Basic English Grammar For English Language Learners


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Copyright ©2007 by Saddleback Educational Publishing. All rights reserved. No part of this book
publisher.
Printed in the United States of America
11
Three Watson
Irvine, CA 92618-2767
Web site: www.sdlback.com
First published in the United States by Saddleback Educational Publishing, 3 Watson, Irvine,
CA 92618 by arrangement with Learners Publishing Pte Ltd, Singapore
Grammar is a very old eld of study. Did you know that
the sentence was rst divided into subject and verb by
Plato, the famed philosopher from ancient Greece? That
was about 2,400 years ago! Ever since then, students all
over the world have found it worthwhile to study the
structure of words and sentences. Why? Because skill in
speaking and writing is the hallmark of all educated
Lesson by lesson, this book provides basic instruction
in the eight parts of speech—nouns, pronouns, verbs,
adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, and
interjections—as well as the standard patterns of English
All students of English, be they native speakers or those
who are studying English as a second language, will
prot from the fundamental introduction and review of
grammar provided by SADDLEBACK'S BASIC ENGLISH
GRAMMAR 1 and 2. Helpful marginal notes throughout
the books have been provided to reinforce existing skills
We wish you every success in your pursuit of English
prociency.
Note to the Student
from the Publisher
What you’ll find in this book

The Possessive Form of Nouns

24
Reexive Pronouns
26
Possessive Pronouns
27
Demonstrative Pronouns
27
Interrogative Pronouns
28
Indenite Pronouns
28

32
The Order of Adjectives
33
Adjective Endings
35

44
Using Nouns without Articles
45

Verbs
Tenses
Subject and Verb Agreement
Transitive and Intransitive Verbs
The Simple Present Tense
are
59
The Present Progressive Tense
The Simple Past Tense
Irregular Verbs
The Past Progressive Tense
The Present Perfect Tense
The Future Tense
The Imperative Form of Verbs

Auxiliary
Verbs
could
88
would
89
should
89
ought to
90
must
90
Verb Phrases

Adverbs of Time

Prepositions of Time
Prepositions with Adjectives, Verbs or Nouns

or
109
Conjunctions Linking Phrases
110
Conjunctions with Lists
110
Conjunctions That Join Sentences
111
Other Words for
Other Words for
Other Words for
Conjunctions of Time
10
Verbs with Two Objects
Verbs with No Object
Question Tags
11
12

exclamation point, apostrophe, quotation marks, colon
140
Common Nouns
Words for people, places and things are called
ruler chair hammer bicycle truth
pen table saw
ship calculator
crayons sofa axe
truck television
pencil loyalty drill
ferry fridge
book lamp ladder train cooker
dictionary carpet lawnmower bus computer
courage telephone spade laziness printer
animal its
young
puppy
kitten
cow
horse
foal
sheep lamb
kid
frog
tadpole
airport
hotel
gas
station
library park
museum farm
zoo
theater factory
hospital nursery
animal its
young
fox
elephant calf
kangaroo joey
cub
cub
tiger
whale calf
school post
university police
station
restaurant
mosque supermarket
temple stadium
synagogue
church
Nouns
Nouns
singer manager sailor
gardener
dancer secretary pilot
artist
teacher driver
photographer doctor writer
farmer
magician dentist friend
clerk
athlete lawyer brother technician
Proper Nouns
people’s names
Robin
Hood Florence
Nightingale Mom
Park
Ali Dad
Mrs.
Taylor
Frankenstein George
Washington Granny Mr.
Young
Harry
Potter David
Beckham Grandad Dr.
Santa
Claus Julia
Roberts Uncle
David Professor
Raj
Gandhi Nelson
Mandela Aunt
Diana Jose
Confucius Alex
Rodriguez Ms.
Hall Yang
days
the
week
Monday
January July
Tuesday
February August
Wednesday
March September
Thursday
April
October
Friday
May
November
Saturday
Sunday
Nouns:
Nouns
AUGUST
Sunday
4 11 18 25
Monday
5 12 19 26
Tuesday
6 13 20 27
Wednesday
7 14 21 28
Thursday
1 8 15 22 29
Friday
2 9 16 23 30
Saturday
3 10 17 24 31
Nouns:
Nouns
New
Year’s
Day
Veterans'
Day
Mother’s
Day
Thanksgiving
Day
Memorial
Day
Valentine’s
Day
Halloween
Day
Christmas
Ramadan
Yom
the
Empire
State
the
the
Taj
Graceland
the
Eiffel
Tower
the
Grand
Canyon
the
Gate
Bridge
the
Sydney
Opera
House the
Great
Wall
Buckingham
Palace
Canyon
the
Tower
Pisa the
Statue
Liberty
T
people who live in a particular country
country people
Afghanistan Afghans
Australia Australians
Britain the
British
China the
France the
French
Germany Germans
India Indians
Indonesia Indonesians
Italy Italians
Japan the
Korea Koreans
Malaysia Malaysians
country people
Samoa Samoans
New
Zealand New
Zealanders
Pakistan Pakistanis
the
Philippines Filipinos
Russia Russians
Nicaragua Nicaraguans
South
Africa South
Africans
Switzerland the
Thailand Thais
USA
Americans
Vietnam the
Vietnamese
10
Exercise
Write each common noun under the correct heading.
theater lion
father brother
doctor restaurant builder stove
elephant kangaroo museum library
things

Exercise
Underline the common nouns and circle the proper nouns in these sentences.
1.
I
told
Uncle
my
2.
Kim
Stephanie
wore
masks
Halloween.
3.
The
lawnmower
broken.
4.
We’re
to
the
movies
tomorrow.
5.
The
playing
with
6.
My
sister’s
favorite
player
David
Beckham.
7.
I’m
watching
videotape
the
Sahara
Desert.
8.
The
tourists
visited
Rome
saw
the
9.
Does
this
to
the
stadium?
10.
We’re
reading
story
boy
Harry
Potter.
Exercise
Read the following passage containing common nouns and proper nouns. Put a
the box after a common noun and a
in the box after a proper noun.
Mr.
Peters
lives
by
the
three
and
likes
to
travel
to
different
countries
Last
Christmas
went
to
Paris
saw
the
Eiffel
Tower
enjoyed
French
food
restaurants
10
11
Nouns:
Nouns;
Plural
Nouns
Singular Nouns
tent
park an
taxi
doctor an
oven
house a
lady an
exercise
Plural Nouns
plural
computer computers
chair chairs
train trains
player players
teacher teachers
taxi
taxis
n
Words called
river
armchair
three
castle
five
The article

artist
eye


oven
umbrella
The article

But some words don’t follow these rules.

uniform
,

an hour, an heir, an honor

plural
mountain mountains
river rivers
envelope envelopes
insect insects
oven ovens
uncle uncles
12
plural
ch
sandwiches
ch
witches
bru
brushes
ashes
boxes
fo
foxes
plural
day
days
tray
trays
runway runways
chimney chimneys
trolley trolleys
valley
valleys
plural
buses
gla
glasses
dre
dresses
bran
ch
branches
chur
ch
churches
ch
beaches
plural
baby
family families
story
stories
teddy
teddies
fairy
fairies
puppy puppies
housey houseies
library libraries
cities
party
parties
dictionary dictionaries
plural
key
keys
monkey monkeys
donkey donkeys
toy
toys
boy
boys
cowboy cowboys
Nouns:
Plural
Nouns
13
plural
halves
leaves
shelves
wolf
wolves
thief
thieves
plural
chief
chiefs
roof
roofs
handkerchief handkerchiefs
cliff
cliffs
puff
puffs
plural
scarf scarf

ves
hoof hoof

ves
dwarf dwarf
dwar
ves
wharf wharf
ves
Most nouns that end in
plural
knives
wives
lives
midwife midwives
Nouns:
Plural
Nouns
14
Most nouns that end in
plural
video
hippo
zoo
kangaroo kangaroo
But other nouns that end in
plural
tomato tomato
potato potato
hero
hero
Some nouns change spelling from the singular form to the plural.
plural
men
woman women
child
children
person people
mouse mice
tooth
teeth
foot
feet
goose geese
The plural form of some nouns is the same as the singular form.
plural
sheep sheep
not
deer deer
not
deers)
sh sh
not
aircraft aircraft
not
aircrafts)
salmon salmon
not
the
various
the
Nouns:
Plural
Nouns
15
Some nouns are
trousers glasses
shorts spectacles
goggles
scissors
binoculars
pajamas pliers
chopsticks
sandals gloves
slippers clogs
boots
socks
Exercise
Underline all the nouns in the following sentences. Are they
proper
Put a checkmark
in the correct box.

1.
Do
you
like
cheese?
2.
They
stood
next
to
the
Niagara
Falls.
3.
May
borrow
your
umbrella?
4.
The
was
driving
very
fast.
5.
Carl
not
agree
with
them.
6.
She
loves
to
Disneyland.
7.
Would
you
like
more
water?
8.
The
fog
was
very
thick.
9.
May
invite
Tom
to
10.
My
very
You can use
trousers
a
glasses
scissors
a
chopsticks
a
gloves
Nouns:
Plural
Nouns
15
16
Exercise
Read the following passage. Write
in the box after each singular noun and
in the
box after each plural noun.
teacher
very
She’s
very
to
the
children
the
tells
very
funny
stories
Yesterday,
told
story
the
farm
They
race
ran
faster
than
the
ducks
cows
the
heroes
the
story
were
the
They
were
faster
than
the
other
even
though
they
the
shortest
Exercise
Read the following passage. Notice that the plural nouns are missing. Write the correct
plural
form
of the singular nouns in parentheses. The first one has been done for you.
Three
)
took
their
baby
for
walk
the
They
saw
four
giraffe
three
two
kangaroo
They
walked
for
that
their
foot
sore,
they
down
bench
for
rest
monkey
monkey
were
playing
with
box
throwing
stick
each
other.
After
the
looked
their
watch
was
to
16
7
Collective Nouns
Words for groups of people, animals or things are called

Here are some collective nouns for
family a
crew
team a
community a
committee
choir a
company
band a
gang
orchestra the
government
audience the
army
crowd
was
orderly.
crowd
were
yelling
cheering.
crowd
shoppers a
thieves
company
actors
a
judges
schoolchildren a
platoon
soldiers
herd
cattle a
pack
wolves a
litter
flock
birds a
pride
lions a
monkeys
drove
sheep a
dolphins a
chickens
geese a
school
sh a
swarm
live
not
lives)
have
not
the
thief.
Nouns:
Collective
Nouns
8
Some
bunch
bananas a
deck
cluster
grapes
flight
steps
bunch
owers
suite
rooms
bouquet
owers a
suite
furniture
range
mountains a
set
tools
fleet
string
fleet
vehicles
grove
trees
bread

a
string
chocolate
bread a
cheese
square
chocolate a
cake
sheet
paper a
chalk
information a

Exercise
Read the following passage. Write the missing
collective
in the blank spaces.
Remember that sometimes there are two words you can use.
took
Kate,
Rudy
Derrick
to
the
was
very
busy.
gathered
round
the
monkeys.
the
monkeys
Watching
the
monkey
the
children
hungry.
took
bread
cheese
the
hamper
everyone
sandwiches.
After
the
sandwiches,
the
children
two
chocolate
each.
Rudy
wanted
to
give
to
monkey,
the
zookeeper
gave
Rudy
very
“Monkeys
may
friendly,
sometimes
they
are
very
erce,”
8
Nouns:
Collective
Nouns
9
Exercise
Read the sentences. Does the collective noun indicate a group acting together as a
single unit? If so, circle the singular verb. Does the collective noun indicate a group in
which each member acts individually? Circle the plural noun.
1. The
jury
(were/was)
arguing
the
importance
evidence.
2. A
company
soldiers
(is/are)
marching
the
parade.
3. A
gaggle
geese
(is/are)
running
every
which
way
the
barnyard.
4. Those
(live/lives)
North
America.
5. The
(has/have)
arrested
the
6. That
troupe
actors
always
(stay/stays)
the
Grand
Hotel.
7. The
committee
(is/are)
their
ballots.
8. Our
school
(play/plays)
many
lively
marches.
9. A
colony
(lives/live)
the
front
porch.
10. The
government
(are/is)
to
taxes.
Exercise
Complete each phrase with a noun from the box that names a part or an amount of
something.
bushel
scoop ream
drop
grain
pinch galaxy
1. a
of
stars 5. a
of
potatoes
2. a
of
sand 6. a
of
bookends
3. a
of
paper 7. a
of
cream
4. a
of
salt 8. a
of
rain
masculine feminine
nephew niece
queen
prince princess
emperor empress
wizard witch
actor
actress
policeman policewoman
waiter waitress
Nouns:
Nouns
Masculine and Feminine Nouns
Masculine nouns
masculine feminine
boy
girl
woman
father mother
daughter
brother sister
husband wife
grandfather grandmother
uncle aunt
teacher baby
doctor scientist
parent astronaut president
child
cousin dancer manager
With animals, there is one general word for the animal and special words
animal masculine feminine

rabbit
buck
horse
stallion mare
ram
ewe
boar
sow
chicken
rooster hen
duck
drake
duck
bull
cow
gander goose
fox
fox
vixen
tiger
tiger
tigress
lion
21
Exercise
10
Complete the crossword puzzle with the correct
feminine
A
masculine feminine
3.
bull
5.
man
6.
fox
9.
princess
10.
empress
12.
stallion
13. brother
14.
king
15.
duck
16.
witch
masculine feminine
1.
actress
2.
waiter
4.
husband
7.
nephew
8.
aunt
11.
goose













