует ли Бог?Как появляется гром?Почему ты моргаешь?Откуда появляются дети?Как летает самолет?Что такое время?Как дед мороз спускается по трубе?Откуда появляется вода?
Источник: http://www.telegraph.co.ukИсточник: http://www.telegraph.co.ukExercise 1 Translate from Russian into EnlishПочему небо голубое?Why ?Как летают птицы?How ?Откуда появляется вода?Where from?
Text 2 Most annoying phrases used by children revealed in poll
Practice translating the text in pairs: One student should close one column and translate the text (from Russian into English or from English into Russian). The other student checks the correctness.
“I’m bored“, “Why?” and “Are we nearly there yet?” have topped a list of phrases used by children that most irritate their parents. “Мне скучно”, “Почему?” и “Нам еще далеко?” возглавили список детских фраз, больше всего раздражающих родителей.
annoy [ə’nɔɪ] – to make someone feel slightly angry and unhappy about something (= irritate):She annoyed him with her stupid questions.bored [bɔːd] – tired and impatient because you do not think something is interesting, or because you have nothing to do:After a while I got bored and left.irritate [‘ɪrɪteɪt] – to make someone feel annoyed or impatient, especially by doing something many times or for a long period of time:It really irritates me when he doesn’t help around the house.
A study carried out among 3,000 families also revealed “It’s not fair”, “Do I have to?” and “It wasn’t me” are sure to drive mothers and fathers mad. Опрос, проведенный в трех тысячах семей, также показал, что фразы “Это нечестно”, “А я должен?” и “Это не я” точно сведут мам и пап с ума.
Seven out of ten parents said their kids regularly answered them back. Семь из десяти родителей сказали, что их дети регулярно пререкаются с ними.
answer back (phrasal verb) – to reply in a rude way to someone that you are supposed to obeyDon’t answer me back young man!
The poll was conducted by www.MumPoll.com, a market research website for mums. Опрос был проведен вебсайтом маркетингового исследования для мам – www.MumPoll.com.
Spokeswoman Emma Elsworthy said: “Despite being adorable 99 per cent of the time, our children do have the ability to be really annoying sometimes, especially when they question absolutely everything. Представительница Эмма Элсворти сказала: “Несмотря на то, что наши дети бывают восхитительны 99% всего времени, они способны иногда быть действительно раздражающими, особенно когда они спрашивают абсолютно обо всем.”
Children are naturally curious, and often their retorts aren’t because they are naughty, but because they want to push the boundaries to see what they can get away with. Дети по природе любопытны, и часто их возражения не потому, что они непослушны, а потому, что они хотят отодвинуть границы и посмотреть, что им сойдет с рук.
retort [rɪ’tɔːt] – a short angry or humorous reply (возражение; резкий ответ)He was about to make a sharp retort.naughty [‘nɔːtɪ] – непослушный, капризныйGirls, you’re being very naughty. — Девочки, вы очень плохо себя ведёте.get away with something (phrasal verb) – to not be caught or punished when you have done something wrong:Watch Frank – he’ll cheat if he thinks he can get away with it.
However, when you are stuck in a traffic jam and your child says they are bored, or if you are conducting the weekly food shop and your child announces they hate you – it’s really hard not to bite back. Однако когда вы застряли в пробке, а ваш ребенок говорит, что ему скучно, или, когда вы покупаете продукты на неделю, а ваш ребенок заявляет, что ненавидит вас – действительно трудно не огрызнуться в ответ.
A parent’s life would be made so much easier if the kids always did as they were told, rather than questioning why or how, but it would also be far more boring. Жизнь родителей была бы значительно легче, если бы дети всегда делали то, что им говорят, вместо того чтобы спрашивать почему и как, но это было бы также гораздо более скучно.
Half of the UK’s parents agreed the words “I’m bored” filled them with dread, as they’re usually followed by hours of whingeing and moaning. Половина родителей в Великобритании согласилась с тем, что фраза “Мне скучно” внушает им ужас, поскольку за ней обычно следует несколько часов жалоб и стонов.
dread [dred] – a strong fear of something that is going to happen or may happenthe dread of losing those we lovewhinge – (British English) to keep complaining in an annoying wayStop whingeing about the situation and accept it.
And the study – which revealed the top 20 most annoying things kids say – showed 37 per cent of mums and dads can’t bear to hear “Why?”. И исследование, выявившее 20 самых раздражающих вещей, которые говорят дети, показало, что 37 процентов мам и пап терпеть не могут слышать “Почему?”.