1 2
3 4 5
6 7
8
9 10
11
12 13
14
15
16
21
The Possessive Form of Nouns
Use the possessive form of a noun to show ownership.
To make the possessive form, put an
’s
my
that
Peter’s
We
like
Dad’s
my
to
everybody’s
plate
after
the
are
around
the
horse’s
tail.
Jenny’s
room.
Tom’s
that
Tom’s
father’s
that don’t end in
’s
make the possessive form.
children’s
room
always
messy.
people’s
are
bigger
than
ours.
Rats’
tails
are
longer
than
mice’s
tails.
Men’s
voices
are
than
women’s
voices.
How do you make the possessive form when two names linked
’s
after the second name only. For
Katy
Mike’s
very
the house that belongs to both
Katy and Mike
Sarah’s
works
the
factory.
He is Joe’s dad and
he is also Sarah’s dad.
’s
This
John’s
brother’s
The ball belongs to John’s brother.
Paul’s
teacher’s
the house that
belongs to Paul’s teacher
Nouns:
Possessive
Form
Nouns
After
pupils’
desks
are
arranged
rows.
boys’
bedroom
bigger
than
the
girls’
bedroom.
strong
destroyed
the
farmers’
crops.
Mice’s
tails
are
shorter
than
rats’
tails.
Exercise
11
Read the following passage. The possessive nouns are missing. Write the correct
possessive
form
the
in parentheses. The first one has been done for you.
Peter
the
day
Tom
Peter
likes
Tom’s
family.
likes
Tom’s
boys
play
lots
games
together.
Tom
sister
doesn’t
like
Tom
Peter
games.
playing
by
herself.
Sometimes
the
boys
games
that
tells
them
to
play
the
garden.
Tom
the
garden,
the
Tom
wants
to
play
with
the
Peter
afraid
the
teeth
sharp
claws.
At
o’clock,
Peter
arrives
to
take
Peter
Tom
says
likes
Peter’s
new
car.
Peter
says
that
he’ll
take
Tom
for
ride
sometime.
, you can make the possessive form in
s ’s
James’s

James’
Which
Charles’s
bike?
Which
Charles’
bike?
Nouns:
Possessive
Form
Nouns
24
Pronouns
Pronouns
Personal Pronouns
likes cats.
has four cats.
My name is Michael. I am fourteen.
My father works hard. He works in a factory.
My sister is older than me. She is twelve.
Our dog is very naughty. It likes to chase cats.
Bob, you are a bad dog!
David and I are playing football. We like sports.
Jim and Jeff are my brothers. They are older than I am.
Lisa likes
. She likes to stroke
them
I’m doing my homework. Dad is helping
Goodbye, children! I’ll call
you
later.
Where is John? I need to speak to
Miss Garcia is very nice. All the children like
her.
The car is very dirty. Mom is cleaning
Uncle Harry called Mary to ask
a question.
My chocolates are all gone. Someone has eaten
them.
First Person, Second Person and Third Person
In grammar, the person who is speaking is called the
subject object
first
person
I
me
person
you
you
third
person
he
him

she
her

it
it
first
person
plural
we
person
plural
you
you
third
person
plural
they
them
Pronouns:
Personal
Reflexive Pronouns
My brother built this computer
Be careful not to cut
yourself
with that knife.
John was looking at
in the mirror.
Kate fell and hurt
herself
Our cat washes
after every meal.
We baked the cake by
ourselves
Come in, everybody, and nd
yourselves
The children cleaned their room all by
themselves
Bears like to rub
themselves
against a tree.
The bird washed
by splashing in a puddle.
The players train every day to keep
themselves
Have
yourselves
personal
reflexive plural
personal
reflexive
pronoun pronoun
I (subject pronoun)
myself
we (subject pronoun)
ourselves
me (object pronoun)
myself
us(object pronoun)
ourselves
you (subject/object
yourself
you (subject/object
yourselves
pronoun)

pronoun)
he (subject pronoun)
they (subject pronoun)
themselves
him (object pronoun)
them (object pronoun)
themselves
she (subject pronoun)
herself
her (object pronoun)
herself
Pronouns:
Reflexive
27
Possessive Pronouns
Have you lost
yours
, Tom?
and that one is
Sarah has lost her cat. Is this cat
hers
I can see our car, but where is
yours
We’ve had our lunch, but they haven’t had
theirs
personal
possessive plural
personal
possessive
pronoun pronoun pronoun
we, us
ours
you
yours
you
yours
they, them
theirs
hers

Demonstrative Pronouns
is my desk.
are my pets.
is the Mings' house.
are sheep but
those
are goats.
is my friend’s house.
are horses.
That’s
my mother’s car.
You’ll have to work harder than
this
We can do better than
that
It’s raining again.
is awful!
that
knocking at the door?
Hi, Kathleen.
is Michael.
when you are

talking about things near you.
talking about things farther away.
Pronouns:
Possessive
Demonstrative
Interrogative Pronouns
used all my paper?
is Mom talking to?
are those people?
pen is this?
are these shoes?
is your brother’s name?
does Tom want?
is the date today?
do you want to be when
you grow up?
Which
of these desks is yours?
Which
do you prefer?
Which
of your sisters is the tallest?
did the President criticize?
Inedefinite Pronouns
indenite pronouns express he idea of quantity.
Everybody
is welcome at the meeting.
Many
prefer their coffee with sugar.
anybody
care for a cheese sandwich?
Few
choose to live in the arid desert.
Pronouns:
Interrogative
Indefinite
In writing and formal speaking, you

verbs and prepositions. For example:
Whom
did the president criticize?
Whom
is the principal talking to?


To
is the principal talking?
as the subject


of a verb. So you cannot say:

came to the party last night?
You have to say:
came to the party last night?

object of a verb. For example:
Who
broke the window?
(as the subject)
Who
are you inviting to your party?
(as the object)
Who

preposition. For example:
Who
is Mom talking to?
You can also use

a preposition. For example:

Whom
is Mom talking to?

To
is Mom talking?
each
most
other
another
either
neither
several
any
everybody
anybody
everyone
anyone
few
both
many
such
They
produce a lot of coal in your state.
Why don't
they
repair the bad roads?
Exercise 1
Read the following passage. Write the missing
object pronouns
in the
My name is Charlie.
have two brothers.
are both older than
. Sometimes they take me to the park and
play football
together. I like playing football with
because they are very good. We are
going to the park today. Would you like to come with
all play together. Afterwards,
can come to my house if
want
to. I think
will like my dad. He is very funny and
makes great
like pizza?
Pronouns:
Indefinite
Exercise 2
Some of the
reflexive pronouns
in the following sentences are used correctly, but some
are not. Put a checkmark
in the box if the reflexive pronoun is correct. Put an x
in the box if it is not correct. Then write the correct reflexive pronoun in the blank space.
1.
Sometimes I wash the dishes all by himself
Dad had an accident. He cut herself
with a knife.
Sally washes the car by herself
Do you think the doctor can cure itself
The cat stays clean by licking itself
Anna and May made the dinner all by herself
7.
Mom lets me walk to school by myself
Can you dress themselves
, boys and girls?
David can swim all by himself
now.
10.
This light is automatic. It switches itself
Exercise 3
Write a short sentence using each of the
interrogative pronouns
below.
Example:

Which
31
31
Exercise 4
Read the following passage. Write the missing
demonstrative pronouns
in the blank
Henry and I went for a walk on the beach. “What’s
over there?” I asked. “It
looks like broken glass,” said Henry. He gave me a bag. “Put it in
,” he said. I
put the broken glass into the bag. “We’d better put
in the trash,” I said. He
took the bag from me. “You have to hold it like
,” said Henry, “so that you
don’t cut your hand.”
Exercise 5
Write the missing
possessive pronouns
in the blank spaces to complete the sentences.
1.
I chose this seat rst so it’s
Can we borrow your coloring pens? We’ve lost
We live in the city and they live in the countryside. Our house is smaller than
John, is this pencil
Sally is looking for her gloves. Are these gloves
Can Julie use your bike?
is broken.
7.
Tom got the books mixed up. He thought mine was
and his was
Exercise 6
Circle at least one indefinite pronoun in each sentence.
1.
One never knows who might be listening.
Many are called but few are chosen.
I nished my cookie and asked for another.
Both were punished for the crime they commited.
Several applied for the job, but no one was hired.
Adjectives
Adjectives
They give you more information about
Kinds of Adjectives
Some adjectives tell about the
house
a
bridge
feet
large
army
mountain
hands
ship
a
short
short
skirt
tall
trousers
carpet
gray
brown
white
swan
orange
uniform
yellow
ribbon
black
woman
young
flat
surface
boy
uncle
a
drink
family
lady
a
winter
rich
familiar
voice
strange
pool
weather
plastic
folder
stone
wall
clay
pot
metal
box
cotton
shirt
dress
concrete
road
ring
wooden
vase
Mexican
British
the
French
Filipino
dress
American
custom
Washington
lady
a
dance
temple
Italian
The Order of Adjectives
small green plastic
box
size color substance
stylish red Italian


quality color origin
Here are more examples.
large Indian
temple
tall white stone
colorful cotton
shirt
robe
food
old graceful Japanese
crunchy Australian
short handsome English
hair
elegant short
But adjectives of size
adjectives of color. For example:
beautiful long black
elegant short red
beautiful long black silk
dress
Adjectives:
The Order of Adjectives
34
Exercise 1
Read the following passage and underline the adjectives. Write
above adjectives
above adjectives of
above adjectives of
quality
above
adjectives of
origin
Sydney is a large Australian city with busy streets and expensive shops. In summer, it’s a very
hot place. People wear cool clothes and drink cool drinks. There are beautiful sandy beaches
where people can rest and look up at the wide blue sky. There are big parks for tourists to
visit. Japanese tourists like to sit and watch other people. British tourists take photographs of
the strange plants and colorful birds.
Exercise 2
The following passage contains a lot of adjectives. Some of the adjectives appear in the
wrong order. First underline the wrongly ordered adjectives. Then write them in their
correct order on the lines below the passage.
My friend Jeremy is a handsome tall boy. He always wears a white long T-shirt and a big red
cap. He carries a blue huge canvas bag to school. His favorite food is red crunchy apples
and he always has one in his bag. Our teacher is an English kind tall man called Mr. Clark.
He wears a blue smart suit and glasses with black plastic thick frames.
34
Adjective Endings
face
injury
student
cheerful
baby
joyful
teacher
powerful
machine
wonderful
playful
children
player
book
colorful
clothes

Some adjectives end in -
famous
writer
courageous
mountainous
area
adventurous
explorer
job
a
snake

lm
a
generous
gift
mischievous
children
marvelous
results
Some adjectives end in -
room
car
dirty
sleepy
sky
thirsty
children
path
sunny
day
stormy
weather
test
worker
fruit
sky
a
word
sleeveless
dress
fearless
ghter
driver
joyless
grapes
tool
harmless
Adjectives:
Adjective Endings
Some adjectives end in -
ag
personal
instruments
traditional
costume
electrical
powers
coastal
town
equipment

Here are some adjectives that end in -
fantastic
singer
terrible
imaginative
story
energetic
answer
expensive
jewelery
grammar
horrible
talkative
children
enthusiastic
footprints
creative
artist
selfish
likeable
child
friendly
teachers
foolish
behavior
comfortable
clothes
lovely
dress
stylish
clothes
valuable
lively
childish
talk
suitable
colors
elderly
Many adjectives end in -
loving
parents
interesting
caring
nurse
result
flashing
outstanding
face
exciting
ride
boring
story
chattering
monkeys
car
shocking
news
Words like
verbs. They are formed by
Adjectives:
Adjective Endings
37
door
satisfied
customers
eggs
worried
passengers
wasted
prisoners
painted
wall
excited
students
prices
invited
guests
Describing What Something Is Made Of
can’t be used like this. To make adjectives of
adjective
example
wood
wood

a
wooden
wool
wool

a
woolen
jumper
Describing What Something Is Like
There’s another way to make adjectives from nouns. Suppose you want to say
a certain material, although not made of it. To make
adjective
example

a
sunrise (=
bright yellow like
silk
silk
as soft as
lead
lead

a
dark gray like the color of
Words like
Adjectives:
Describing What Something Is Made Of
Exercise 3
The following sentences contain adjectives made by adding endings to nouns. Write the
noun that each adjective comes from on the line after each sentence. The first one has
been done for you. Remember that some nouns must be changed slightly before the
1.
She’s always making
mistakes.
It was a very
injury.
Witches and wizards have
powers.
These oranges are very
.
Dogs are usually more
energetic
than cats.
Our neighbors are not very
friendly
7.
She keeps her toys in a large
wooden
box.
Take off your
shoes before you come in.
May I borrow your pencil sharpener? Mine is
.
10.
dress!
Exercise 4
Fill in the blank spaces with adjectives made from the verbs in parentheses. Remember
that both present participles and past participles can be used as adjectives. Choose
the adjective that suits the sentence best. The first one has been done for you.
1.
It wasn’t a very
interest
) movie.
We could hear the
excite
) fans screaming.
I hope the pupils don’t think that my classes are
My dad had a very
worry
) look on his face.
Have the police found the
steal
) car yet?
The supermarket sells lots of
) food.
7.
The players on the
) team don’t look tired at all.
Some of the old houses had
) windows.
The Comparison of Adjectives
The Comparative Form
To
comparative form
adjective. The comparative form is usually made by adding
adjective
comparative form
adjective
comparative form
dark
dark
warm
warm
low
low
fast
fast
slow
slow
young
young
rich
rich
poor
poor
tall
tall
small
small
soft
soft
The Superlative Form

form
of an adjective. The superlative form is usually made by adding
adjective
superlative form
adjective
superlative form
dark
dark
est
warm
warm
est
est
est
est
fast
fast
est
low
low
est
slow
slow
est
est
young
young
est
rich
rich
est
est
tall
tall
est
est
soft
soft
est
est
superlative form. For example:
A bee is a small insect. A ladybird is smaller,
the smallest
Mr. Lee is
taller than
faster than
a bike.
Adjectives:
The Comparison of Adjectives
to form the comparative and
to form the
adjective
comparative
superlative

nice
st

close
st
large
large
large
st
rude
rude
rude
st

safe
st

wide
st
adjective
comparative
superlative

sad
dest
wet
wet
ter
wet
test

slim
mest
thin
thin
thin
nest
big
big
ger
gest
adjective
comparative
superlative
adjective
comparative
superlative

eas
iest
heavy
heav
heav
iest
funny

funn
iest
lovely
lovel
lovel
iest
dirty
dirt
dirt
iest
pretty
prett
prett
iest

nois
iest

tid
iest
happy

happ
iest
friendly
friendl
friendl
iest

naught
iest
tiny

tin
iest
Adjectives:
The Comparison of Adjectives
41
to compare most other two-syllable adjectives. You
adjective
comparative
superlative
famous
more famous
most famous
precious
more precious
most precious
more handsome
most handsome
exciting
more exciting
most exciting
more beautiful
most beautiful
expensive
more expensive
most expensive
comfortable
more comfortable
most comfortable
more delicious
most delicious
interesting
more interesting
most interesting
more difcult
most difcult
Irregular Comparative and Superlative Forms
A few adjectives don’t form their comparative and superlative forms in any
of the usual ways. The comparative and superlative forms of these adjectives
are different words, called irregular forms.
adjective
comparative
superlative
better
best
worse
worst
least
many
more
most
far
farther
further
farthest
furthest
, Melanie’s painting is
better
, but Andrew’s painting
is the
best
Adjectives:
The Comparison of Adjectives
Adjective Phrases