Despite giving a coherent and factual answer to most of their child’s questions, the word is often repeated over and over and over again. Несмотря на то, что они дают вразумительный и правдивый ответ на большинство вопросов своих детей, это слово повторяется снова и снова.
coherent [kə(u)’hɪər(ə)nt]- if a piece of writing, set of ideas etc is coherent, it is easy to understand because it is clear and reasonable
And “Are we nearly there yet?” is a bugbear parents can look forward to hearing on any car journey which exceeds 10 minutes. А вопрос “Нам еще далеко?” – кошмарный сон (дословно “бука”), и услышать его родители могут каждый раз, отправляясь на автомобиле в поездку, занимающую больше 10 минут.
bugbear – something that makes people feel annoyed or worried:Paperwork is our worst bugbear.
“It’s not fair!” is an expression which will crop up time and time again for 30 per cent of patient parents. Выражение “Это нечестно!” будет раз за разом представать перед 30 процентами терпеливых родителей.
crop up (phrasal verb) – if a problem crops up, it happens or appears suddenly and in an unexpected way (= arise)
And the classic “Do I have to?” when asked anything from ‘please tidy up your toys’ to ‘eat your dinner’ is the fifth most annoying thing uttered by a child. И классическое “А я должен?”, когда ребенка просят что-нибудь от “пожалуйста, убери свои игрушки” до “съешь свой обед”, – пятая в списке наиболее раздражающих вещей, произносимых ребенком.
utter [‘ʌtə] – (formal) to say something:‘You fool!’ she uttered in disgust.
The study shows ‘It wasn’t me’ is another line children use to irritate their parents, usually when they are claiming they aren’t responsible for damaging, spilling or hurting something or someone. Исследование показывает, что “Это не я” – еще одна фраза, которую дети используют, чтобы рассердить своих родителей, обычно, когда они утверждают, что они не портили, проливали или делали больно кому-либо.
In fact, feigning innocence is a common theme throughout the top 20 list of the most annoying things children say, as they blame siblings or friends for their bad behaviour. В действительности, разыгрывание невиновности – общая тема всего списка 20 самых раздражающих вещей, которые говорят дети, в то время как они обвиняют в плохом поведении братьев с сестрами или друзей.
feign [feɪn] (formal) – to pretend to have a particular feeling or to be ill, asleep etc (притворяться, делать вид):Feigning a headache, I went upstairs to my room.
One in five children often says ‘he or she hit me’, while 18 per cent frequently use the words ‘he or she started it’. Каждый пятый ребенок часто произносит “он(а) меня ударил(а)”, тогда как 18 процентов часто говорят слова “он(а) первый(-ая) начал(а)”.
And on occasions, children can even be hurtful towards their parents if they are trying to exert their opinion or authority on a subject. И иногда дети могут быть даже жестокими по отношению к своим родителям, если те пытаются навязать свое мнение или авторитет по какому-то вопросу.
exert – to use your power, influence etc in order to make something happen:They exerted considerable influence within the school.
Phrases such as ‘I hate you’, ‘You never let me do anything’ and ‘I don’t like it’ can be hard for parents to hear, but usually children are mouthing off rather than meaning anything. Возможно, такие фразы, как “Я тебя ненавижу”, “Ты никогда ничего мне не разрешаешь” и “Мне не нравится это”, родителям тяжело слышать, но обычно дети говорят это, не имея ничего в виду.
mouth off – (phrasal verb) to complain angrily and noisily about something, or talk as if you know more than anyone else
Questions such as ‘Can I have?’, ‘What?’ and ‘Can you do it?’ also appear in the top 20 list of most annoying things children say. Такие вопросы, как “А можно мне …”, “Что?” и “Ты можешь это сделать?”, также появляются в списке самых раздражающих вещей, которые говорят дети.
Emma Elsworthy added: “There is no doubt that raising children is a challenge from day one, but any parent who can put up with being on the receiving end of up to 20 questions or retorts a day without snapping can afford to give themselves a good pat on the back.” “Нет никаких сомнений, что воспитание детей – сложная задача с самого первого дня, и любой родитель, который мирится с тем, что со своей стороны он получает вплоть до 20 вопросов или дерзких возражений в день, и не грубит в ответ, может погладить себя по голове (досл. “похлопать по спине”),” – добавила Эмма Элсворти.put up with somebody/something (phrasal verb) – to accept an unpleasant situation or person without complaining:She put up with his violent temper.snap – to say something quickly in an angry way:‘What do you want?’ Mike snapped.