Most adjective phrases come


are in color.
Who is the
girl
with long hair
My friend lives in the
across the street
Mrs. Morris
tall and slim
This is the
to Toledo
in the bookshop
is a friend of mine.
bird
an
eight-year-old
child
well-dressed
ten-cent
fun-loving
teenager
twenty-story
user-friendly
equipment
large-sized
shirt
Exercise 5
Read the following passage. Write the correct
comparative
superlative forms
the adjectives in parentheses in the blank spaces. The first one has been done for you.
Paul likes playing football. He’s a very good player, but his friend Sally is a
) player. She’s the
) player in the whole school. She is
fast
strong
) than all the boys, even the
boys who are
) than her. That’s why
Paul likes her. Paul thinks all games are exciting, but football is the
exciting
) game and it’s
) than all the other games he plays with
his friends. When the grass is wet, everyone gets dirty when they play football. But Sally gets
dirty
wet
) than everyone else.
Adjectives:
Adjective Phrases
Exercise 6
Complete the following sentences. Write an
adjective phrase
that includes the
preposition in parentheses. The first one has been done for you.
1.
Is this the train
to
They live in a big house

3.
Emilly's desk is
oppposite
The bucket has a hole
Who is the man
with
Exercise 4
Complete the following sentences. Write an
adjective phrase
, using the adjective in
parentheses and another adjective linked with
. The first one has been done
for you.
1.
His sister's hair is
black
Our teacher is
oppposite
Tomorrow's weather will be
sunny
The museum was
quiet
44
.
university
your
town?
Does
every
child
the
school
wear
uniform
We
are
taking
vacation
this
summer.
.

We’ve
waiting
here
for
Meeting
the
president
was
for
Determiners
entrance
fox
peach
Determiners
before
There
The Articles
,

.
The


.
nouns.
before
.
reading
Would
you
like
a peach
that

a fox
You’ll
a ruler
there
always
take
to
school.
you
have
that
borrow?
Would
you
like
to
live
The

.

are
the garden
Who
the mess
the carpet
Turn
the television
off
now.
wait
for
you
the car
The boys
are
upstairs
the girls
are
the street
Using Nouns without Articles
When
You
without
Frogs
are
my
favorite
like
playing
games.
cry
lot.
are
things
that
you
wear
to
correct
your
eyesight.
are
that
y.
People
enjoy
watching
television.
normally
or
.
article
however,
quantity.
like
sometimes
have
fruit
for
breakfast.
You’ve
got
dirt
your
face.
clock
measures
Put
your
tea
to
make
sweet.
to
think
new
Would
you
the salt
borrow
the paint
you’ve
N
You
We
to
school
by
already
left
for
work.
They
to
church
Sundays.
Determiners:
Using Nouns without Articles
Demonstrative Determiners

They
Use



this
with singular nouns.
lives
this house
to
my
this key
the
lock?
my
favorite.
gave
you
this money
This cheese
tastes
funny.
Use



that
with singular nouns
chair
that chair
yours.
funny
Would
you
that book
that man
talking
to
How
much
that dress
those
with plural nouns
gave
my
sandwiches
to
those boys.
Those children
to
different
school.
are
are
yours.
fresh
those
rotten.
are
from
Africa.
Determiners:
Demonstrative Determiners
these
with plural nouns
These trousers
are
too
short.
don’t
like
these comics
don’t
taste
very
these apples
for
lunch.
there
with
these children
47
Quantifying Determiners
Words
,

number.
Some
.
,
,
,
,

Few
have
to
the
moon. We
went
to
Europe
many
years
A few
children
are
today.
Several
friends
went
with
have
fewer
than
you.
Both
brothers
have
dark
hair.
.
,
,
,
,
,
,
,

.
children
to
like
chocolate.
We’ve
eaten
the
food
the
refrigerator.
the
have
burst
already.
Jenny
watching
television.
girls
like
to
play
football.
have
water?
you
have
books
to
read?
don’t
have
material
to
make
dress.
like
burgers.
There’s
a lot of
fruit
the
bowl.
They
went
to
park
with
lots of
You
gain
weight
you
lots of
cream.
You’ve
got
brothers
than
have.
There’s
my
room
than
yours.
Most
teachers
enjoy
teaching.
Most
contains
sugar.
likes
playing
with
other
children.
They
never
tasted
other
food.
my
friends
have
the
Harry
Potter
movies.
Drink
water
every
day.
Determiners:
Quantifying Determiners
Some
.
are



We
have
to
play.
There’s
rice
left.
the
teacher
give
you
much
homework?
I’ve
got
cream
than
you.
Some
.
are
,
every
another
likes
every
child
the
Each
painted
different
color.
The


don’t
like
either
drink.
Neither
sister
hair.
Some
with singular, plural, or nouns of
.
,
,

Any
bite
it’s
afraid.
Are
there
any
books
the
library?
There
wasn’t
any
the
No
child
likes
getting
hurt.
There
were
the
drawer.
We’ve
work
today.
There
no other
way
solving
the
problem.
no other
friends.
We
have
no other
food
the
refrigerator.
you
like
this
picture
the other
picture?
The other
boys
like
the other
better.
Determiners:
Quantifying Determiners
Interrogative Determiners
,



Which
boy
your
brother?
this?
Possessive Determiners
,
,
,
,
,


ownership.
my
sandwich
to
this
your
crashed
bike
into
wall.
Mrs.
Park
keeps
very
was
licking
paws.
There’s
snake
garden.
Peter
have
invited
to
their
party.
determiner
pronoun
determiner
pronoun) my we
pronoun) our
pronoun) my us
pronoun)
our
you
pronoun) your you
pronoun) your
pronoun) his they
pronoun) their
pronoun) his them
pronoun) thei
pronoun) her
pronoun) her
pronoun) its
N
very
angry
with
you,
Your
behavior
very
today.
Jake
your
ready.
Determiners:
Interrogative Determiners; Possessive Determiners
Numbers
family
two
There
are
twelve
months
the
year.
We
three
grandfather
lived
for
years.
Using Determiners Together
You
many more
prefer
summer.
There’s
this
than
that
There
are
five fewer
children
my
than
your
Use

any
these
drinks.
my
friends
don’t
like
country
Each
the
boys
answered
the
question
correctly.
I’ve
your
behavior!
Five
these
girls
are
taller
than
any
the
boys.
The

We
ate
the
food
the
fridge.
We
ate
the
food
the
fridge.
playing
He
playing
football.
football.
likes
my
friends.
She
likes
my
friends.
Determiners:
Numbers; Using Determiners Together
51
Exercise 1
Read the following passage. Write the correct
article
in each blank space. If no article
is needed, leave the space blank. The first one has been done for you.
lives
apartment
with
sister
Katy.
apartment
three
bedrooms,
kitchen,
bathroom
room.
John’s
works
stays
looks
after
apartment.
much
kitchen,
preparing
Katy
their
with
housework.
likes
vacuum
Katy
likes
to
sweep
oor.
gives
Katy
money
they
They
the
money
computer
games!
Exercise 2
Notice the
determiners
in the following passage. What kind of determiners are they?
Put a
in the box after a demonstrative determiner, a
after a quantifying determiner,
after an interrogative determiner, a
after a possessive determiner and an
after
a number.
my
friend.
We
play
together
every
day.
to
to
play.
parents
are
very
two
brothers
sometimes
games.
Last
week,
brothers
my
hair.
Sally’s
was
very
angry
with
them.
“Stop
behaving
that
rough
way!”
shouted.
glad
don’t
have
any
brothers.
51
Verbs and Tenses
drink look jump swim fall
eat shout walk throw climb
laugh run sit
catch dance




other. You say that the subject and the verb
when they match each other.
verbs in these examples. The subjects are in bold and the verbs are in color.
always
he’s
hot.
for
breakfast.
walks
My sister
like
professional
dancer.
The baby
falls
to
walk.
the
trees
garden.
This form of the verb is called the
. You use it when

Here are some more
plays sings shines rides smiles
draws paints blows thinks stops
reads rains travels talks starts
The third person singular form of some verbs is made by adding
bru
wat
ches
ki

xes
ru
rea
ches
mi
mi
xes
tea
ches
pa
bu
cra
cat
ches
pre
d
wa
tou
ches
dre
g

Here are some sentences with verbs in their
third person singular form
The subjects are in bold and the verbs are in color.
always
brushes
teeth
they
My brother
watches
television
after
school.
catches
the
with
mixes
water
makes
bread.
around
the
owers.
My friend Sanjay
to
the
school
How do you make the third person singular form of most verbs that end in
Usually, you just change the
carry – carr
hurry –
hurr
copy – cop
cry

cr
y
– 
marry
– marr
study

stud
worry – worr
bully – bull
carries
kitten
with
mouth.
Mr. Chen
hurries
to
work
every
morning.
The baby
cries
lot
flies
to
the
every
day.
tries
school.
the
questions
notebook.
Verbs and Tenses:
Subject and Verb Agreement
54
of these words to make the third person singular form.
buy – buy
say – say
pray – pray
pay – pay
annoy – annoy
stay – stay
bread
the
supermarket.
Mr. Carter
pays
with
credit
My friend
says
salt-water
aquarium.
annoys
with
jokes.
stays
with
weekends.
to plural verbs. Plural
verbs are also used with the pronouns
,
we
,
you
and
they
love
My sisters
listen
to
lot.
The stars
brightly
drink
tea.
like
hamburgers.
We
learn
interesting
things
school.
You
know
the
words
to
this
children.
They
always
walk
from
school
together.
was
enjoying
the
play.
have
thirty
students.
are
their
papers.
performing
were
arguing
themselves.
N
Words that refer to groups of people
crowd committee herd
crew litter ock
Verbs and Tenses:
Subject and Verb Agreement
Transitive and Intransitive Verbs
Some verbs have
for
breakfast.
Verbs that have objects are called

Here are some sentences with
and their objects are printed in color.
likes
Sam
knows
the answer
to
the
question.
sister
cooks
. My
brother
rides
his bike
the
street.
tea
the
market. Mom
writes
stories
spare
Some verbs don’t have an object. A verb that does not have an object is
lots
walk
to
work.
boys
play
the
yard
after
school.
Mr.
Carter
always
drives
very
carefully.
Doris
very
businesswoman.
Michael
both
entered
the
race.
won
lost
Some verbs can be either transitive or intransitive. Notice that the transitive
pilot
flies
the plane
very
well. Eagles
fly
the
sky.
boys
play
football
weekends. The
boys
play
the
yard
weekends.
runs
her own company
. My
runs
the
park
for
We
walk
the dog
every
evening.
We
walk
the
beach
every
evening.
verb
the
word
the
affected
by
the
Verbs and Tenses:
Transitive and Intransitive Verbs
Exercise 1
Read the following sentences. Underline the
verb
in each sentence.
1.
We
live
apartment
the
boulevard.
2.
Some
children
learn
very
fast.
3.
We
for
Sunday.
4.
I
like
my
new
bike.
5.
Babies
sometimes
during
the
day.
6.
My
buys
newspaper
every
morning.
7.
These
to
Kathleen.
8.
I
often
walk
to
school
with
my
9.
My
sister
plays
the
very
well.
10.
Sarah
sometimes
reads
Exercise 2
Fill in the blank spaces with the
third person singular form
of the verbs in parentheses.
Example

today.
1.
Sumiko
English
very
well.
2.
Mr.
to
school
motorbike.
3.
My
neighbor’s
bark
very
loudly.
4.
My
brother
always
brush
teeth
properly.
5.
Dad
tall
that
almost
touch
the
6.
Our
catch
the
teeth.
7.
Mom
vinegar
to
make
dressing.
8.
Sally
try
not
to
disturb
brother
he’s
reading.
9.
Dad
newspaper
from
the
store
the
corner.
10.
Her
annoy
my
homework.
57
57
intransitive
transitive
verb
verb
Exercise 3
Underline the verbs in the following sentences. Then show whether the verb is transitive
or intransitive by putting a checkmark (
) in the correct box. Remember that depending
on the meaning, some verbs can be either transitive or intransitive. For each of the
transitive verbs you have marked, write the object of the verb on the lines. The first one
is done for you.
1.
My
brother
often
play
chess.
2.
Mom
work
the
garden
weekends.
3.
The
library
P.M.
4.
Mr.
Ross
drives
very
carefully.
5.
The
jumped
over
the
wall.
6.
My
sister
likes
new
7.
Grandad
walks
the
every
evening.
8.
Will
you
with
to
the
9. The
boys
are
skating
the
park.
10. Dad
sandwiches.
11. The
children
went
to
12. We
food
the
supermarket.
13. Sally
found
14. They
are
learning
to
English.
15. Anna
was
reading
interesting
book.
16. On
weekends,
to
the
beach
with
17. The
the
tree.
18. They
the
cart
into
the
The Simple Present Tense
Verbs have forms called
We
always
wash
before
sometimes
bike.
the
park
every
day.
We
often
to
the
movies
Satrurday.
Mr.
Ross
takes
train
to
work.
rises
every
morning.
Penguins
live
the
Antarctica.
love
playing
water.
earth
around
the
Australia

a story that is happening
arrive
school.
another
girl
crying.
why

She
says
n’t
got
any
friends
to
play
with.
tell
that
can play
with
sister
starts
school
tomorrow.
new
supermarket
this
Friday.
Next
week
holiday
to
We
fly
to
Sunday.
train
leaves
ve
minutes.
family
moves
to
new
next
month.
Verbs and Tenses:
The Simple Present Tense
are
are the simple present forms of the verb
Use
Use
Use
like ‘my parents’ and ‘Jenny and Mary’, and with
twelve.
The children
the
garden.
Computers
very
expensive.
very
tired
today.
My brother and I
upstairs.
The teacher
tall.
We
bedrooms.
pretty.
You
my
best
friend.
black.
You and David
my
best
friends.
plural
first person
I
we
second person
you
you
third person
he
they

she
they

it
they
Verbs and Tenses:
N
forms are called contractions.
full form
short form
you
are
you’re
he’s
she’s
it’s
we
are
we’re
they
are they’re
You can use these contractions to replace
full form
short form
not I’m
not
not he
isn’t
not she
isn’t
not
isn’t
we
are
not we
aren’t
you
are
not you
aren’t
they
are
not they
aren’t
there is
there are
garden.
a girl
Farah
my
fish
for
dinner.
nothing
to
rains.
There’s
the
bench.
There’s
a boy
my
walk
cows
the
very
the
today.
Exercise 4
Look at the pairs of subjects and verbs below. Then write a sentence using each subject
with the
simple present
form of the verb. Remember that you can also use the simple
present tense to talk about the future.
Example:
verb
1.
Dad
2.
My
brother ride
3.
The
dog watch
4.
The
bus leave
5.
Tom
Sam buy

6.
We

7.
Aunt
Grace come
8. Our
neighbor like
9. The
boys start
10.
My
family travel
N
there is
there’s.
Verbs and Tenses:
there is
there are
61
Exercise 5
Complete the following sentences by writing
are
in the blank spaces.
1.
The
weather
today.
2.
All
the
children
the
playground.
3.
Boys!
You
always
late
for
4.
you
the
basketball
team,
too?
5.
Nobody
my
interested
football.
6.
this
computer
more
expensive
than
that
7.
Sally
my
best
friend.
8.
Mom
downstairs
watching
television.
9.
Paul
Henry
the
computer
room.
10.
The
Eiffel
Tower
the
tallest
Paris.
Exercise 6
Read the following passage. Fill in
there’s, there are, there isn’t
there aren’t
in the
like
playing
park
great
things
to
play
chute
to
huge
sandbox
to
play
are
not
allowed
the
park
to
bother
lot
for
to
run
around.
sometimes
gets
hot
many
trees
to
give
fountain
where
we
drink
water.
It’s
the
best
the
town
for
children.
another
the
park.
61
Exercise 7
Rewrite the following sentences using contractions. The first one has already been
done to help you.
1. It
another
sunny
day
today.

2.
This
my
sister.
ve.



3.
I
not
very
interested
sports.

4.
She
not
my
best
friend.
You
are
my
best
friend.

5.
Cats
are
not

6.
We
are
homework.

7.
She
the
the
garage.


8.
Our
teacher
not
very
tall.


9.
My
parents
are
not
from
work
yet.

10.
My
friend
not
very
math.

The Present Progressive Tense

Make the present progressive tense by using
am learning
how
to
my
lunch.
am watching
television.
book.
cake.
sister
is listening
to
Uncle
David
car.
is barking
the
garden.
We
favorite
brother
are playing
computer
game.
teachers
are showing
They
are bringing
television
set
into
the
classroom.
to
the
library
tomorrow.
sister
bike
gets
new
We
can’t
to
the
movies
tomorrow
my
is working
We
are having
Sunday.
my
friends
to
my
party
next
week.
We
’re taking
my
to
the
later
today.
N
form of a verb is called the
. You use the
+
watch

(present participle)
+
listen

(present participle)
+
play

(present participle)
Verbs and Tenses:
The Present Progressive Tense
64
Exercise 8
Fill in the blank spaces with the present progressive tense of the verbs in parentheses.
Try to use contractions such as
I’m, she’s
they’re
where you can.
1. We
to
the
tomorrow.
2. He
fix
my
bike
the
garage.
3. I
the
kitchen.
4.
My
sister
watch
television
bedroom.
5.
The
train
leave
ten
minutes.
6.
They
with
to
the
7.
We
pictures
for
Aunt
8.
The
boys
girls
the
9.
The
chase
10.
My
brother
tickle
Exercise 9
Complete the following sentences with either 1) the
simple present form
of the verb,
or 2) the
present progressive form
of the verb.
1.
The
teacher
always
give
interesting
project
work.
2.
The
blow
very
strongly
today.
3.
I
like
chocolate
cream.
4.
Be
quiet!
We
try
to
listen
to
the
radio.
5.
Let’s
now.
to
rain.
6.
Penguins
7.
Dad
never
let
play
the
street
it’s
dark.
8.
The
children
every
day.
9.
We’re
trying
to
catch
the
that
down
the
10.
My
teacher
know
lot
64
The Simple Past Tense
.
The

I opened the door and
looked
visited
us last summer.
We
walked
to school yesterday.
when I told her the joke.
If
,
all the windows?
We
lived
in that house when I was a baby.
when she saw me.
We
raced
,
adding
carried
my mom’s shopping bag.
My brother
cried
when he fell off his bike.
We
hurried
tried
to help me with my homework.
With
that
you
I climbed over the fence and
ripped
my shirt.
The stranger
grabbed
my arm.
wagged
its tail when it saw the biscuits.
the door and walked off angrily.
Verbs and Tenses:
The Simple Past Tense
was
were

forms
.
Was
form

.


‘my
,

.
Were
form
.

Mary’,
,

Ten years ago,
was
only a baby.
was
younger, I played with teddy bears.
My friend
was
ill yesterday.
was
angry when she saw the broken vase.
was
very wet on Monday.
was
six o’clock when we got home.
We
were
away on vacation last month.
were
in the garden.
You
were
nasty to me!
You and Sally
were
not at school yesterday.
Dinosaurs
were
prehistoric animals.
were
my best jeans.
Here
how
and
plural
first person
I was
we were
second person
you were
you were
third person
he was
they were
she was
they were
it was
they were
N
You


full form
short form
I was not
I wasn’t
he was not
he wasn’t
she was not
she wasn’t
it was not
it wasn’t
we were not
we weren’t
you were not
you weren’t
they were not
they weren’t
Verbs and Tenses:
was
were
67
Irregular Verbs
Many
forms.
Remember
at
becomes
.
irregular verb
simple past tense
irregular verb
simple past tense
break
broke
keep
kept
bring
brought
know
knew
catch
leave
left
lost
meet
met
fall
ring
rang
run
ran
saw
ew
get
got
slept
went
spoke
have
write
wrote
The
verb
simple past tense
example
cost
cost
I bought a new CD. It
cost
twenty dollars.
My brother
his nger this morning.
the ball into a neighbor’s garden.
hurt
hurt
hurt
my leg when I jumped off the wall.
let
let
Mom opened the door and
let
The tea tasted horrible because I
too much

sugar in it.
read
read
us a story last night.
Verbs and Tenses:
Irregular Verbs
Exercise 10
Write each past tense verb below under the correct heading.
lived
cried
hurried
played
tried
grabbed
raced
verb +
verb +
double the last letter +
change
to
Exercise 11
Complete the sentences with the simple past tense of the verbs in parentheses.
1.
The boys
) secrets to each other.
Uncle Ben
hurry
) to catch his bus.
We
return
) our books to the library.
) the frog and it
change
) into a prince.
tap
) me on the shoulder.
The baby
cry
) when we took her toy away.
7.
) the badge onto his jacket.
Two doctors
rush
) into the room.
This is the house that we
live
) in when I was younger.
10.
Grandad
lower
) himself into the chair.
Exercise 12
Write
was
were
in the blank spaces in the following passage.
a beautiful summer’s day and there
n’t a cloud in the sky.
all in the garden. Dad
in the vegetable
garden planting some seeds and Mom and I
busy with other jobs. The
hot and soon I
feeling very tired. Mom and Dad
n’t tired at all. They went on working for a long time. I
glad when it
time to go inside and have a drink.
Exercise 13
Draw a circle around the correct
past tense verb
in each sentence below.
1.
lost
) my watch in the park.
David (
hurt
hurted
falled
fell
I kicked the ball hard and it (
breaked
broke
) a window.
My new shoes (
cost
costed
) a lot of money.
getted
) this book from the library.
We had a garage where we (
keeped
kept
) our car.
7.
shew
showed
) me the cut on his knee.
The glass (
falled
fell
) off the table and (
breaked
broke
We (
buyed
) a new one.
10.
ringed
rang
) and we all (
went
) into school.
11.
catched
) the ball in its mouth.
12.
) down to talk to the little boy.
13.
meeted
met
) my friend in the park.
14.
runned
ran
) onto the road in front of a car.
15.
writed
wrote
) a letter to her best friend.
The Past Progressive Tense
Use
To


.
was watching
television.
was finishing
his homework.
was putting
her books into her schoolbag.
Jenny and I
were tidying
the classroom.
We
were
at the party.
You
were
n’t
listening
to the teacher.
Some boys
were looking
out of the window.
You
was doing
his math homework when the phone rang.
was cooking
our dinner when I got home.
When I saw Joe, he
was looking
for his dog.
We
were
enjoying
the movie when the power went out.
were
they
when the bell rang?
Exercise 14
Complete the sentences with the
past progressive tense
of the verbs in parentheses.
1.
At the block party lots of people
) in the street.
) in my bedroom reading a book.
make
) a very loud noise in the street.
Why
you all
Mike and John
wash
) their paintbrushes.
practice
) the piano.
7.
I ran so fast that my heart
) really hard.
Our neighbors
have
N
form
You
or

past
was


(present participle)
were
listen


(present participle)
Verbs and Tenses:
The Past Progressive Tense
71
have, has
The

.
n
Use
with
,


‘Tom
n
Use

,

and
such
have
two brothers and one sister.
Monkeys
have
long tails.
My sister and I
have
a swing in our garden.
a big brother.
Sally
a pretty face.
a long trunk.
big ears.
His brother
dark hair.
Our apartment
big windows.

I can’t play football because
have
a broken leg.
We
have
art lessons on Mondays.
You
have
a stain on your shirt.
They
have
the desks nearest the teacher.
Peter
a sore knee.
You

We
have
lunch at school.
sometimes
have
their breakfast in bed.
Jenny
often
sandwiches for lunch.
sometimes
cola to drink.
N

forms
.
Verbs and Tenses:
have, has
and
plural
first person
I have
we have
second person
you have
you have
third person
they have
they have
they have
The
form


.
a big toy car when I was small.
It was sunny so
we
lunch in the garden.
They
a wonderful holiday in Europe.
Sally and I
chicken for dinner.
The boys
a ght in the playground.
a sore back yesterday.
long hair when I saw her a year ago.
three kittens last week.
Use

.
a new bike.
Kathleen
a big sister.
a bigger garage.
The boys
they
more space to play football in.
You
didn’t have
so much homework.
Jack
didn’t have
a broken leg.
didn’t have
to work on weekends.
Do you
you
didn’t have
English classes today?
Verbs and Tenses:
have, has
The Present Perfect Tense
perfect
perfect
To
perfect


.
We
have lived
in this house for ve years.
and we still live there
Your plane
already
and it’s still on the ground
has dirtied
her new shoes.
she made them dirty and they’re still dirty
The teacher
a notice on the board.
and the notice is still there
You don’t need your key. I’
ve
already
the door. (=
and it’s still open
Irregular Past Participles
don’t
form
.

don’t
irregular verb
simple past tense
past participle
fought
fought
have
lost
lost
teach
taught
taught
won
won
Verbs and Tenses:
The Present Perfect Tense; Irregular Past Participles
N
form

used

perfect
have

past participle

+
open

past participle
74
Here
irregular
simple
past
example
verb
past tense
participle
keep
kept
kept
have kept
the letter you sent me.
catch
have caught
the thieves.
bring
brought
brought
her favorite CD

to school.
make
The children
have made
a birthday


card for their mom.
They’
ve sold
their car and now they
have bought
motorcycles.
Some

irregular
simple
past
example
verb
past form
participle
was
my best friend for


years.
break
broke
broken
I’m sorry, I’
ve broken
your pencil.
Jack
already
his homework.
draw
drew
drawn
We’
ve drawn
a picture for you, Mom.
drink
drank
drunk
Have
you
drunk
all your orange juice?
ate
eaten
has eaten
all the chocolates.
fall
fallen
One of the pictures has
fallen
off the

wall.
went
I’m sorry, but your train
already

know
knew
known
ve known
Michael for two years.
saw
Kathleen
already
that movie.
spoke
spoken
has spoken
to the principal

about the problem.
Verbs and Tenses:
Irregular Past Participles
Some

irregular
past
example
verb
participle
ve cut
my nger and it’s bleeding badly.
The children next door
have hit
their ball into the

busy street.
cost
cost
This vacation
has cost
us hundreds of dollars already.
read
read
hasn’t
my school report yet.
hurt
hurt
Can Anna sit down? She’
s hurt
put
put
Have
you
any sugar in my tea?
Exercise 15
Complete the following sentences with
have
1.
a long shiny coat.
Our teacher
a very kind face.
You
a lot of homework to do.
desks near the front of the class.
Paul
two brothers and a sister.
My friend Andy
7.
long tails.
Most dogs
sharp teeth.
more toys than my friend
10.
These owers
a strange smell.
Verbs and Tenses:
Irregular Past Participles
76
Exercise 16
Complete the sentence with the
present perfect tense
of the verbs in parentheses.
1.
The children
make
) the house very messy.
) that actor in several movies.
The boys
drink
) all the soda in the refrigerator.
hurt
One of the workmen
fall
) off his ladder.
She’s sad because her friends
) to the park without her.
7.
have
) a shower already.
I’ve been shouting so much that I
) my voice.
My sister’s boyfriend
) her a diamond ring.
10.
(
) this jigsaw puzzle so many times that he could do it with
his eyes shut.
Exercise 17
Draw a circle around the correct
past participle
in each sentence below.
1.
Your child has (
broke/broken
) my window!
Have you (
eaten/ate
) all your dinner?
I have (
known/knew
) Sally since we were in kindergarden.
Michael has (
drew/drawn
) a picture for his grandad.
The new girl seems nice, but I haven’t (
spoke/spoken
) to her yet.
We’ve (
drank/drunk
) all the milk.
7.
went/gone
) over the garden fence.
Has Tom (
) all his homework?
You have (
been/was
) late for school every day this week.
10.
Help! I’ve (
fell/fallen
) down a hole!
76
77
The Future Tense
To

with
describes
You

ith

Use
with
,
,
,

.
Will

my homework after dinner.
you when you leave.
We
shall take
the dog for a walk later.
We
Grandma this weekend.
home later.
us cook the food for the party.
dark outside.
I think
sunny tomorrow.
I expect
they
will give
you a present.
very pleased with you.
Your plant
without water.
The school
a lot of repairs.
glad when the exams are over.
late for school if they don’t hurry.
To
form,