Top 20 Most Annoying Kids’ Sayings 20 самых раздражающих высказываний детей
1. I’m boredМне скучно.
2. Why? Почему?
3. Are we nearly there yet? Нам еще далеко?
4. It’s not fair! Это нечестно!
5. Do I have to? А я должен?
6. It wasn’t meЭто не я.
7. Can I have…? А можно мне …?
8. In a minuteСейчас / Попозже.
9. I hate youЯ тебя ненавижу.
10. He / she hit meОн(а) меня ударил(а).
11. I don’t want to go to bed Я не хочу ложиться спать.
12. He / she started itОн(а) первый / первая начал(а).
13. I’m hungryЯ хочу есть.
14. You never let me do anything Ты никогда ничего мне не разрешаешь.
15. What? Что?
16. I don’t like itМне это не нравится.
17. I want thisЯ хочу это.
18. Can you do it? Ты можешь это сделать?
19. I can’t do itЯ этого не умею.
20. But you said… Но ты же сказал(а), что …
Источник: http://www.telegraph.co.ukExercise Fill in gaps.
Дети по природе любопытныChildren are naturally
когда вы застряли в пробкеwhen you are in a traffic
Нет никаких сомнений, что воспитание детей – сложная задача с самого первого дняThere is no that raising children is a from day one
Text 3 Boyfriends Do More Housework Than Husbands
Practice translating the text in pairs: One student should close one column and translate the text (from Russian into English or from English into Russian). The other student checks the correctness.
Married men do less housework than live-in boyfriends, finds an international survey. Международный опрос обнаружил, что женатые мужчины делают меньше работы по дому, чем молодые люди, живущие вместе со своей девушкой.
But married women do more housework than their live-in counterparts. В то же время замужние женщины делают больше работы по дому, чем незамужние.
“Marriage as an institution seems to have a traditionalizing effect on couples—even couples who see men and women as equal,” said co-researcher Shannon Davis, a sociologist at George Mason University in Virginia. “Институт брака, похоже, приводит к тому, что пары начинают больше следовать традициям — даже те пары, которые признают равенство мужчины и женщины” — говорит исследователь Шеннон Дэвис, социолог из университета Джорджа Мейсона в Вирджинии.
Understanding the dynamics of couples who live together but are not married has become more important as cohabitation around the globe increases. Понимание динамики пар, которые живут вместе, но не женаты, стало более важным, так как их количество в мире увеличивается.
More than 5 million unmarried partner households (more than 10 million individuals) currently exist in the United States, according to a 2006 report by the U.S. Census Bureau. Более 5 миллионов не состоящих в браке пар(больше, чем 10 миллионов человек) существует в настоящее время в Соединенных Штатах, согласно данным американского Бюро переписи за 2006 год.
The scientists analyzed surveys gathered in 2002 from 28 nations, from 17,636 respondents (8,119 males and 9,517 females) as part of the Family and Changing Gender Roles III Survey. All respondents were either married or cohabiting with a significant other. Ученые изучили результаты исследования “Семьи и Изменения Ролей Женщины и Мужчины III”, проведенного в 2002 году в 28 странах мира, с участием 17636 респондентов (8119 мужчин и 9517 женщин). Все респонденты состояли либо в зарегистрированном, либо в гражданском браке.Overall, they found men spent about 9 hours a week on housework compared with women, who spent more than 20 hours weekly. Результаты показали, что в общей сложности мужчины посвящали домашней работе около 9 часов в неделю, а женщины более 20.
“There’s still a gender norm, since women do more housework than men regardless of union type,” said study team member Jennifer Gerteisen Marks, who is working on a doctorate degree at North Carolina State University. “Все еще считается нормой, что женщины делают больше домашней работы, чем мужчины независимо от типа союза”, – заявил член исследовательской группы Дженнифер Гертейзен Маркс, который работает над докторской степенью в Университете Северной Каролины.
Regardless of the couples’ relative earnings or work hours, cohabiting males reported more household hours than did their married counterparts, while the opposite was true for women, with wives picking up the broom more often than live-in girlfriends. Вне зависимости от соотношения заработка или рабочих часов, мужчины, состоящие в гражданском браке, тратят на домашние дела больше времени, чем мужья. Для женщин верно обратное – жены чаще берутся за щетку, чем подруги.
Equal partnersРавные партнеры
Other factors also came into play. Men who raked in more earnings than their partners did fewer hours of housework than men with lower relative incomes. “Those in the household with greater resources will leverage those resources to bargain their way out of housework,” the authors write in the September issue of the Journal of Family Issues. Также имеют влияние и другие факторы. Мужчины, которые загребали больше денег, чем их супруги, работали по дому меньше, чем мужчины с более низким относительным доходом. “Те домочадцы, которые обладают большими денежными средствами, будут использовать их, что бы купить освобождение от работы по дому,” – пишут авторы в сентябрьском номере журнала “Journal of Family Issues” (“Дела семейные”).
Couples who viewed men and women as equals were more likely to divvy up chores equally. But even in “egalitarian households,” married men still contributed less to household chores than did their wives. Пары, которые рассматривали мужчин и женщин как равных, были склонны к разделению хозяйственной работы поровну. Но даже в “эгалитарных семьях” женатые мужчины все же участвовали в работе по дому меньше, чем их жены.
“It’s consistent with prior research, which has shown that the roles of wives and husbands are very powerful,” Marks told LiveScience. “In a cohabiting relationship there aren’t such strongly prescribed social norms, which trickle down to things like housework.”Источник: livescience.com“Это согласуется с предшествующим исследованием, которое показало, что роли жен и мужей очень сильны”. “В гражданском браке нет таких сильно предписанных социальных норм, которые распространяются на вещи подобно работе по дому.”englishtexts.ru
live-in lover/boyfriend etc – someone who lives with their sexual partner but is not married to them
counterpart – someone or something that has the same job or purpose as someone or something else in a different place (Belgian officials are discussing this with their French counterparts.)
census – an official process of counting a country’s population and finding out about the people
gender – the fact of being male or female (There may be gender differences in attitudes to paid work.)
significant other – your husband, wife, girlfriend, or boyfriend
overall – generally (Overall, prices are still rising.)
rake something in – [phrasal verb] to earn a lot of money without trying very hard (Lou’s been raking in the dollars since he opened his business.) rake – грабли
household – all the people who live together in one house (A growing number of households have at least one computer.)
leverage – influence that you can use to make people do what you want (diplomatic leverage by the US)
divvy something up – [phrasal verb] to share something between several people (We can divvy up the profits between us.)
chore – a small job that you have to do regularly, especially work that you do to keep a house clean (everyday chores like shopping and housework)
egalitarian – based on the belief that everyone is equal and should have equal rights
trickle – if people, vehicles, goods etc trickle somewhere, they move there slowly in small groups or amounts (The first few fans started to trickle into the stadium.)
SUPPLEMENTARY READERText 1 Read and translate the text. Remember as many details as you can. Reproduce the texts.
Should parents ever worry about Minecraft?
Jolyon Jenkins and his son Joe
In the space of a few years, the computer game Minecraft has come to dominate the spare hours of millions of children, and has even entered the classroom. But is this an entirely good thing, asks Jolyon Jenkins.
If I want to irritate my 13-year-old son, Joe, I refer to Minecraft as "digital Lego". He grew out of Lego a long time ago.
But that's what Minecraft is - a computer game in which you build things using cubic blocks. But it's Lego on steroids. You never run out of blocks and they never topple over. You can walk among your own creations, and play online with other people who are in the same world.
Sometimes, monsters come out after dark to try to kill you, which is never pleasant, but compared with games like Grand Theft Auto and Call of Duty, Minecraft is innocent, peaceful, and pretty wholesome.
So why does it drive so many parents to distraction?
"It's all consuming," says Gabrielle Wacker, of her 11-year-old son Arthur. "It's become a way of life. He would be on it before school given the chance. I've had to hide the device in the morning."
Her biggest worry, she says, is that it reduces his interest in the real world. "He doesn't do any clubs any more. At weekends, one of the first things he says when he gets up in the morning is, 'We're not going anywhere, are we?' because clearly he wants to be at home where he has got access to the devices."
A castle encountered on Joe's adventures in MinecraftParenting websites are full of such stories. If not actually playing Minecraft, parents report that their children watch videos of other people playing it.
The statistics are astounding - one group of Minecraft gamers, Yogscast, based in Bristol, is watched for 37 million minutes every day, and they are not the biggest.
The stars of Minecraft, like "Stampy Longnose" are to this generation of children what John Noakes was to mine, except Blue Peter was only on twice a week, whereas Stampy is viewable all day, every day, a permanent uninvited guest in some households.
Brief history of Minecraft
Developed in Sweden by Markus Persson and his company Mojang - officially released in 2011
Company has sold 33 million copies of game in different formats
Bought by Microsoft for $2.5bn (£1.5bn) in September 2014
I hesitate to use the word "addicted", but for some children it seems to fit.
Dr Richard Graham, a consultant child and adolescent psychiatrist who runs a technology addiction unit at the private Nightingale Hospital in London, sees children with a serious Minecraft habit. He talks about the game's "hyper-reality" which he says makes the external world "slower, paler, less stimulating".
A sweeping valley featuring a castle
My son Joe has his own server, where 20 or so like-minded friends have been creating their own world for the last couple of years. Most of them are in America, and he has never met any of them. Their creations are impressive, but still - is it right for kids to be shunning the real world for this virtual, low-res, blocky universe?
The moves in this argument are as well-rehearsed as a 17th Century gavotte. Minecraft's champions say that it's very creative and that I should just look at the things kids are making on it.
I concede the point but say that it's two-dimensional, and that children should be exercising more than their mouse fingers. The other side asks why it's any worse than reading for hours at a time.
Because, I say, reading allows you to imaginatively inhabit other minds. The opposition implies that this is just the latest moral panic, and that Stone Age elders probably thought the world was going to the dogs when people stopped just staring at the fire and started telling each other stories.