.

will not
help you unless you help me rst.
won’t
be very sunny again until next summer.
You
won’t
like this food. It’s horrible!
We
go to the party without you.
N
You
and
as
full form
contraction
we shall, we will
we’ll
you will
you’ll
he’ll
she’ll
it’ll
they will
they’ll
Verbs and Tenses:
The Future Tense
To

,
Tomorrow
Sunday.
Summer vacation
on Friday.
The new library
next week.
We
fly
to Paris on Wednesday.
You

s
by

Use


.
Use

with
,

,

nouns

Use

with

,

am going to visit
my cousin tomorrow.
am going to see
the new Star Wars movie next week.
My friend John
is going to move
to Chicago next year.
is going to buy
me a skateboard.
Aunt Jane
is going to have
another baby soon.
is going to be
windy tomorrow.
is going to fix
the television soon.
You
are going to help
me, aren’t you?
My friends
are going to teach
me how to play chess.
are going to buy
a new computer.
Your books
are going to fall
off the shelf if you’re not careful.
you
going to read
your book now?
Verbs and Tenses:
The Future Tense
Exercise 18
Decide whether
are used correctly in each sentence. Put a checkmark
in the box for a correct use and an x
in the box for an incorrect use.
1.
be home later.
never forget my days at school.
Tom and Kumar shall
come with us.
The weather report says that it shall
be sunny again tomorrow.
We will
miss my cousins when they leave.
Raj and I shall
feel happier when the exams are over.
7.
be late when we arrive in London.
8.
I shall
stay awake all night and watch for Santa Claus.
My grandparents shall
enjoy coming to our house for Christmas.
10.
The winter holidays shall
give us all a good rest.
Exercise 19
Read the pairs of subjects and verbs below. Then write sentences about future events
using the correct form of
be going to
. For example, for the first sentence you could
write:
verb
1.
My friend Tom
We
ride
catch
Uncle Andy
rain
We
7.
have
The teachers
read
The
is

forms
.
Use
with
,


‘Tom
Use

,

and
such
always
my homework after dinner.
drawings with colored pencils.
We
our shopping at the supermarket.
You
magic tricks very well.
They
their housework on the weekend.
the cooking together.
always
well in math tests.
The artist
very interesting work.
the washing and
the cooking.
always
her exercises before breakfast.
My friend
karate at a local gym.
vacuum cleaner
a better job than the broom.
Here
and
plural
first person
we do
second person
you do
you do
third person
they do
they do
they do
Verbs and Tenses:
81
full form
short form
I/we did not
I/we didn’t
you did not
you didn’t
they did not
they didn’t
he/she/it did not
he/she/it didn’t
The
form

.
my homework but forgot to take it to school.
Sally
her hair in front of the mirror.
The boys
very badly in their spelling test.
Paul and Roger
some magic tricks for us.
The children
the housework while their parents relaxed.
To
form


do not have
any brothers or sisters.
We
do not want
any more bread, thank you.
My brother and I
do not like
football.
You see beautiful mountains in Scotland but
you
do not see
much sunshine.
does not buy
our food at that supermarket.
Jenny
does not eat
lunch at school because
does not like
the food.
does not make
as much noise as your dog.
The

is
The
did not have
long hair when I rst met her.
I got sunburned because I
did not wear
my hat.
The teacher
didn’t give
us any homework.
didn’t buy
me a cell phone for my birthday.
You
didn’t take
the dog for a walk last night.
N
,

are
full form
short form
I/we do not
I/we don’t
you do not
you don’t
they do not
they don’t
he/she/it does not
he/she/it doesn’t
Verbs and Tenses:
Exercise 20
Complete the following sentences with
1.
I always
my homework in my room.
the laundry together.
You
the same math problems last week.
We always
our shopping at the farmers' market.
The children
their work quietly while the teacher looks at their
homework.
Uncle David
magic tricks when he comes to visit.
7.
Last night, Mom
her exercises before bedtime.
Anna played the piano and Rachel
a lively dance.
Kamal always
well in math tests.
10.
the cooking, will you
the dishes?
Exercise 21
Complete the following sentences with the contractions
don’t
doesn’t
didn’t
1.
Katy
go to school on the bus.
2.
I
like chocolate ice cream.
If the weather
improve, we’ll have the party indoors.
4.
worry about the mess. It does not matter.
5.
I
answer all the questions on the math test.
6.
Mom and Dad
work on weekends.
7.
My sister and I
visit Grandma last Sunday.
My friend John
nish his homework yesterday.
Our neighbors
like dogs very much.
10.
Our teacher
The Infinitive
form
Innitives
The rain
to fall
to meet
this afternoon.
ve arranged
to see
the doctor at 3 o’clock.
to visit
Disneyland someday.
like
to ride
my bike in the street.
My parents
have decided
to buy
a new car.
Paul
is learning
to swim
didn’t mean
to upset
you.
Some
color.
Simon asked
to help
The teacher told
not
to run
in the corridor.
Susie persuaded her
friends
to play
on the team.
The manager allowed the
staff
to leave
early.
Innitives
color.
The boys were
afraid
to cross
the busy road.
I’m very
to see
you again.
This problem will be
difficult
to solve
The shelf is too
to reach
Don’t you think it’s
rude
to ignore
the new girl in class?
The experiment was
interesting
to watch
You’re
welcome
to come
with me.
Verbs and Tenses:
The Infinitive
84
You

you
Take
to read
I phoned for
a taxi
to take
us to the airport.
Has everyone got
something
to drink
I’ve got lots of nice
clothes
to wear
Find
a space on the floor
to sit in
Innitives
,
,

My brother is learning
how
to cook
I can’t decide
which
to choose
—the ice cream or the pudding.
I don’t know
to say
Sally can’t remember
to hang
Innitives
such
,
,
.
We think she
the race.
You
must try
harder.
Do you think we
should wait
May
The Imperative Form of Verbs
When
form
,

form
your books to page 25.
Stop
before you cross the road.
to the front of the class.
Show
me your homework.
Read
the rst sentence out loud.
a partner and
stand
in a circle.
N


auxiliary verbs
Verbs and Tenses:
The Infinitive; The Imperative Form of Verbs
very
To

the
Please show
me your homework.
the rst sentence out loud.
to the front of the class.
To

form
Do not bring
calculators into the exam room.
don’t change
anything on my computer.
Gerunds
A

form
is

Running
is a good way to keep t.
Susan is very good at
drawing
He loves
Have you ever tried
I don’t like
watching television
We enjoyed
visiting our grandparents.
Some
,
washing
machine
a machine that does washing
a bag for carrying your purchases
walking
boots
boots you wear for walking in the countryside
gardening
clothes
clothes you wear for gardening
Verbs and Tenses:
The Imperative Form of Verbs; Gerunds
N

or
.
replace

with
,
Try
Exercise 22
Look at the following half-sentences that contain adjectives. Complete each sentence
with an
infinitive
For example, for the first sentence you could write:
1.
I was too afraid
Mom and Dad are happy
She seemed very pleased
The book was very interesting
Is your hand small enough
?
The dog looked too tired
7.
The wall was impossible
The rst question wasn’t easy
It was embarrassing
10.
The sea was warm and wonderful
Exercise 23
Decide whether or not each sentence uses the
infinitive correctly. Mark a correct use
with a checkmark
¸ and an incorrect use with an x
1.
She likes play in the park.
The sun was beginning to shine.
I decided to help Dad with the dinner.
Mom asked me close the window.
The teacher warned me to be quiet.
I didn’t know which tool use.
7.
We couldn’t decide how many cakes to buy.
Can I to watch the TV, Mom?
Do you think I should help him?
10.
I think I shall to go home now.
87
Exercise 24
Study the following pairs of verbs and nouns. Then write a sentence using each pair
with the verb as an
imperative
. Try to use negatives in some of your sentences. For the
first pair, you could write:
verb
1.
show
picture
bring
bike
sandwiches
wash
listen
parents
wait
7.
classroom
make
Exercise 25
Make a
gerund
from each verb below. Then write a sentence using that gerund. For
example, the gerund you can make from the first verb is
cycling
. You could write the
sentence:
verb
gerund
1.
cycle
2.
paint
3.
eat
4.
sleep
watch
bake
7.
8.
cook
87
Auxiliary Verbs
Auxiliary Verbs
Auxiliary, or helping verbs,
Use
draw
really good pictures.
run
faster than Matt.
ride
a bike?
you
me with my homework?
already
before she
started school.
Our teacher said we
home early.
I ran as fast as I
Sarah
to the party because she was ill.
You may also use
My mom says you
to our house for dinner.
Dad says I
can’t walk
to school on my own.
You
can’t go
in there without a ticket.
could have
ice cream after my dinner.
The big sign on the gate said PRIVATE, so we
couldn’t
N

form of

They
cannot find
their way home.
The contraction of
They
can’t find
their way home.
I’m full. I
can’t eat
any more.
Sarah
couldn’t come
to the party
because she was ill.
asking for information or help
Can you tell
me if this train goes to Topeka?
Could you show
me where the accident happened?
Could you open
that window, please?
You can borrow
my pen, if you like.
Your sister could come
with us, if she wanted to.
you my football.
We can go
to the library instead.
You could ask
your dad to help us.
John can borrow
his brother’s skates.
would
Use
Will you
please stop making that noise?
Would you
pass me that book, please?
will you
close the door?
You can also use
Will I
hold this end of the rope?
Will I
carry the bag for you?
Would you
like another drink?
Which cake
would you
like?
You can use
Should I
bring waterproof clothes?
Shall I
go by car, or will it be better to walk?
phone the police?
help you with that heavy bag?
Shall we
go home now?
You should
try that new French restaurant.
Auxiliary Verbs:
would; shall
N
Won’t
you stay and eat
with us?
Wouldn’t
it be better to
wait?
ought to
You use
talk about someone’s duty
You look tired.
You ought to
go to bed early tonight.
I ought to
get more physical exercise.
We ought to
lock the door when we leave home.
You ought to
turn off the computer when you’re not using it.
You ought to
know how to spell your own name.
The teacher ought to
make his classes more interesting.
must
I must
mail this letter today.
You must
speak louder. I can’t hear you.
Children must not
play with matches.
Go to bed now. Oh,
must I
Why
must I
do my homework tonight?
may
Use
May
go out to play now?” “Yes,
you may
.”
May
borrow your pen?
may
see your ticket?
may
leave now, but
Sally may not
May Kenny
come with us to the movies?
Take an umbrella.
rain.
I may not
have time to go swimming tonight.
We might
go to the party later.
If you’re not careful,
you may
hurt yourself.
“Are you going to the concert?” “I don’t know.
.”
N
keeps the same form in


The contraction of

She mustn’t
let the dog sleep on

Auxiliary Verbs:
ought to; must; may
91
Verb Phrases
looks after
takes care of
) the baby when your parents are at work?
Mike has blond hair and blue eyes. He
takes after
looks like
) his mother.
bumped into
met by chance
) an old friend at the station.
My sister
is getting into
is starting to be interested in
Is your mom
getting over
recovering from
Some health inspectors came to
look over
) the factory.
We hoped that the thieves
wouldn’t get away with
their crime.
I’m going to the store because we’
ve run out of
rice (=
used all our rice
Exercise 1
Complete the sentences below by writing
can’t
on the blanks.
1.
You
borrow my book, if you want to.
Sam looked everywhere but he
Don’t help me. I
do it by myself.
open the window. She’s not tall enough to reach it.
“Why
John come out to play?” “Because he’s ill.”
This is a lm for adults only. Children
watch it.
7.
you help me with this heavy bag?
They’ve lost the map and
nd their way back to the hotel.
Auxiliary Verbs:
Verb Phrases
91
N
get away with
run out of
Exercise 2
Complete the sentences using
would
wouldn’t
with a verb from the list below. The
first one has been done for you.
stop
work
take
like
wait
move
enjoy
1.
We hoped it
sunny for our picnic.
I pushed the horse hard but it
I asked Dad if he
me some ice cream.
4.
you
some more orange juice?
Sally switched on her computer but it
Mom and Dad said they
me to the zoo as a treat.
7.
We sat in the house and wished the rain
Uncle David said he
me with my homework.
9.
The man said he
until the doctor was free.
10.
I knew you
playing my new video game.
Exercise 3
Tell whether each sentence below uses
may
may not
correctly. Show a correct use
with a checkmark
or an incorrect use with an x
1.
Andrew may not go out to play now because he has nished his homework.
Take an umbrella. It may not rain.
Please may we not watch television now?
You may not hurt yourself with that sharp knife.
I may come out to play later if I’m feeling better.
They are late. The bus may not have broken down.
7.
“May I read the story you have written?” “Yes, you may not.”
“May Andrew stay for dinner?” “Yes, he may.”