A particularly imposing entrance to a castle
But then there's the "griefing". Because Minecraft is a world with private property but no police force, children are, at least on public servers, in a world that philosopher Thomas Hobbes would have recognised - a state of nature where all are at war with all.
"Griefers" are people who deliberately make trouble, destroy property, and then sometimes post videos of their exploits to amuse everyone.
Even Joe, on his well-ordered server, has had his property stolen by a Russian member. He doesn't know where his stuff went, but suspects it was disposed of in molten lava. When parents think of online bullying, they probably don't think of hard-earned virtual property being trashed, or their children being digitally mugged.
Joe's nine tips to bluff your way in Minecraft:
1. Diamond is the best material for pickaxes because it breaks blocks the fastest and lasts the longest.
2. Players can tame wild wolves by feeding them a few bones, and ocelots with fish.
3. Throwing an Ender Pearl like a ball allows you to teleport to where it lands.
4. With redstone, you can create complex mechanisms. Some people have even recreated computers.
5. The only blocks in the game which are affected by gravity are sand, gravel, and anvils.
6. Creepers are green creatures which will sneak up behind you and try to blow you up. Skeletons try to shoot you with bows.
7. Cows and sheep can be bred by feeding them wheat, pigs with carrots and chickens with seeds.
8. You can play music to nearby players with a music disc, which are created when a skeleton shoots a creeper.
9. A trapped chest will give off a redstone signal when opened, meaning you can create all sorts of traps to fool your friends.
It was in a bid to deal with griefers that Amanda Osborne set up her own server where her son Callum could play in relative safety. Callum, aged nine, is autistic, and finds it easier to interact with people in the Minecraft world than in the real one.
Now, children with autistic spectrum disorders from around the world are logging on to Amanda's server and making amazing, inspiring creations that impressed even Joe when we paid an online visit.
For some autistic children who have trouble with complex social interactions, Minecraft is clearly a good fit with its lack of intricate social cues and simple environment. But for many parents, the absence of that complexity, in a world where their children spend so much time, might be a reason to be wary.
Schools - such as this one in Juneau, Alaska - have started introducing Minecraft into lessons
But Minecraft is unstoppable. You might think that at least school provides a few hours of Minecraft-free time a day, but the game is coming to classrooms, as education experts enthuse about its ability to engage and capture the imagination of children who are hard to reach through traditional teaching methods. Even the British Museum is getting volunteers to recreate the building and its exhibits in Minecraft.
Worst of all, Lego has brought out its own Minecraft set. What this means for the next generation of engineers brought up in a world where nothing ever falls over, I dare not imagine.
TOPICAL VOCABULARYFamily Lifeaspirant претендент
be head over ears in love влюбиться по уши
be lost in admiration of smb. заглядываться на кого-либо
be relatedбыть родственниками
be of full ageбыть совершеннолетним
bless the marriageблагословить брак
care about smb. заботиться о ком-либо
civil marriageгражданский брак
cousinдвоюродный брат или сестра
court smb. ухаживать за кем-либо
cross marriageперекрёстный брак
diamond anniversary бриллиантовая свадьба
divorcee разведенный/ая муж/жена
double dateсвидание, на которое приходят две пары
do well at schoolхорошо учиться в школе
earn moneyзарабатывать деньги
earn one's livingзарабатывать на жизнь
efficient housewifeхорошая хозяйка
expect a babyждать ребёнка
fall in loveвлюбиться
family albumсемейный альбом
foster mother1) кормилица
2) приёмная мать
generation gapразница между поколениями, проблема отцов и детей
get/have a crush on smb. потерять голову из-за кого-либо
get marriedвступить в брак, пожениться
get on well togetherхорошо ладить с кем-либо
give flowers/presentsдарить цветы, подарки
go Dutchкаждому платить за себя (в ресторане, баре и пр.)