Exercise 4
Complete the sentences using
shouldn’t
and a verb from the list below.
The first one has been done for you.
stop
believe
think
wait
try
read
let
listen
1.
They
making all that noise. It’s disturbing people.
Mom says I
more vegetables.
We
everything we see on television.
You
more about other people and less about yourself.
It’s getting late. I
home now.
You
your best.
7.
You
letters that are addressed to other people.
Parents
their children go out after dark.
Students
outside the door until the teacher tells them to come in.
10.
Children
to the advice their parents give them.
Exercise 5
Now rewrite the sentences from Exercise 4 above, using
ought to
ought not to
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

94
6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

Exercise 6
Complete the sentences using
must
mustn’t
with a verb from the list below. The first
one has been done for you.
stop
believe
tell
steal
read
park
listen
1.
You
at the curb and look before you cross the street.
Children
to the teacher if they want to learn.
You
everything your friends tell you.
You
the question carefully before you write the answer.
If you want to be healthy, you
a lot of fruits and vegetables.
You
out on your own at night.
7.
We
because it is wrong.
Drivers
their cars in the middle of the road.
If you want people to be nice to you, you
nasty to them.
10.
You
always
the truth.
94
Adverbs and Adverb Phrases
Adverbs and Adverb Phrases
A
,
.
You
adverbs

neatly
The trafc was moving
slowly
We waited
patiently
to see the doctor.
They waved goodbye
sadly
David sings
beautifully
The children walked
quickly
into the classroom.
Are you sitting
in a comfortable chair
Mr. Dickson always dresses
in fashionable clothes
He draws cartoons
like a real cartoonist
The train arrived
Adverbs of Manner
Some
people
They
The girls answered all the questions
correctly
He was driving
carelessly
safely
Katy plays the piano
skillfully
Sam is behaving
like a baby
in a clear voice
She writes
in a very grown-up way
You can buy fruit
very cheaply
in this shop.
They sell everything
at very low prices
David sings
N
end

Sam was feeling very
lonely
She was wearing a
lovely
dress.
It was a very
lively
party.
Adverbs of Time

.
I’m going to my new school
tomorrow
The train has
left.
We moved into our new house
last week
My big brother goes to college
in the autumn
Our favorite TV program starts
at 6 o’clock
It rained heavily
last night
We’re going on a trip
in a few days’ time
We’ll leave
My shoes will be too small for me
next year
I haven’t seen Mom
this morning
. Is she working
today
Adverbs of Place

called
.
It’s very sunny but cold
The boys are playing
upstairs
That’s our ball
there
I couldn’t nd my book
anywhere
They live in a house
nearby
in the garden
Flowers like these grow
in the park
We’re going
to New York City
on our school trip.
My brother is studying
at an English university
They live
on the northern side of the island
Adverbs
of Time and Place
97
The library is closed
today and tomorrow
(10 & 11 May). It
will be reopened
on 12 May.
Librarian
Adverbs of Frequency

called
.
Katy practices the piano
regularly
The children
always
go to school on the bus.
never
make that mistake again.
Have you
ever
been to Japan?
We’ve been to Disneyland
The shops are
often
very busy.
The newspaper is delivered
daily
We walk home from school
every day
I clean my bedroom
every week
Have you forgotten my name? I’ve told you
three times
already.
twice a week
You should go to the dentist
once every six months
Adverbs of Duration
They
.
The library is
temporarily
We’re staying in a hotel
overnight
The teacher left the classroom
briefly
The snow lasted
for three days
Mom was away
a very long time
Stand still
for a moment
while I comb your hair.
He talked to his girlfriend
for over an hour
We waited
for ages
for a bus.
I haven’t seen my cousins
for two years
We stayed up
talking.
Adverbs
of Frequency and Duration
Adverbs of Emphasis
We
.
.
Here
color.
Anna can run
really
fast
That’s a
very
drawing.
My rice is
too
The lm was
just
terrible
Your excuses are
completely
unbelievable
These old tools are
totally
quite
beautifully
Exercise 1
Choose an adjective from the box and turn it into an
adverb
to complete the sentences
below. The first one has been done for you.
rm
bright
careful
quick
regular
quiet
1.
She writes very
You have to talk
when you’re in the library.
Carry the glass
so you don’t drop it.
You should exercise
if you want to stay t.
“Goodbye. I’m going to miss you,” she said
The sky was blue and the sun was shining
7.
If you follow us
, you won’t get lost.
I can’t understand you. Please speak more
Let’s walk
so we get home before it starts to rain.
10.
Attach the sign
to the wall.
Adverbs:
Adverbs of Emphasis
Exercise 2
Are the bold words in the following sentences adverbs or adjectives? Write
adverb
adjective
on the line after each sentence.
1.
The teacher smiled
kindly
2.
She has a
lovely
smile.
The children in my class are very
friendly
John had no friends and felt very
lonely
It was raining, so they
wisely
decided to stay in.
My dad buys a
daily
newspaper.
7.
Some snakes are
deadly
I’ve
nearly
nished my homework.
9.
I shook hands
politely
with the head teacher.
10.
They played some very
lively
games.
Exercise 3
Circle the verb in each sentence below. Then underline the
adverb
adverb phrase
that describes the verb. What kind of adverb is it? Write
for manner,
for time,
for
for frequency or
for duration in the box after each sentence. The first one has
been done for you.
1.
Kent did his homework carelessly.
We start our vacation next week.

Farah read the poem in a very clear voice.
The accident happened during the afternoon.
The man walked very slowly.
My cousin arrived yesterday.
7.
I left my schoolbag in the car.
It stopped raining for a few minutes.
Dad goes jogging regularly.
10.
We eat our meals in the dining room.
100
Exercise 4
Complete the sentences with an
adverb
adverb phrase
from the box. The kind of
adverb you will need is in parentheses after each sentence. The first one has been done
for you.
this morning
ever
on the bus
clearly
all day
in old clothes
for a week
already
every day
1.
His face was dirty and he was dressed
Have you
frequency
She was so ill that she missed school
duration
I did some homework last night and nished it
We went
to play. (
Dad takes the dog for a walk
frequency
7.
Sally left her pencil case

8.
Speak
so everyone can hear you. (
It was a ne day and the children played in the garden
duration
10.
“Go and do your homework.” “I’ve
done it.” (
100
101
Prepositions and Prepositional Phrases
Preposition or Adverb?
. Notice that objects are printed in color.
my
It was raining, so they decided to stay
His friends walked
past
without speaking.
A car drove
past
John’s house is
the
street
Water was running
down
the
walls
He tripped over his shoelaces and fell
down.
preposition noun
adverb
preposition noun
adverb
preposition noun
adverb
preposition noun
102
Prepositions of Place
Sally was sitting
a tree.
There’s a wooden oor
underneath
the carpet.
Some geese ew
over
their house.
John and Sarah were hiding
the wardrobe.
There was a tree
the river.
I have a friend who lives
Wyoming.
A big truck parked
their car.
The cat jumped
on top of
the cupboard.
One girl sits
in the middle of
the playground and the others dance
round her.
Prepositions of Time
School starts
nine o’clock.
I brush my teeth
the morning and
We’re going to the zoo
Saturday.
No, you can’t watch a video. It’s
past
your bedtime already.
I visited my grandparents
during
the summer.
You must nish the work
by
Friday.
I’ll do my homework
before
dinner.
“Mom, can you help me with my homework?” “Not now. You’ll have to wait
this afternoon.”
Prepositions
of Place and Time
103
Prepositions of Direction
The boys chased
after
each other.
The football rolled
down
the hill.
A man was walking his dog
the riverbank.
The freeway goes right
through
the city.
We were travelling
towards
A girl went
past
them on a bike.
This road leads
away from
the stadium.
They watched the train pull
the station.
Prepositions with Special Uses


rice and a quart
milk.
Would you like a glass
orange juice?
Kathleen is a member
the chess club.
I need three pieces
paper.
Most
the children in my class like school.
There are several ways
for
I made this bookmark
for
Is there room
for
me on this seat?
I’d like a new computer
for
Christmas.
We’re going downtown
for
a meeting.
What’s this bag
for
This word is too difcult
for
me to spell.
Prepositions
of Direction and with Special Uses
104
with
with
a hammer.
Mix the our
with
water.
She painted the picture
with
her new paints.
Would you like to come
with
us to the arcade?
I can do difcult problems
with
help from Mom.
Who is the man
with
the beard?
Michael came home
with
dirty hands.
Cross the busy street
with
care.
except
instead of
I like all kinds of food
except
pasta.
Everyone likes chocolate
except
Tom.
We go to school every day
except
Saturday and Sunday.
You should eat fruit
instead of
candy.
Dad is coming to the theater with us
instead of
We could watch TV
instead of
reading our books.
like, as
than
Kathleen looks
like
Andrew smiles
like
his mother.
Peter sings
like
a professional singer.
Are these shoes the same
those?
Sue is nearly as tall
the teacher.
My backpack is bigger
than
John’s.
Dad is taller
than
This painting is more beautiful
than
that one.
The neighborhood streets are less busy
than
downtown streets.
Prepositions
with Special Uses
105
Prepositions
with Adjectives, Verbs or Nouns
Prepositions with Adjectives, Verbs or Nouns
Prepositions are used with some
are printed in color.
Dad was
angry
with
We were
afraid
the big dog.
She’s not very
interested
sports.
John is very
drawing.
printed in color.
for
my pencil. Have you seen it?
Can you
think
another word for ‘pleased’?
Does this book
to
you?
We’re
listening
to
with
you.
my skateboard
to
Tell
the show you saw.
the cake
into
ve pieces.
They
borrowed
money
the bank.
in these examples are printed in color.
What’s the
answer
to
this question?
Is there a
for
this delay?
What’s the
matter
with
you?
Here’s an
example
good behavior.
Congratulations
winning the competition!
Trafc can cause
to
the environment.
Mr. Lee is
with
our work.
The teachers are always
to
What’s
with
the computer?
106
Exercise 1
Underline the
prepositions
in the following sentences.
1.
There was a sign above the door.
The ball rolled under a car.
She put the letter in her pocket.
Sam hid behind the fence.
Tuesday comes after Monday.
Mr. Shin is from Korea.
7.
The train went through the station without stopping.
I left the book on the table.
My favorite TV program starts at 6:00 o’clock.
10.
There’s a path between the two houses.
Exercise 2
Complete the following sentences with the
prepositions
from the box. The type of
preposition you need is in parentheses. The first sentence has been done for you.
after
toward
during
before
away from
across
1.
A cat was sitting
the roof of my car. (
Some people were talking
the movie. (
A man was coming
us on his bike. (
The party starts
six o’clock. (
She put the book
We walked
the street to the park. (
7.
I’ll be late for school! It’s
nine o’clock already! (
She keeps her slippers
We always wash our hands
10.
She ran
the dog because she was frightened. (
106
107
107
Exercise 3
Circle the
preposition
in each sentence. Then underline the noun or pronoun that is the
object of the preposition
. The first one has been done for you.
1.
There is a new bookstore across the street.
Which letter comes after D?
She found the missing ticket under the carpet.
We opened the cupboard and found nothing in it.
Mom keeps a family photograph on her desk.
Students mustn’t talk during the exam.
7.
Our vacation starts on Friday.
You can play outside after lunch.
We ran inside the house when it started to rain.
10.
A plane ew over their heads.
Exercise 4
Complete each sentence by using a
preposition
from the box.
for
with
except
instead of
1.
We baked a cake
Mom’s birthday.
All the boys went swimming
Tom.
you to the beach?
Most
the children in my class like computer games.
Stir the sauce
a wooden spoon.
Would you like rice
pasta?
7.
How many pounds
hamburger did you buy?
Dad is good at everything
Children, what would you like
10.
Who’s the lady
the long blonde hair?
108
Exercise 5
Read the following sentences. Then tell whether
like
than
are used correctly in
each sentence. Put a checkmark
in the box for a correct use and put an x
in the
box for an incorrect use. If the wrong preposition is used, write the correct preposition
on the line. The first one has been done for you.
1.
John is nearly as tall
than
2.
Our house is smaller
than
David’s.
That car isn’t the same
like
this one.
Sally plays tennis
like
a professional player.
This video is longer
than
the one we watched last night.
6.
Whales look
dolphins but they’re much bigger.
7.
The wind sometimes sounds
like
a howling dog.
This ring is more expensive
that one.
The sea was as calm
a swimming pool.
10.
Mom is a few months younger
than
108
109
Use
We buy fruit
vegetables at the grocery store.
cities across the country.
The house is warm
comfortable.
The weather was cold
windy.
There were several cars
trucks in the street.
He works quickly
neatly.
The teacher is rm
fair with the children.
The musicians are young
very talented.
The weather was sunny
We want a vacation that's interesting
relaxing.
Some animals are big
gentle.
You can have a soda
Would you like pasta
rice?
Who is cooking the dinner, Mom
Does the sauce taste sweet
Do we turn right
left?
Is your sister older
younger than you?
Should the children bring bikes
skateboards?
110
like apple juice
orange juice.
n’t
hear anything strange.
n’t
They’ve
never
been to Europe
Conjunctions Linking Phrases
examples are printed in color.
We like
I tell
my parents
my best friend
all my secrets.
Some of my toys are
dirty
a bit broken
very
still very reliable
The weather was
very sunny
rather cold
younger than Jack
Is it quicker to go
by train
by car
You could call it
a thin book
a thick magazine
She couldn’t decide whether to
stay in bed
get up
and take a shower.
Conjunctions with Lists
We bought milk, eggs, cheese
butter.
My favorite teachers are Mr. Lee, Mrs. Carter
Mr. Park.
In the morning I get up, take a shower, eat breakfast
brush my teeth.
Kathleen didn’t have any paper, pens
People travel to work by car, bus
train.
I haven’t eaten breakfast, lunch
dinner.
Linking Phrases; With Lists
111
Conjunctions That Join Sentences
Mom is working in the garden. Dad is busy in the kitchen.
Mom is working in the garden and Dad is busy in the kitchen.
Sam is playing football. Eric is reading a book.
Sam is playing football and Eric is reading a book.
I switched on the TV. There were no interesting programs on.
I switched on the TV, but there were no interesting programs on.
Meera phoned her friend Anna. She wasn’t at home.
Meera phoned her friend Anna, but she wasn’t at home.
Would you like to go to the movies? Shall we go
for a burger?
Would you like to go to the movies or shall we
go for a burger?
Hurry up! You’ll be late for school.
Hurry up or you’ll be late for school!
Other Words for
Dad washed the car. He polished it.
not only
washed the car,
Sally baked the cake. She decorated it.
not only
baked the cake,
she decorated it
as well
John did his homework. He cleaned his room.
not only
did his homework,
he cleaned his room, too.
They visited Sydney. They also visited Hong Kong and Tokyo.
They visited Sydney,
as well as
Hong Kong
Tokyo.
Sam ran faster than Kim. He ran faster than David too.
Sam ran faster than
both
David.
N
that Join Sentences; Other Words for
112
Other Words Used for
Grandpa is old
very t.
Although
Grandpa is old, he’s very t.
The weather was sunny
Even though
the weather was sunny, it was cold.
The bus is slower than the train
it’s cheaper.
the bus is slower than the train, it’s cheaper.
This computer is very old
reliable.
this computer is very old, it is very reliable.
Other Words for
The movie wasn’t funny. It wasn’t interesting.
The movie was
funny
interesting.
You can do your homework now. You can do your homework after dinner.
You can do your homework
either
now
after dinner.
We could walk. We could take a taxi.
We could walk,
take a taxi.
Other Words for
113
Conjunctions of Time
conjunctions of time
Take the toy out of the box
before
you throw the box away.
Before
you leave the house, be sure that you’ve got your backpack.
I usually do my homework
after
I have my dinner.
After
I went to bed, I heard a strange noise downstairs.
We’ve moved to a new house
I last wrote to you.
the new teacher arrived, we all enjoy our work more.
You can’t watch TV
you’ve done your homework.
Until
the rice is cooked, we can’t eat dinner.
I’ll call you
I get home.
the wind blows, the branches on the tree bend.
Dad watches TV
he does his exercises.
we’re waiting for the bus, let’s play a game.
People stand back
the train goes through the station.
the president’s car goes past, everybody waves.
We went inside
it started to rain.
you’ve nished your homework, let me see it.
Does anybody know
Mr. Carter lives?
the road is narrow, big trucks can’t get through.
The dog follows Andrew
wherever
Wherever
there are mountains, you will also nd streams.
of Time and Place
114
Conjunctions of Reason
I sat down
I was feeling tired.
we arrived late, we missed the beginning of the play.
I took an apple
it was the only fruit in the bowl.
you have nished your homework, you can help me make dinner.
Mom switched off the TV
it was past my bedtime.
you’re my best friend, I’ll lend you my new bike.
Take an umbrella
it rains.
you forget the number, I’ve written it on this piece of paper.
Conjunctions of Purpose
The children are wearing hats
they won’t get sunburned.
John nished his homework before dinner
he could watch his favorite TV
program.
Let’s write down the address
we don’t forget it.
We left early
we wouldn’t be late.
John took a map
he wouldn’t get lost.
I hid the comics under the bed
nobody could nd them.
She goes jogging every morning
in order to
keep t.
In order to
get to sleep, he reads a really boring book at bedtime.
Dad painted the walls white
in order to
make the room look brighter.
114
of Reason and Purpose
115
Exercise 1
Complete the following sentences by adding
1.
Mrs. Taylor is tall
Learning geography is hard
interesting.
I don’t like football
soccer.
Do you pull the handle
These tools are old
still useful.
We visited lots of castles
palaces in England.
7.
The classes are quite difcult
I’m doing well.
I didn’t know whether to turn left
right.
Exercise 2
Complete the following sentences by adding commas and
or.
The first one has
been done for you.
1.
You’ll need paper scissors glue.