go steady with smb. постоянно встречаться с кем-либо
go outбывать в обществе, ходить развлекаться
golden anniversaryзолотая свадьба
grandparentбабушка или дедушка
great grandparentпрабабушка или прадедушка
grumble at smb. ворчать на кого-либо
head of the houseглава семьи
host(ess) хозяин/хозяйка (по отношению к гостям)
in-laws (/»., pi.) родственники со стороны мужа или жены
juggle a family and a career заниматься семьёй и работой одновременно
keep house вести хозяйство
keep the family содержать семью
kith and kin родня, родные и близкие
let smb. down подводить, покидать в беде
live apart жить раздельно
live on one's parents быть на содержании родителей
love marriage брак по любви
maid of honourсвидетельница (на свадьбе), подружка невесты
make a pass at smb. делать попытку познакомиться, пытаться ухаживать
make acquaintance of smb. познакомиться с кем-либо
marital status семейное положение
marriage certificate свидетельство о браке
marriage advertisement брачное объявление
marriage of convenience брак по расчёту
married женатый, замужняя
marry for love/money жениться по любви/расчёту
marry low вступить в неравный брак
maternity home родильный дом
match партия (о браке)
misalliance неравный брак, мезальянс
monogamy моногамия, единобрачие
nephew ['nevju:] племянник
pass the age выйти из возраста
pick up подцепить кого-либо
polygamy полигамия, многобрачие
propose делать предложение
raise children растить детей
resemble smb. быть похожим на кого-либо
rush into marriage скоропалительно жениться
sibling родной брат или сестра
silver anniversary серебряная свадьба
singles' bar бар для одиноких
solvent без материальных проблем (стиль газетных объявлений)
spinster незамужняя женщина
stepmother мачеха, неродная мать
stepfather отчим, неродной отец
take after smb. быть похожим на кого-либо
take children to- водить детей в ...
triplet ['trplt] близнец из тройни
wallflower дама, оставшаяся без кавалера (на балу)
wedlock супружество (книжн.)
Conversational Formulas: He's a good family man. Он — хороший семьянин.
He takes after his parents. Он похож на родителей.
How long have you been married? Как давно вы женаты?
She is an efficient housewife. Она хорошая хозяйка.
She comes from a good family. Она из хорошей семьи.
They are a nice family. У них прекрасная семья.
Cheaper by the dozen. (У них) семеро по лавкам.
They had their wedding Они сыграли свадьбу
in the autumn/winter. осенью/зимой.
Part II. Vocabulary
I. Family relations
close - близкие
distant - relationsдальние родственники
immediate relatives - ближайшие
nuclear family – a family which consists of a mother, a father and children
extended family – a large family group living together, includes not only parents and children, but also other close relations
one-parent (single-parent, single-headed) family
Relations by birth – кровные родственники
parents, father, mother, sister, brother, siblings = brother(s) and sister(s) (also: sibs, inf.), cousin, son, daughter, Mum (Mom), Dad, Daddy, aunt, uncle, twins, grandparents, grandmother, grandma, granddad, grandpa, great-granddaughter, great-aunt, etc.
Relations by marriage - родственники по жене или мужу
husband, wife, spouse, couple, father-in-law, mother-in -law, sister-in-law, brother-in-law, son-in-law, daughter-in-law, stepmother, stepfather, stepchildren (brother, sister, daughter, son), half-brother, half-sister.
an orphan - сирота to adopt /to be adoptedto be taken into care (=into a home run by the government or a local council)adoptive parents-приемные родители a guardian – опекунfoster parents =/= adoptive parents (see cultural note “foster”)kin (ВrE: old use or formal, AmE: informal), pl.-the members of one’s family, one’s relatives“We are near kin ”= we are closely relatedkith and kin, pl – people of one’s own family, country etc.“You can’t refuse to help them, they are your own kith and kin”kinsman, kinswoman (old use)- a relativeremote kinsman( kinswoman) - седьмая вода на киселе kinsfolk ( AmE kinfolk) (old-fash.),pi.- members of one’s family kinship 1 .родство
2. сходство характеров, взглядов и т.д.
“I feel a strong feeling of kinship between us.” godmother — крестная мать godfather-крестный отец godson(daughter) – кpecтник (крестница) forefather- предок ancestor- предок descendant of- потомок
~ on one’s mother’s/ father’s side- со стороны матери/отца ~ in the male/female line- по мужской/женской линии to start a family- to get a child“We won’t start a family until we’ve been married a few years”to be in the family way (old use) – to be expecting a child to be with child (old use, bibl) – to be pregnantmaternity home - родильный дом
MarriageMarriage – брак To marry smb ( formal) – жениться на ком-л., выйти замуж за кого-л.to get married to smb (informal) - жениться на ком-л., выйти замуж за кого-л.to be married to smb- быть женатым на ком-л., быть замужем за кем-л.to be single - быть неженатым/не замужемto marry into smth- to become a member of smth by marriage(to marry into a wealthy family, to marry into money)“She made a good marriage with a wealthy family” to marry money- to marry a rich manto marry smb off to smtb- to find a husband or a wife for smb “She married off her daughter to a young diplomat”to marry for (out of) love marriage for love/ for moneyarranged marriage – a marriage, where parents choose a wife or a husband fortheir child, usually on grounds of religion, social class, etcmarriage of convenience- a marriage contract agreed for social or politicaladvantage rather than for lovea good match - хорошая партия ( о браке)misalliance - мезальянс, неравный брак (also: low marriage, to marry low)free marriage (civil marriage)plural marriagef- polygamy) -Ant.: monogamymarriage bureau - an organization which brings together people who are looking for a husband or a wife (also: a dating agency) marriage vows, to exchange the vows big day- a wedding daya bachelor - a man who has never been marrieda spinster(old-fash.) an unmarried woman who is no longeran old maid (derogatory) young and who seems to be unlikely to get married.a family man 1. a man who has a wife and children 2. a man who is fond of home life.