I don’t enjoy football swimming homework.

Shall we play tennis read a book watch TV?

Do you want to sit next to Peter David Sam?

We visited India Japan South Korea on our trip.

Mr. Carter likes classical music pop music jazz.

7.
No one likes people who are rude mean cruel.

Dad has to make our breakfast help us get dressed take us to school.

115
116
Exercise 3
Choose the sentence from the box that goes with each sentence below. Join the two
sentences with
or.
The first one has been done for you.
You weren’t at home.

Put it in the fridge.
Draw a picture of your favorite animal.
We couldn’t nd it.
Nobody answered.

Will he drop it?
Do you want to play at my house?
Is Nicole smarter?
It was closed.

She didn’t know the answer.
1.
Shall I bring my computer games to your house?

We went to the supermarket.

Take this milk.

We looked everywhere for the key.

I phoned you this morning.

Jim asked the teacher.

7.
Take a pencil.

Is Susan the smartest student in the class?

Do you think he’ll catch the ball?

10.
We knocked at the door.

Shall I bring my computer games to your house or do you want to play at my house?
116
117
117
Exercise 4
Complete each sentence with one of the sentence parts in the box. Underline the
in your sentence. The first one has been done for you.
in case the ground is muddy.
so you’re not tired in the morning.
as soon as you’ve done your homework.
before you start to paint.
where I had spilled the juice.
since I last saw my cousin.
so he could show it to his friends.
until it is soft enough to eat.
because it had started to rain.
while their dad cooked di
nner.
1.
The children went inside

He took his new toy to school

Put on your apron

The children played in the garden

Wear your boots

You can watch a video

7.
There was a mark on the carpet

Cook the pasta

Go to bed early

10.
It’s been six months

118
10
Sentences
Sentences
subject
verb
She
working.
He
reading.
The
children
are
playing.
They
are
Four Kinds of Sentence
A
exclamatory sentence
makes a very

It shows a strong feeling such as surprise or
boy!
N
N
An exclamatory sentence
N
119
An
Tom
to
Don’t
tell
leave.
to
your
room!
Sentences with Objects
of the verb. Verbs that have objects are called
subject transitive
verb object
reading
book.
dinner.
You
have
broken
my
new
toy.
likes
new
car.
forgotten her
backpack.
dog licked
my
face.
ball hit
window.
They
visited
the
sewing
dress
for
Uncle
Ben sent
package
to
friend.
Sentences:
Sentences
N
if the order is very
rm.
120
Verbs with Two Objects
Some verbs have two objects. Look at the sentence below.
gave
subject verb indirect
object direct
Dad is
reading the
children a
story.
Grandma is
baking me
cake.
man showed us
the
way.
We have
brought
you
new
magazines
to
read.
Mr.
Berg is
teaching the
children French.
Jack asked the
teacher a
question.
writing my
friend a
letter.
sent her
cousin an
has
found us
secret
to
play.
Uncle
Andy told them
the
news.
Verbs with No Object
Some verbs don’t have an object. A verb that does not have an object is called
Mr.
Park
walks
to
work.
talks
lot
snowing
don’t
know
We
have
already
eaten
The
always
drives
carefully.
always
very
smartly. Can
your
brother
Sentences:
Verbs
with
Two
Verbs
with
No
indirect
direct
121
Exercise 1
Tell whether each sentence below is a
declarative sentence
interrogative
sentence
exclamatory sentence
imperative sentence.
The first one has been done for you.
1.
The
girls
were
playing
volleyball.
2.
Where
my
bike?
3.
What
lovely
4.
It’s
snowing
again
today.
5.
Please
show
that
black
6.
Can
to
play?
7.
Do
your
homework
now.
8.
What
9.
Pass
the
orange
10.
On
weekends,
often
with
11.
Can
your
brother
read?
12.
Speak
voice.
13.
That
was
fantastic
game!
14.
What
this
15.
Jamal
really
likes
horses.
Exercise 2
Underline the verbs in these sentences. Then tell whether each verb is
transitive
intransitive
. Put a checkmark in the correct box.

transitive
verb intransitive
verb
1. Dad
bread.
2.
We
food
the
supermarket.

3.
We
are
learning

4.
Come
with
now.

5.
The
children
went
to

121
122
122
Exercise 3
Underline the objects in the following sentences. Write
for
direct object
for
indirect object
above each one. The first one has been done for you.

1.
Uncle
gave
Michael
money.
2.
Mom
chocolate
cake
for
Christmas.
3.
The
children
crossed
the
road
safely.
4.
Please
that
5.
Henry
letter
from
6.
I’ve
forgotten
your
7.
She’s
always
students
8.
We
gave
watch
for
birthday.
Exercise 4
All the following sentences have
verbs with direct objects.
Rewrite each sentence,
indirect object
to it. For example, for the first sentence you could write:
Dad
1.
Dad
owers.

2.
The
teacher
found
empty

3.
The
showed
badge.

4.
Rudy
postcard.

5.
Will
you
bread
the
supermarket

6.
I’ll
bring
my
stamp

123
Simple Sentences
examples. The subjects are printed in bold and the verbs are printed in color.
girls
playing
Sally
found
my
breakfast.
Tom
wearing
new
today.
Will
you
The
was
very
cloudy.
the
Everyone
was
happy.
raining
again?
Compound Sentences
in color. Notice that there are
always
happy

always
the
took
book.
you
want
coffee
would
you
prefer
that
John
English

’s
not
very
math.
Michael
wants
to
Star
Wars
friends
have
already
Tom
sandwich

gave
It
started
to
rain
we
went
Sentences:
Simple
Sentences;
Compound
124
To talk about things that are possible, you often use
printed in color.
rains
tomorrow
we
not
to
the
beach.
there
’s
rice
the
cupboard
we
more.
we
don’t work
hard
we
never
learn
we
leave
now
we’
arrive
You may also put the main clause
We
play
indoors
rains
You
get
sick
you
don’t eat
food
well
recital
practices
regularly
Positive and Negative Sentences
A
like
cream.
Michael
my
brother.
train
leaves
ve
o’clock.
really
tired.
She’s
homework.
the
kitchen.
There’s
cartoon
TV.
simple
present
innitive
tense
verb
Sentences:
Sentences;
Positive
Negative
Sentences
125
very
math.
Tom
isn’t
tall
We
didn’t
you
Meera
hasn’t
read
the
Harry
Potter
books.
People
can’t
very
well
the
dark.
There’s
nothing
interesting
TV
tonight.
We’ve
never
to
Nobody
knows
my
secret.
There
are
my
pocket.
Exercise 5
Are the following sentences
simple sentences
compound sentences?
checkmark (
) in the correct box. For each compound sentence you marked, write the
conjunction in the blank space next to it. The first one has been done for you.

simple compound
sentence sentence
1.
The
the
2.
Mom
doesn’t
like
spiders.
3.
Eat
fruit
vegetables.
4.
Would
you
like
rice
you
prefer
pasta?
5.
Is
your
red
green?
6.
Sam
saw
waved.
7.
Pass
the
dictionary,
8.
I’ve
never
to
9.
Our
new
teacher
young
10.
Switch
off
the
to
125
Sentences:
Positive
Negative
Sentences
126
Exercise 6
Match the
in the box with the
below. Write two sentences for
each pair of clauses. The first one has already been done for you.
they
get
water
you
don’t
write
we
work
together
we
don’t
leave
now
you
let
explain
you
don’t
want
to
this
movie if
you
work
1.
you’ll
well
your
exams


we’ll
late


3.
won’t
to
read
your
story


4.
we’ll
choose
different
movie


5.
the


6.
we’ll
the
more
quickly


126
127
7.
I’ll
tell
you


8.
I’ll


Exercise 7
Rewrite the following sentences to make them negative. Use negative words such as
no, not
never
. Use contractions in some of your sentences. The first one has been
done for you.
1.
Children
like
chocolate.
2.
John
my
best
friend.
3.
I’ve
got
new
bike.
4.
Everybody
knows
where
live.
5.
There’s
food
the
refrigerator.
6.
I
saw
the
boy
throw
the
stone.
7. We
want
to
to
the
ballgame.
8.
Sam
always
tells
the
truth.
127
128
Questions
When you ask a yes or no question, you want the answer
this
your
May
here?
Yes
Yes
you
ride
bike?
Don’t
you
like
No
No
you
like
Are
we
late?
Yes
No
In questions, the
an ordinary verb rather than a helping verb.
in color.
statement
question
today.
today?
homework.
homework?
doesn’t
like
Doesn’t
the
like
Michael
ride
bike.
Michael
ride
bike?
borrow
your
Sally
borrow
your
You
may
leave
now.
May
leave
now?
think
rain
tomorrow.
you
think
rain
tomorrow?
saw
Tom
the
football
game.
you
Tom
the
football
game?
computer
to
repaired.
the
computer
to
repaired?
Sentences:
Questions
129
to ask for information. The verbs

The
subject is printed in color.
your
date
today?
Which
boy
your
brother
Which
you
live
the
boy
next
to

did
Whose
is
this
When
can
to
you?
the
spring
vacation
start?
Where
the
that
left
my
Where
the
birds
they
away
winter?
How
Grandma
read
without
glasses?
How
stay
the
itself is the subject of the sentence. In this case, don’t
to form questions.
wants
to
with
the
Which
the
fastest
I’ve
got
my
this?
Sentences:
Question-word
questions
130
Question Tags
weather
lovely
today,
isn’t
The main part of the sentence is positive, but the
You expect the answer to a
“The
weather
lovely
today,
isn’t
Yes
is.”

Use a helping verb and the subject of the sentence to make the
color.
Tom
than
you,
isn’t
Sally
got
hasn’t
by
train,
can’t
we
Peter
David
leave
now,
shouldn’t
they
If the main part of the sentence has
your
best
friend,
aren’t
taller
than
Sumiko,
aren’t
If the main part of the sentence is negative, the
You expect the answer to
questions
aren’t
very
they
You
haven’t
read
this
book,
have
you
Peter
isn’t
tall
isn’t
yet,
aren’t
many
the
sky,
isn’t
much
today,
there
weren’t
any
for
were
Sentences:
Question
Tags
131
Exercise 8
Rewrite the following statements as
yes or no questions
. The first one has already
been done for you.
1.
It
raining
again.