“He is not a family man” – He is not likely to get married.to court smb.- ухаживать за кем-л. to go steadily with smb (inf.) a date - a planned social meetinga blind date - a social meeting between a boy and a girl who haven’t met before to date (AmE) = to go out on dates (inf)"Does your mother let you go out on dates?”to be in love (with smb)
to fall in love (with smb) - Ant: to fall out of love love at first sightlove-birds (inf) - two people who are clearly in love with each othercalf love, puppy love – a young boy’s or girl’s love for someone, which people do not regard as seriousunreturned love/unrequited love (fml)to propose to smb - to make an offer of marriage to refuse a proposal to be engaged to smbto be betrothed (old use) быть помолвленным, обрученным с кем-либоto get engaged to smb- обручиться с кем-либоengagement (to smb) - помолвка с кем-лto announce the engagement - обьявить о помолвкеto break off the engagement - расторгнуть помолвкуan engagement ring (usually a diamond ring) - обручальное кольцоa wedding ringa fiancé(m) жених (from engagement till wedding) a fiancee (f) невестаa bride невеста (during the wedding ceremony or just after it)a bridegroom женихa bridesmaid – подружка невестыthe best man – шаферa page- пажa witness- свидетельa newly-wed couple, newly-weds, young marrieds (ini)- молодоженыhoneymoon- медовый месяцto honeymoon, to be on honeymoona honeymoon couple, the hotel’s honeymoon suitewedding – a marriage ceremonywedding reception- a large official party with a mealwedding breakfast- a meal after a marriage ceremony ( actually a lunch or dinner)white wedding (esp BrE) - a wedding at which the bride wears a long white dress and which takes place in a church wedding cakeFor more information about weddings in GB and US-see featute “Weddings” in the Longman Dictionary of English Language and Culture
a divorce , to get a divorce from smb: “Their marriage ended in divorce.”
to divorce smb : “She divorced him after years of unhappiness. ”
to get divorced from smb – развестисьto be divorced from smb – быть разведеннымto sue for a divorce (formal) – подать на разводto obtain a divorce – получить разводa divorcee - a man or a woman whose marriage ended in divorce
maintenance (Br E), alimony, child support (Am E) – money paid by a divorced person to his/her former partner to help financially or support their children
to pay maintenance/alimony/child supportwidow - вдова widower - вдовец to be /get widoweda grass widow/ widower - соломенная вдова/вдовецIV. Names
family name = surname = last name(AmE)-фамилияmaiden name - the family name a woman had before marriage (also: nee /nеɪ/ - урожденная: Mrs Smith, nee Brown christian name= first name - имя, данное при крещении middle name 1. second name, a name coming between the first name and the surname2. (informal)a main part of one’s character : “ Generosity is her middle name. ” patronymic-отчество to name smb-давать к-л имя to call smb after smb - назвать чьим-то именемto call smb by one’s firstfmiddle) name, surname - звать к-л по имени, по фамилииpet name - ласкательное имя nickname - прозвище pen-name, pseudonym -псевдонимV. People’s age
-What’s your age? / How old are you?-I am seventeen (years old)(I am under/over/nearly 17.)
-What ages are your children?-We have a five-year-old daughter and a teenage son.
She is a baby/ toddler/child- see cultural note “Child” in the Longman dictionary of English language and Culture She is a teenagerShe is in her early/ mid/late teens.She is still in her teens (froml3 tol9).She is just out of twenties.She is twenty odd.She is an adult (i.e. over 18 or21).She is no longer young.She is in her early/ mid/late thirties (i.e. between 29 and 40).She is well over/ into/below fifty.She has turned sixty.She is on the wrong (bad)/right (good) side of forty.She is a middle-aged person.
She is in the prime of (her) life.She is an elderly person.She is a pensioner/ She has retired.She is two years my senior/junior.She is two years older/ younger than me.She is two years senior/junior to me.She is my senior by two years..She is my elder sister, (only attribute, only about members of one family) to be the same ageAt the age of... he... = When he is/was/will be... : ’’Young men join the army at the age of 18.”to be of аgе/ to come of age- быть / стать совершеннолетнимHave you come of age yet?