2.
She

3.
Margaret

4.
My
works

5.
The
teacher
told
the
children
story.

6.
Philip
got
new
bike.

7.
She
Sumiko’s
best
friend.

8.
Tom
with
David.

9.
Dad
with
homework.

10.
We
late.

131
132
Exercise 9
Choose one of the question words from the box to complete the sentences below.
You may use some of the words more than once. The first one has been done for you.
why
which
where
how

1.
are
my
keys?

the
tall
boy
the
back
the
3.
they
arrive?
4.
the
problem?
5.

are
we
to
the
“Tomorrow.”
6.
you
know
the
answer?
7.
the
stars
8.
this?
9.
would
you
like
for
10.
you
the
without
key?
11.
your
favorite
singer?
12.
this
train
leave?
13.
bike
that
over
there?
14.
you
prefer?
15.
we
restaurant?
132
133
Exercise 10
Complete the following sentences by adding a question tag. Remember that a positive
sentence needs a
negative question tag
, and a negative sentence needs a
positive
question tag
. The first one has been done for you.
1.
This
your
2.
That
isn’t
the
right
answer,
3.
Your
sister
very
pretty,
4.
Andrew
can’t
ride
bike,
5.
You’ve
already
that
movie,
6.
I’m
lucky
to
have
friend
like
7.
The
was
very
dark,
8.
They
didn’t
play
very
well,
9.
We
shouldn’t
the
answers
rst,
10.
Aunt
Sarah
to
for
dinner,
11. There
was
the
car,
12. Sally
hasn’t
got
13. We
mustn’t
late,
14. There
post
nearby,
15. There
were
the
park,
16. We
stay
extra
day,
17. The
journey
won’t
take
18. I’m
your
best
friend,
19. Andrew
are
your
neighbors,
20. You
didn’t
the
the
garden,
133
134
11
Direct and Indirect Speech
11
Direct Speech
Where are my keys?
This ice cream is delicious,
Have you boys washed your hands?
asked Dad.
Please get out of the car,
the police ofcer ordered.
What a beautiful dress!
said Sally.
Indirect Speech
You can report what someone says without using their exact words. To do
You
don’t use quotation marks
with indirect speech.
You
change the tense of the verb
You
change the pronouns and determiners
Here are some examples. The verb tenses that change are printed in bold
direct speech
indirect speech
felt
Sumiko said, “
’s
time to leave.”
Sumiko said that
was
time to leave.
can’t
my
couldn’t
book.
,” said Peter.
Peter said that John
was hitting
haven’t had
my
Dad said that
hadn’t had
breakfast yet.”
breakfast yet.
won’t start
,” said Mom.
Mom said that
wouldn’t start
135
In indirect speech people often leave out the conjunction
that
Sumiko said
that
it was time to leave.
that
she couldn’t nd her book.
Peter said
that
John was hitting him.
that
he hadn’t had his breakfast yet.
, you don’t change the tense of the verb.
direct speech
indirect speech
doesn’t like
that his mom
doesn’t like
sh.”
live
in a house by the sea,”

Anna
that she
lives
by the sea.
, “Paris
a beautiful city.”
Paris
a beautiful city.
Indirect Commands
Use verbs like
warn
direct speech
indirect speech
The teacher said, “Stop running in
The teacher
ordered
to stop
the corridor!”

running in the corridor.
“Put your books away, children,”
Mr. Park
told
the children
to put
their
said Mr. Park.

books away.
Dad said to David, “Please help me
asked
David
to help
him by
by washing the dishes.”
washing the dishes.
Jack said to Maggie, “Please
Jack
not to tell
don’t tell anyone my secret!”
anyone his secret.
Miss Lee said to Alan, “Don’t be
warned
not to be
late again tomorrow.”
late again the next day.
Direct and Indirect Speech:
136
Indirect Questions
The verb
direct speech
indirect speech
Sally said, “Where is my backpack?”
asked
where her backpack was.
Peter said, “Have you nished your
Peter
asked
if I had nished my
homework?”
homework.


To report a question, put the subject
verbs are printed in color.
asking a question
reporting a question
“Where
they
I asked where
they
were
Jack
ride
his bike?”
I asked if
Jack
ride
his bike.
I asked whether
finished
her homework?”
I asked if
finished

homework.
To report a
direct speech
indirect speech
are your shoes?”
Mom asked where my shoes were.
has taken my
Maggie asked
had taken her pen.
time does the show start?”
Sue asked
time the show started.
asked Sue.
Peter said, “
Why
did you leave
Peter asked
why
I left before the end of
before the end of the movie?”
the movie.
Direct and Indirect Speech:
Indirect Questions
137
137
When you are reporting
direct speech
indirect speech
“Is it raining?” asked Tom.
Tom asked
it was raining.
Alice said, “Can you help us?”
Alice asked
whether
I could help them.
Dad said, “Is the train on time?”
Dad asked
the train was on time.
Exercise 1
Fill in the blank spaces with a
verb
in the correct tense. The first one has been done
for you.
direct speech
indirect speech
1.
“I am very tired,” said Dad.
Dad said that he
very tired.
“You look very handsome, Mike,”
Mom told Mike that he
very handsome.
The teacher said, “Sam has not
The teacher said that Sam
made any mistakes.”
not made any mistakes.
“I am losing my patience,” said
Mr. Carter said that he
Mr. Carter.
“You can come to my house for
Maggie told Jason that he
dinner,” Maggie told Jason.
come to her house for dinner.
Dad said, “Hurry up or we will be
Dad told us to hurry up or we
late.”
be late.
7.
“The train is coming,” said Peter.
Peter said that the train

“I have cleaned up my room,” said
Kathleen said that she
Kathleen.
up her room.
The teacher said, “It is time to stop
The teacher said that it
writing.”
to stop writing.
10.
“I don’t want to watch TV,” said
John said that he
want to
watch TV.
Direct and Indirect Speech:
138
138
Exercise 2
Complete these indirect speech sentences with the correct
pronoun
determiner
The first one has been done for you.
direct speech
indirect Speech
1.
“My head is aching,” said Sarah.
Sarah said that
head was

aching.
“I like your new bike,’ Dan told
Dan told me that he liked
new bike.
Tom and Peter said, “We’ll give you
Tom and Peter said that they would give us

our seats.”
“You can borrow my book,” Michael
Michael said that I could borrow
book.
“I haven’t brushed my teeth,” said
Paul said that he hadn’t brushed

Paul.
teeth.
“You are late again,” Mr. Chen told
Mr. Chen said that
was late
again.
7.
“We have nished our homework,”
The boys said that they had nished

said the boys.
homework.
Sue and Maggie said, “We want
Sue and Maggie said that
to watch football on TV.”
wanted to watch football on TV.
“I don’t like your green hair,” said
Uncle David said that
didn’t
Uncle David.
like my green hair.
10.
Dad said, “We’ll have to phone for a
Dad said that
would have to
taxi.”
phone for a taxi.
139
Exercise 3
Rewrite the following sentences as
indirect questions
indirect commands.
The first
one has been done for you.
1.
“Are you feeling ill?” Mom asked.
“When will you nish the work?” Dad asked the plumber.
The teacher said, “Open your books, children.”
“Turn the music down, Maggie,” said Mom.
“Please take your shoes off at the door, Tom,” said Uncle David.
“Have you read the Harry Potter books?” Michael asked.
7.
Jenny said, “Would you like some more orange juice, Peter?”
“Don’t be rude to your teacher, children,” said the principal.
“Write your name at the top of the page, everyone,” said Miss Lee.
10.
“Does the ball belong to you boys?” the woman asked.
139
140
12
Punctuation Marks
They are used in sentences to make the meaning clear.
period
Tim lent me his skateboard
The children are playing in the garden
The train arrived late
It’s not a very sunny day
You need paper
scissors and glue.
She likes reading
playing basketball and going to the movies.
Tom
May Ling
Sue and Christopher all went shopping together.
“Do you like football?” “Yes
I like it very much.”
“Is this your house?” “Yes
it is.”
“Is it still snowing?” “No
it’s stopped.”
she hasn’t.”
You also put a comma
Mr. Carter.
Goodbye
Andrew.
141
Commas are used
Could you pass me that pencil
“Would you like some more orange juice, David?” “Yes
please.”
I’ve had enough to eat
thank you.
“Would you like another cupcake, Sally?” “No
thank you.”
Tower Bridge
Athens
Georgia
the Lincoln Memorial
Washington DC
question mark
Write a question mark
Can you hear me, children
Didn’t you read the sign
Who is that man talking to Dad
Where is my schoolbag
Is there someone knocking at the door
How many apples are left
exclamation point

Use an exclamation point at the end of a sentence that shows
such as surprise or fear. An exclamation point is used instead of a
What a silly thing to do
Help
A monster
You’re completely wrong
What a shame
I told you not to go out on your own
How sad
You can also use exclamation points with strong
Sit down
Don’t touch that knife
Be quiet
Give me that ball
Leave that computer alone
Do it now
Punctuation Marks
142
Exclamation points are usually used after

People often use just one or two words to express a sudden feeling such as
Ouch
Good morning
Hurray
Help
Well done
Look out
Happy Birthday
apostrophe

Use an apostrophe with
This is Michael
room.
This is my Dad
desk.
Are you Kathleen
tail is very long.
The teacher collects everyone
books at the end of the class.
Jack is going to his friend
house for lunch.
You also use an apostrophe to show
(= am) the boy who lives next door.
(= is) my best friend.
(= has) been to Europe twice.
We
re
(= are) going to the zoo today.
You
re
(= are) my favorite uncle.
(= had) better go home now.
You
ve
(= have) got dirt on your new shoes.
(= will) lend you his bike.
Punctuation Marks
143
quotation marks
Use quotation marks around
. You put

Use a
This bike is mine
I would like some apple juice, please
said the little boy.
Let’s play computer games
Suppose the exact words that someone says come after the rest of the
Come inside and have lunch
please turn your music down
Put question marks and exclamation points in the same place as periods,
“Is this the way to the station
the man asked.
Sam said, “Can I borrow your pencil
“Don’t do that
John said, “What a great movie

When you are reading a playscript, notice the colon
Jack
What have you got in the bag?
Jack
When are you going swimming?
This afternoon. Would you like to come?
Punctuation Marks
144
Capital Letter
ogs have wet noses.
here is my ball?
hat isn’t fair!
his is my brother.
ou need a racket if you’re going to play tennis.
his is my brother.”
here is my ball?” Tom asked.
Alice shouted, “
hat isn’t fair!”
ou’ll need a racket if you’re going to play tennis,” said Dad.
’m really pleased with your work.
Do you know what
got for my birthday?
Paul and
asked if we could help.
ohn
ustralia
the
ay
ing
ermany
the
aj
avid
eckham
the
nited
tates of
merica
the
rand
anyon
r.
aj
exico
the
reat
ee
eijing
the
randad
uckingham
alace
avid
the
tatue of
iberty
the
rande
rofessor
ark
the
rie
the
imalayas
Capital Letter
145
in someone’s name.
T.K.
Rowling
Tolkien
The
onday
anuary
uesday
ebruary
ugust
ednesday
arch
eptember
hursday
pril
ctober
riday
ay
ovember
aturday
une
unday
alentine’s
ay
eterans’
ay
ippur
alloween
hristmas
ay
emorial
ay
hanksgiving
ady and the
ramp
tar
ars
arry
otter and the
orcerer’s
tone
dventures of
herlock
olmes
onderland
word in the
tone
amlet,
rince of
enmark
niversal
orld
Capital Letter
146
Nationalities and languages
ustralian
erman
ndonesian
orean
panish
rench
gyptian
indu
outh
frican
ritish
nglish
akistani
antonese
Good morning.
Have a nice day.
Bye.
See you later.
Take it easy.
Capital Letter
147
Exercise 1
Put the correct
punctuation mark
at the end of each sentence.
1.
Sally is my sister’s friend
Don’t speak to your mother like that
Good morning Did you sleep well
Oh dear Did he hurt himself
Exercise 2
Rewrite the following sentences by putting
apostrophes
in the correct
1.
This food is delicious isnt it?

Hello David. Have you seen Toms new bike?

“Good morning children” said Miss Lee.

I cant speak French very well.

Excuse me Mr. Chen. Could you help me with this question please.

Sams mom bought rice eggs and our.

7.
Yes thank you. Ive had a lovely day.

Shes my big brothers girlfriend.

147
Mom asked if I had cleaned my room
7.
Help I’m falling
Could you open a window, please
He’s very handsome, isn’t he
10.
What a lovely day
148
Exercise 3
capital letters
in the correct places as you rewrite these sentences.
1.
have you seen mr. chen?

can I help with the cooking, mom?

we went to paris for a holiday.

“do you like my new car?” asked uncle david.

we visited new york and saw the statue of liberty.

my friend doesn’t speak english.

7.
they spent christmas in london.

we went to the library on thursday.

were you born in june or july?

10.
have you read
the lord of the rings
by j.r.r. tolkien?

11.
they’re going to italy next summer.

12.
have a good day, mrs. park.

148
149
A List of Irregular Verbs
A List of Irregular Verbs
Here is a table to remind you of the forms of irregular verbs.
Simple Third
Person Present
Present Singular Participle Past
burn
burns
burning
burned
burned
150
Simple Third
Person Present
Present Singular Participle Past
drinks
drinking
drank
drunk
drive
drives
driving
drove
driven
eat
eats
eating
ate
eaten
fall
falls
falling
fell
fallen
feed
feeds
feeding
fed
fed
feel
feels
feeling
felt
felt
ght
ghts
ghting
fought
fought
nd
nds
nding
found
found
y
ies
ying
ew
own
151
Simple Third
Person Present
Present Singular Participle Past
learn
learns
learning
learned
learned
152
Simple Third
Person Present
Present Singular Participle Past
torn
worn
Lessons are tightly focused on core concepts of grammar
More than 80 practice exercises are included for ready
A wealth of examples are provided on every topic
Concise explanations are bolstered by extra grammar
Beginning to intermediate students of all ages will greatly
benefit from a clear understanding of English grammar
basics. This is the ideal supplement to your language arts
Lessons are tightly focused on core concepts of grammar
More than 80 practice exercises are included for ready
A wealth of examples are provided on every topic
Concise explanations are bolstered by extra grammar
Beginning to intermediate students of all ages will greatly
benefit from a clear understanding of English grammar
basics. This is the ideal supplement to your language arts

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