No, but in three months I’ll come of age.
to be under age = to be too young for smth: “ You can 7 drive a car yet, you are under age. ”to be over age / to pass the age=to be too old for smth: “He won 7 be called up for military service. He is over age. ”to look one’s age: He doesn’t look his age, he looks much younger his age. to look – 1) смотреть: “She looked at me angrily.” 2) выглядеть: “What does she look like?” (about appearance) to look sad / ill / tired...to look good - хорошо выглядеть to look well а) иметь здоровый вид (о людях) b) хорошо смотреться (о вещах) to look one’s best: “She looks her best in jeans”
(not) to look oneself: “You are not looking yourself today” to look like smb - быть похожим на кого-либо to resemble smb - напоминать кого-либо to look alike - быть похожимиto take after smb in appearance / character- пойти в кого-либо внешностью / характеромCf.: “What is he like? ” (both about appearance and character)Proverbs, sayings: Like father, like son. Like master, like man. They are as like as two peas. They are as like as chalk and cheese.
look – 1) взгляд: to have a look, “She gave me an angry look. ” 2) выражение лица, глаз: “I knew she didn’t like it by the look on her face. ” 3) облик, внешний вид: “She is beginning to lose her good looks (=her beauty).”
VI. Professions and occupations
to do one’s living as smbto learn/make/gain/get living as smb What does he do for a living?What is he?What’s his occupation/ profession?How does he earn / make his living?to take цр a career (of)/ a job-начать работать (c кем-либо)to make a career out of smth - посвятить себя профессии Worker (mechanic, electrician, turner, locksmith, plumber, gold/silversmith, blacksmith, miner, carpenter), farmer, engineer, designer, architect, builder (building contractor, AmE), teacher, child-minder, baby-sitter, nanny, accountant, teller (esp. Am), book-keeper, driver, taxi driver, engine-driver, hairdresser, barber, dressmaker, tailor, fashion-designer, fisherman, sailor, seaman, soldier, serviceman, officer, ensign, private, airline (civil) pilot, flier/flyer, harbour pilot, navigator, doctor, nurse, surgeon, dentist, physician, chemist, pharmacist, physicist, psychiatrist, psychologist, scientist, research worker, typist, secretary, clerk, computer specialist, librarian, lawyer, judge, actor, actress, painter, artist, writer, poet, playwright, journalist, photographer, editor-in-chief, musician, conductor, pianist, composer, singer, salesman, saleswoman(shop-girl), shop-assistant, merchant, businessman, drawer (draughtsman BrE, draftsman AmE), postman/woman, bouncer, firefighter, policeman/police officer, pensioner, housewife.
VII. Family relationships.
We are not a large family.There are four members in our family. = There are four of us in the family.(inf)= We are four in the family.We are a united family.to keep in touch with - Ant: to lose touch witha family reunionto get isolated fromto get scatteredtо live close to smbto see less of smbto become more independentto look for /get more freedom
to take care of smb/smth-to take the responsibility for protecting or looking after smb, to look after smbto take care = to be careful: Take care! (used as a way to say good-bye, especially to family and friends)to care about = to be worried, anxious (= to think that smth/smb is important):“She doesn’t care about money.”to care for: 1. to like (in negative sentences and questions): “I don’t really care for red wine.” 2. (liter) to look after (esp. someone who is old or sick): “Who will care for me when I am old? ” to take up room to afford smth.to get bored/ crossed with smb. to help with running the household to be tolerant of smb/smth divorce ratesto be born outside marriage to support the familyto bring up children, but: up-bringing of childrento be involved in smth - to neglect (Ant)to share events, opinions, impressions, etcday-care centre (Am E), kindergarten, nursery school (Br E)flexible work hours for working parentsto have a full-time/part-time jobto juggle job and familyto be aware of smththe latest fads and fashionsto give a good backgrounda generation gapsibling rivalryan only childcurfew = time for a teenager to come home at nightpeer pressure = influence on a person by the people of the same age groupto face problems /pressuresto try to escape realityto turn to alcohol/drugs/crimedrug habit/addictionteen pregnancyjuvenile delinquency/а delinquent to commit a crime/a suicideabuse 1. wrong use of smth 2. bad or cruel treatment of children motor vehicle accidents to join anti-drug programmes, organizations to solve problemsto keep problems from getting too big to
Список использованной литературы и интернет-источников1. Меркулова Е.М. и др. English for University Students: reading, writing and conversation. СПб.: Издательство Союз, 2000.-384 с.
2. Гарбар И.Л. Family Life: Учебное пособие. Мурманск: МГПИ, 2002.-111с.
3. Человек со шрамом и другие рассказы/ Адаптация текста, словарь Г.К. Магидсон-Степановой; Упражнения Л.Т. Добровольской; Под ред. Е. Л. Заниной.-М.:Рольф: 1999.- 144с., с илл.- (Английский клуб).- (Домашнее чтение).
4. http://www.telegraph.co.uk5. http://www. livescience.com
Кремлёва Марина Михайловна
Family life: Учебное пособие
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Мурманский государственный гуманитарный университет.
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